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1.
Jie Fang Jun Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 47(4):359-366, 2022.
Article in Chinese | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843215

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the epidemiological and clinical features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infected with the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2. Methods Retrospectively analyze the epidemiological and clinical features of 138 confirmed cases of COVID-19 infected with the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 from October 25, 2021 to November 19, 2021 in Yantan Branch of the Second People's Hospital of Lanzhou City. The epidemiological and demographic information, clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, chest CT, treatment and prognosis data were collected, with a final follow-up date of November 27, 2021. Results As of November 19, 2021, a total of 144 confirmed cases of COVID-19 were reported in Gansu Province, of which 138 cases [65 males (47.1%) and 73 females (52.9%), aged 2-87 (42.7±21.0) years old, with the clinical classification of mainly common type (48.6%, 67/138)] were concentrically treated in the Yantan Branch of the Second People's Hospital of Lanzhou City. The transmission mode of the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 is mainly in confined spaces, with obvious tour group and family aggregation;screening the close contacts and community investigation are the main approaches of finding the infected persons;86.2% (119/138) of confirmed patients have been vaccinated with the domestic inactivated COVID-19 vaccine. The most common clinical symptoms are cough (57.2%, 79/138), followed by sore throat (28.3%, 39/138), dry throat (24.6%, 34/138), and expectoration (21.0%, 29/138). Only 20.3% (28/138) of patients have fever, and 4 patients (2.9%) have decreased or lost sense of smell and taste. Laboratory tests showed that serum amyloid A and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased significantly. The Ct value of SARS-CoV-2 ORF1ab gene is 26.31±7.63, and N gene is 26.35±7.17. Chest CT fined that 71.3% (72/101) of confirmed patients showed bilateral lung lobes involvement, and the lesions are mostly located in the lower lobes of both lungs;the lesions are mainly flaky and patchy ground-glass opacities. All confirmed cases are treated with integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine, mainly prone position ventilation and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment. The TCM treatment rate is 100% for severe cases. On the basis of respiratory support, nutritional support and anticoagulation, immunotherapy such as neutralizing antibodies are combined. Conclusions The main clinical features of COVID-19 infected by the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 in Gansu Province are low rate of fever, long time for viral nucleic acid turned to negative, low risk of severe illness after vaccination, the good therapeutic effect, no intubation, no extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and no deaths. "One person, one plan" personalized treatment with integrated Chinese and Western medicine can effectively control the progression of the disease and cure the disease.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331897

ABSTRACT

Large-scale populations in the world have been vaccinated with COVID-19 vaccines, however, breakthrough infections of SARS-CoV-2 are still growing rapidly due to the emergence of immune-evasive variants, especially Omicron. It is urgent to develop effective broad-spectrum vaccines to better control the pandemic of these variants. Here, we present a mosaic-type trimeric form of spike receptor-binding domain (mos-tri-RBD) as a broad-spectrum vaccine candidate, which carries the key mutations from Omicron and other circulating variants. Tests in rats showed that the designed mos-tri-RBD, whether used alone or as a booster shot, elicited potent cross-neutralizing antibodies against not only Omicron but also other immune-evasive variants. Neutralizing antibody titers induced by mos-tri-RBD were substantially higher than those elicited by homo-tri-RBD (containing homologous RBDs from prototype strain) or the inactivated vaccine BBIBP-CorV. Our study indicates that mos-tri-RBD is highly immunogenic, which may serve as a broad-spectrum vaccine candidate in combating SARS-CoV-2 variants including Omicron.

