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Curr Med Res Opin ; 38(12): 2021-2028, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028797


OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Since there is not enough evidence of risk factors of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, this study aimed to evaluate them. METHODS: This survey-based study was conducted across 66 countries from May to November 2020 among suspected and confirmed individuals with COVID-19. The stepwise AIC method was utilized to determine the optimal multivariable logistic regression to explore predictive factors of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. RESULTS: Among 2372 respondents who participated in the study, there were 1172 valid responses. The profession of non-healthcare-worker (OR: 1.77, 95%CI: 1.04-3.00, p = .032), history of SARS-CoV or MERS-CoV infection (OR: 4.78, 95%CI: 2.34-9.63, p < .001), higher frequency of contact with colleagues (OR: 1.17, 95%CI: 1.01-1.37, p = .041), and habit of hugging when greeting (OR: 1.25, 95%CI: 1.00-1.56, p = .049) were associated with an increased risk of contracting COVID-19. Current smokers had a lower likelihood of having COVID-19 compared to former smokers (OR: 5.41, 95%CI: 1.93-17.49, p = .002) or non-smokers (OR: 3.69, 95%CI: 1.48-11.11, p = .01). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests several risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 transmission including the profession of non-healthcare workers, history of other coronavirus infections, frequent close contact with colleagues, the habit of hugging when greeting, and smoking status.

Since there is not enough evidence of risk factors of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, this study aimed to evaluate them. The risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection was higher among non-healthcare workers and among those who had a history of being tested positive for SARS-CoV or MERS-CoV before the COVID-19 outbreak. The habit of frequent contact with colleagues or hugging when greeting significantly increased the risk of being infected with SARS-CoV-2. The current smokers had a lower risk of getting infected with SARS-CoV-2 than others who had a habit of smoking tobacco in the past or who had never smoked.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Risk Factors
Cureus ; 14(5): e24864, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884689


Objectives This study aimed to assess the role of chest X-ray (CXR) scoring methods and their correlations with the clinical severity categories and the Quick COVID-19 Severity Index (qCSI). Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 159 COVID-19 patients who were diagnosed and treated at the University Medical Center between July and September 2021. Chest X-ray findings were evaluated, and severity scores were calculated using the modified CXR (mCXR), Radiographic Assessment of Lung Edema (RALE), and Brixia scoring systems. The three scores were then compared to the clinical severity categories and the qCSI using Spearman's correlation coefficient. Results Overall, 159 patients (63 males and 96 females) (mean age: 58.3 ± 15.7 years) were included. The correlation coefficients between the mCXR score and the Brixia and RALE scores were 0.9438 and 0.9450, respectively. The correlation coefficient between the RALE and Brixia scores was marginally higher, at 0.9625. The correlation coefficients between the qCSI and the Brixia, RALE, and mCXR scores were 0.7298, 0.7408, and 0.7156, respectively. The significant difference in the mean values of the three CXR scores between asymptomatic, mild, moderate, severe, and critical groups was also noted. Conclusions There were strong correlations between the three CXR scores and the clinical severity classification and the qCSI.

J Cardiol ; 79(4): 468-475, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648748


Arrhythmias in COVID-19 patients are associated with hypoxia, myocardial ischemia, cytokines, inflammation, electrolyte abnormalities, pro-arrhythmic or QT-prolonging medications, and underlying heart conditions such as severe congestive heart failure, inherited arrhythmia syndromes, or congenital heart conditions. In the pediatric population, multisystem inflammatory syndrome can lead to cardiac injury and arrhythmias. In addition, arrhythmias and cardiac arrests are most prevalent in the critically ill intensive care unit COVID-19 patient population. This review presents an overview of the association between COVID-19 and arrhythmias by detailing possible pathophysiological mechanisms, existing knowledge of pro-arrhythmic factors, and results from studies in adult and pediatric COVID-19 populations, and the clinical implications.

Arrhythmias, Cardiac , COVID-19 , Heart Arrest , Adult , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , COVID-19/complications , Child , Heart Arrest/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
Rev Med Virol ; 31(6): e2288, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384306


SARS Coronavirus-2 is one of the most widespread viruses globally during the 21st century, whose severity and ability to cause severe pneumonia and death vary. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of all studies that met our standardised criteria and then extracted data on the age, symptoms, and different treatments of Covid-19 patients and the prognosis of this disease during follow-up. Cases in this study were divided according to severity and death status and meta-analysed separately using raw mean and single proportion methods. We included 171 complete studies including 62,909 confirmed cases of Covid-19, of which 148 studies were meta-analysed. Symptoms clearly emerged in an escalating manner from mild-moderate symptoms, pneumonia, severe-critical to the group of non-survivors. Hypertension (Pooled proportion (PP): 0.48 [95% Confident interval (CI): 0.35-0.61]), diabetes (PP: 0.23 [95% CI: 0.16-0.33]) and smoking (PP: 0.12 [95% CI: 0.03-0.38]) were highest regarding pre-infection comorbidities in the non-survivor group. While acute respiratory distress syndrome (PP: 0.49 [95% CI: 0.29-0.78]), (PP: 0.63 [95% CI: 0.34-0.97]) remained one of the most common complications in the severe and death group respectively. Bilateral ground-glass opacification (PP: 0.68 [95% CI: 0.59-0.75]) was the most visible radiological image. The mortality rates estimated (PP: 0.11 [95% CI: 0.06-0.19]), (PP: 0.03 [95% CI: 0.01-0.05]), and (PP: 0.01 [95% CI: 0-0.3]) in severe-critical, pneumonia and mild-moderate groups respectively. This study can serve as a high evidence guideline for different clinical presentations of Covid-19, graded from mild to severe, and for special forms like pneumonia and death groups.

COVID-19/pathology , Cough/pathology , Dyspnea/pathology , Fatigue/pathology , Fever/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Cough/drug therapy , Cough/mortality , Cough/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Dyspnea/drug therapy , Dyspnea/mortality , Dyspnea/virology , Fatigue/drug therapy , Fatigue/mortality , Fatigue/virology , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/mortality , Fever/virology , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/physiopathology , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Prognosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Smoking/physiopathology , Survival Analysis , COVID-19 Drug Treatment