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2.
JCI Insight ; 7(11)2022 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807766

ABSTRACT

Respiratory failure in COVID-19 is characterized by widespread disruption of the lung's alveolar gas exchange interface. To elucidate determinants of alveolar lung damage, we performed epithelial and immune cell profiling in lungs from 24 COVID-19 autopsies and 43 uninfected organ donors ages 18-92 years. We found marked loss of type 2 alveolar epithelial (T2AE) cells and increased perialveolar lymphocyte cytotoxicity in all fatal COVID-19 cases, even at early stages before typical patterns of acute lung injury are histologically apparent. In lungs from uninfected organ donors, there was also progressive loss of T2AE cells with increasing age, which may increase susceptibility to COVID-19-mediated lung damage in older individuals. In the fatal COVID-19 cases, macrophage infiltration differed according to the histopathological pattern of lung injury. In cases with acute lung injury, we found accumulation of CD4+ macrophages that expressed distinctly high levels of T cell activation and costimulation genes and strongly correlated with increased extent of alveolar epithelial cell depletion and CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity. Together, our results show that T2AE cell deficiency may underlie age-related COVID-19 risk and initiate alveolar dysfunction shortly after infection, and we define immune cell mediators that may contribute to alveolar injury in distinct pathological stages of fatal COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Autopsy , Humans , Lung/pathology , Middle Aged , Young Adult
3.
O'Toole, A.; Hill, V.; Pybus, O. G.; Watts, A.; Bogoch, II, Khan, K.; Messina, J. P.; consortium, Covid- Genomics UK, Network for Genomic Surveillance in South, Africa, Brazil, U. K. Cadde Genomic Network, Tegally, H.; Lessells, R. R.; Giandhari, J.; Pillay, S.; Tumedi, K. A.; Nyepetsi, G.; Kebabonye, M.; Matsheka, M.; Mine, M.; Tokajian, S.; Hassan, H.; Salloum, T.; Merhi, G.; Koweyes, J.; Geoghegan, J. L.; de Ligt, J.; Ren, X.; Storey, M.; Freed, N. E.; Pattabiraman, C.; Prasad, P.; Desai, A. S.; Vasanthapuram, R.; Schulz, T. F.; Steinbruck, L.; Stadler, T.; Swiss Viollier Sequencing, Consortium, Parisi, A.; Bianco, A.; Garcia de Viedma, D.; Buenestado-Serrano, S.; Borges, V.; Isidro, J.; Duarte, S.; Gomes, J. P.; Zuckerman, N. S.; Mandelboim, M.; Mor, O.; Seemann, T.; Arnott, A.; Draper, J.; Gall, M.; Rawlinson, W.; Deveson, I.; Schlebusch, S.; McMahon, J.; Leong, L.; Lim, C. K.; Chironna, M.; Loconsole, D.; Bal, A.; Josset, L.; Holmes, E.; St George, K.; Lasek-Nesselquist, E.; Sikkema, R. S.; Oude Munnink, B.; Koopmans, M.; Brytting, M.; Sudha Rani, V.; Pavani, S.; Smura, T.; Heim, A.; Kurkela, S.; Umair, M.; Salman, M.; Bartolini, B.; Rueca, M.; Drosten, C.; Wolff, T.; Silander, O.; Eggink, D.; Reusken, C.; Vennema, H.; Park, A.; Carrington, C.; Sahadeo, N.; Carr, M.; Gonzalez, G.; Diego, Search Alliance San, National Virus Reference, Laboratory, Seq, Covid Spain, Danish Covid-19 Genome, Consortium, Communicable Diseases Genomic, Network, Dutch National, Sars-CoV-surveillance program, Division of Emerging Infectious, Diseases, de Oliveira, T.; Faria, N.; Rambaut, A.; Kraemer, M. U. G..
Wellcome Open Research ; 6:121, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450989

ABSTRACT

Late in 2020, two genetically-distinct clusters of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with mutations of biological concern were reported, one in the United Kingdom and one in South Africa. Using a combination of data from routine surveillance, genomic sequencing and international travel we track the international dispersal of lineages B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 (variant 501Y-V2). We account for potential biases in genomic surveillance efforts by including passenger volumes from location of where the lineage was first reported, London and South Africa respectively. Using the software tool grinch (global report investigating novel coronavirus haplotypes), we track the international spread of lineages of concern with automated daily reports, Further, we have built a custom tracking website (cov-lineages.org/global_report.html) which hosts this daily report and will continue to include novel SARS-CoV-2 lineages of concern as they are detected.

4.
Am J Dermatopathol ; 43(8): 554-555, 2021 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364851

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: "Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2" (SARS-CoV-2) infection has variable described dermatologic manifestations. "COVID (coronavirus disease) toes" became a hallmark of the disease in young and largely asymptomatic patients, who may have negative test results for SARS-CoV-2. Pernio (chilblains)-like lesions are seen mostly in infected pediatric patients and are purple painful, frequently bilateral, ill-defined plaques with prominent inflammation on histological examination. In contrast to pernio-like presentation in children, critically ill adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 develop "purple" digits that may be sharply demarcated and may demonstrate asymmetric areas of ischemia. These 2 contrasting entities are sometimes grouped together as "COVID toes" due to some similarities in clinical appearance and presentation. Here, we summarize histopathologic examination from an autopsy, including the cutaneous lesions from the affected and normal contralateral toes and correlate them with systemic findings. In contrast to pernio-like lesions, the skin of the affected necrotic toes contained thrombi in vessels without prominent inflammation, suggestive of an embolic event. This is further supported by the clinical history of and autopsy findings of popliteal artery thrombus and multiple subsegmental pulmonary emboli. Our findings suggest that critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 have different pathological processes affecting skin at peripheral sites (ie, fingers, toes, ears, and nose), which may be due to thromboembolic events. The skin is a mirror of the body and skin pathology may shed light into overall pathogenesis of systemic illness and processes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Thrombosis/virology , Toes/pathology , Autopsy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Toes/blood supply
5.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 154(6): 748-760, 2020 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1015199

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Although diffuse alveolar damage, a subtype of acute lung injury (ALI), is the most common microscopic pattern in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), other pathologic patterns have been described. The aim of the study was to review autopsies from COVID-19 decedents to evaluate the spectrum of pathology and correlate the results with clinical, laboratory, and radiologic findings. METHODS: A comprehensive and quantitative review from 40 postmortem examinations was performed. The microscopic patterns were categorized as follows: "major" when present in more than 50% of cases and "novel" if rarely or not previously described and unexpected clinically. RESULTS: Three major pulmonary patterns were identified: ALI in 29 (73%) of 40, intravascular fibrin or platelet-rich aggregates (IFPAs) in 36 (90%) of 40, and vascular congestion and hemangiomatosis-like change (VCHL) in 20 (50%) of 40. The absence of ALI (non-ALI) was novel and seen in 11 (27%) of 40. Compared with ALI decedents, those with non-ALI had a shorter hospitalization course (P = .02), chest radiographs with no or minimal consolidation (P = .01), and no pathologically confirmed cause of death (9/11). All non-ALI had VCHL and IFPAs, and clinically most had cardiac arrest. CONCLUSIONS: Two distinct pulmonary phenotypic patterns-ALI and non-ALI-were noted. Non-ALI represents a rarely described phenotype. The cause of death in non-ALI is most likely COVID-19 related but requires additional corroboration.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Lung/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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