3.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-331858

ABSTRACT

Background: Waning of neutralizing titers and decline of protection shorter after the second dose of COVID-19 vaccines was observed, including China-made inactivated vaccines. Efficacy of a heterologous boosting using one dose recombinant SARS-CoV-2 fusion protein vaccine (V-01) in inactivated vaccine-primed population was studied, aimed to restore the immunity. Methods: A randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled phase Ⅲ trial was conducted in healthy people aged 18 years or older in Pakistan and Malaysia. Each eligible participant received one dose of V-01 vaccine developed by Livzon Mabpharm Inc . or placebo 3-6 months after the 2-dose primary regimen, and was monitored for safety and efficacy. The primary endpoint was protection against confirmed symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results: A total of 10,218 participants were randomly assigned to receive vaccine or placebo. Virus-neutralizing antibodies were assessed in 419 participants. A dramatical increase (11.3-fold;128.3 to 1452.8) of neutralizing titers was measured in V-01 group at 14 days after the booster. Over the two months surveillance, vaccine efficacy was 47.8% (95%CI: 22.6 to 64.7) according to the intention-to-treat principle. The most common adverse events were transient, mild-to-moderate pain at the injection site, fever, headache, and fatigue. Serious adverse events occurred almost equally in V-01 (0.12%) and placebo (0.16%) groups. Conclusion: The heterologous boosting with V-01 vaccine was safe, efficacious, and could elicit robust humoral immunity under the epidemic of the Omicron variant.

5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330174

ABSTRACT

Severe injuries following viral infection cause lung epithelial destruction with the presence of ectopic basal progenitor cells (EBCs), although the exact function of EBCs remains controversial. We and others previously showed the presence of ectopic tuft cells in the disrupted alveolar region following severe influenza infection. Here, we further revealed that the ectopic tuft cells are derived from EBCs. This process is amplified by Wnt signaling inhibition but suppressed by Notch inhibition. Further analysis revealed that p63-CreER labeled population de novo arising during regeneration includes alveolar epithelial cells when Tamoxifen was administrated after viral infection. The generation of the p63-CreER labeled alveolar cells is independent of tuft cells, demonstrating segregated differentiation paths of EBCs in lung repair. EBCs and ectopic tuft cells can also be found in the lung parenchyma post SARS-CoV-2 infection, suggesting a similar response to severe injuries in humans.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311717

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) threatens global public health and economy. Therapeutic options such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 are in urgent need. We have identified potent monoclonal antibodies binding to SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein from COVID-19 convalescent patients and one of these antibodies, P4A1, interacts directly and covers the majority of the Receptor Binding Motif (RBM) of Spike receptor-binding domain (RBD), shown by high-resolution complex structure analysis. We further demonstrated P4A1 binding and neutralizing activities against wild type and mutant spike proteins. P4A1 was subsequently engineered to reduce the potential risk for antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection and to extend its half-life. The engineered mAb exhibits optimized pharmacokinetic and safety profile, and results in complete viral clearance in a rhesus monkey model of COVID-19 following a single injection.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311708

ABSTRACT

Background: Even people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) were considered to be at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the driving force among this group of individuals is still not clear. Methods: We investigated 1,701 PLWHA through a telephone interview and found 11 COVID-19 patients in four districts of Wuhan, China. The demographic features and major clinical characteristics of these patients were retrieved from the information management systems for COVID-19 patients of four districts’ CDC. Statistical analysis was performed to find out the driving force of COVID-19 among PLWHA. Results: The incidence proportion of COVID-19 in PLWHA is 0.6% (95% CI: 0.2% - 1.0%), which is comparable to the overall population incidence rate in Wuhan city (0.6%). Nine out of the 11 COVID-19/AIDS patients had relatively high CD4+ T lymphocyte count (>200/μl) and undetectable HIV viral load (<20 copies/ml), and ten of them were on antiretroviral therapy. PLWHA who were old, had low CD4+ T lymphocyte count, infected HIV through homosexual activity, and had been diagnosed for HIV for a long time, were more likely to develop COVID-19. Conclusions: : PLWHA has comparable COVID-19 morbidity rates as the general population, and older age, low CD4 count, long length since HIV diagnosis, and treatment-naive were potential driving forces of COVID-19 occurrence among PLWHA. Strategies in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWHA with worse immune responses are needed. Article Summary Line: As COVID-19 continues to spread around the world, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are also at risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2. We investigated the factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWHA in Wuhan, China.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325267

ABSTRACT

Objective: In the battle against COVID-19, most medical resources in China have been directed to infected patients in Wuhan. Thus, patients with hepatobiliary pancreatic tumors who are not suffering from COVID-19 are often not given timely and effective anti-cancer treatments. In this study, we aimed to describe clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of patients with hepatobiliary and pancreatic oncology from our department, which retained normal working during the COVID-19 epidemic. We also sought to formulate a set of standardized hospitalization and treatment processes. Methods: : A retrospective and descriptive study was conducted involving patients hospitalized from February 1, 2020, to February 29, 2020 (Return to work after the Spring Festival), at our Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgical Oncology. Results: : The study included 92 patients from 12 provinces in the north of China who underwent surgical resection at our Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgical Oncology during the COVID-19 epidemic. Robotic surgery was performed on 82% (75/92) of patients, while the rest underwent laparoscopic (2/92) and open surgery (15/92). Eighty-six patients had malignant tumor, and six had emergency benign diseases. Only five patients had severe pancreatic fistula, and three had biliary fistula after operation. Conclusions: : The standardized hospitalization and treatment processes described in this study could prevent cross-infection of patients and still ensure timely treatment of patients with hepatobiliary and pancreatic cancers. These study findings will guide the management of surgical oncology departments and treatment of patients with hepatobiliary and pancreatic oncology during serious epidemics.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324968

ABSTRACT

Background: Liver injuries in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported, however, the clinical role played by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is obscure. Methods: : In this multicenter, retrospective study, the parameters of liver function tests in COVID-19 inpatients were compared between various timepoints referred to SARS-CoV-2 shedding, and 3 to 7 days before first detection of viral shedding was regarded as reference baseline. Results: : Totally, 70 COVID-19 inpatients were enrolled. Twenty-two (31.4%) cases had self-medications history after illness. At baseline, 10 (14.3%), 7 (10%), 9 (12.9%), 2 (2.9%), 15 (21.4%), and 4 (5.7%) patients already had abnormal rates of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin, and total bilirubin (TBIL), respectively. ALT and AST abnormal rates and levels did not show any significantly dynamic change during the full period of viral shedding (all P > 0.05). GGT abnormal rate ( P = 0.008) and level ( P = 0.033) significantly increased on day 10 of viral shedding. Meanwhile, no simultaneously significant increases of ALP abnormal rates and levels were observed. TBIL abnormal rates and levels significantly increased on day 1 and 5 of viral shedding (all P < 0.05). Albumin abnormal decrease rates increased and levels decreased consistently from baseline to SARS-CoV-2 clearance day (all P < 0.05). Thirteen (18.6%) patients had chronic liver diseases, two of them died. The ALT and AST abnormal rates and levels did not increase in patients with chronic liver diseases during SARS-CoV-2 shedding. Conclusions: : The SARS-CoV-2 does not directly lead to elevations of ALT and AST, but may result in elevations of GGT and TBIL, the albumin decreased extraordinarily even SARS-CoV-2 shedding discontinued.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322526

ABSTRACT

The aim of our study was to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia who underwent elective tracheostomies. We investigated all COVID-19 patients who underwent elective tracheostomies in intensive care units (ICUs) of 23 hospitals in Hubei Province, China, from January 8, 2020 to March 25, 2020. Demographic information, clinical characteristics, treatment, details of the tracheostomy procedure, successful weaning after tracheostomy, and living status were collected and analyzed. A total of 80 patients were included. The median duration from endotracheal intubation to tracheostomy was 17.5 [IQR 11.3-27.0] days. Most tracheotomies were performed by ICU physicians (62 (77.5%)) and using percutaneous techniques (63 (78.8%)) at the ICU bedside (76 (95.0%)). At 60 days after intubation, 31 (38.8%) patients experienced successful weaning from the ventilator, 17 (21.2%) patients were discharged from the ICU, and 43 (53.8%) patients had died. Higher 60-day mortality (22 (73.3%) vs 21 (42.0%)) was identified in patients who underwent early tracheostomy. In patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, tracheostomies were feasible to conduct by ICU physicians at bedside with few major complications. However, tracheostomies within 14 days of endotracheal intubation should be avoided.

11.
Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine ; 8, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1679286

ABSTRACT

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Myocardial ischemia may occur in patients with normal or non-obstructive CAD on invasive coronary angiography (ICA). The comprehensive evaluation of coronary CT angiography (CCTA) integrated with fractional flow reserve derived from CCTA (CT-FFR) to CAD may be essential to improve the outcomes of patients with non-obstructive CAD. China CT-FFR Study-2 (ChiCTR2000031410) is a large-scale prospective, observational study in 29 medical centers in China. The primary purpose is to uncover the relationship between the CCTA findings (including CT-FFR) and the outcome of patients with non-obstructive CAD. At least 10,000 patients with non-obstructive CAD but without previous revascularization will be enrolled. A 5-year follow-up will be performed. The primary endpoint is the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), including all-cause mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarct, unplanned revascularization, and hospitalization for unstable angina. Clinical characteristics, laboratory and imaging examination results will be collected to analyze their prognostic value.

12.
The Annals of regional science ; : 1-19, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1651887

ABSTRACT

Economic growth has a significant impact on health vulnerability primarily through the process of urbanization. This paper conducts a pioneer study by analyzing the impact of regional economic growth and urbanization on the public health vulnerability in the 51 states and territories of the USA from 2011 to 2018 with a fixed-effect panel data regression model. We construct an epidemiological vulnerability index (EVI) using regional smoking, diabetes, obesity, and hypertension, collect CDC social vulnerability index (SVI) as state-level public health vulnerability status, and use COVID-19 to test the actual effect of health vulnerability. The preliminary results show that higher regional economic growth is related to lower EVI and SVI, while urbanization is positively associated with regional health vulnerability and the severity of COVID-19 from case rate and death rate. Robustness check with unemployment shows the same result. We conclude that economic growth is related to lower public health vulnerability, and urbanization has negative public health benefits. Our finding indicates an urgent need to balance the externalities generated by economic development and urbanization trends on public health vulnerability by promoting reasonable medical resource distribution, health practices and safety, improving social and environmental justice, and other health management measures. Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s00168-021-01103-9.

13.
COVID ; 1(4):666-673, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1542439

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has high infectivity and some of its variants have higher transmissibility. To explore the high infectivity mechanism, the charge distributions of SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and variants of concern were calculated through a series of net charge calculation formulas. The results showed that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein had more positive charges than that of SARS-CoV. Further results showed that the variants had similar but higher positive charges than preexisting SARS-CoV-2. In particular, the Delta variant had the greatest increase in positive charges in S1 resulting in the highest infectivity. In particular, the S1 positive charge increased greatly in the Delta variant. The S1 positive charge increased, and due to the large negative charge of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), this resulted in a large increase in Coulomb’s force between S1 and ACE2. This finding agrees with the expectation that the positive charges in the spike protein result in more negative charges on SARS-CoV-2 antibodies than that of SARS-CoV. Thus, the infectivity of a novel SARS-CoV-2 variant may be evaluated preliminarily by calculating the charge distribution.

15.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-5288

ABSTRACT

A review on discussion of prevention and treatment of new coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) from Traditional Chinese Medicine concept

16.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-5280

ABSTRACT

A review. This report reviewed the treatment of SARS, H1N1 and COVID-19 with traditional Chinese medicine.

18.
CAplus; 2020.
Preprint | CAplus | ID: ppcovidwho-2040

ABSTRACT

A review. This is an authoritative explanation by academician Zhang Bolon what are the advantages of Chinese Medicine treatment in response to the COVID-19 epidemic situation.

19.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-618

ABSTRACT

Background: Until now, the novel coronavirus 2019 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused wide dissemination in China and other 72 countries, affecting more than 90,000 peoples

20.
Chin Med Sci J ; 35(2): 112-113, 2020 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-669147
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