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1.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(46): e311, 2021 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542332

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: ChAdOx1 and BNT162b2 vaccines are currently commonly used against coronavirus disease 2019 worldwide. Our study was designed to determine the serostatus and relative levels of anti-S and neutralizing antibodies in patients who were administered either ChAdOx1 or BNT162b2 vaccine. In addition, we investigated whether the antibody response to each vaccine differed according to sex and age. METHODS: Healthcare workers (HCWs) at a general hospital who were vaccinated with two doses of either ChAdOx1 or BNT162b2 were invited to participate in this prospective cohort study. Blood samples of HCWs vaccinated with both ChAdOx1 doses over a period of 12 weeks were collected at weeks 4 and 8 post first vaccination and 2 weeks post second vaccination. Blood samples of HCWs vaccinated with BNT162b2 were collected in the third week after the first dose, and the second dose was then administered on the same day; two weeks post second dose (5 weeks after the first dose), blood samples were collected to assess the antibody response. The titers of anti-S antibodies against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 spike (S) protein receptor-binding domain and the neutralizing antibodies in the collected blood were evaluated. RESULTS: Of the 309 HCWs enrolled in the study, 205 received ChAdOx1 and 104 received BNT162b2. Blood samples from participants receiving either the ChAdOx1 or BNT162b2 vaccine exhibited substantial anti-S and neutralizing antibody seropositivity subsequent to the second dose. All participants (100%) from both vaccine groups were seropositive for anti-S antibody, while 98% (201/205) of ChAdOx1-vaccinated individuals and 100% (104/104) of BNT162b2-vaccinated individuals were seropositive for neutralizing antibodies. The median levels of anti-S and neutralizing antibodies were significantly higher in the BNT162b2-vaccinated group than the ChAdOx1-vaccinated group; in particular, anti-S antibody titers of 1,020 (interquartile range, 571.0-1,631.0) U/mL vs. 2,360 (1,243-2,500) U/mL, P < 0.05, were recorded for the ChAdOx1 and BNT162b2 groups, respectively, and neutralizing antibody titers of 85.0 (65.9-92.1%) vs. 95.8 (94.4-96.6%), P < 0.05, were recorded for the ChAdOx1 and BNT162b2 groups, respectively. In the ChAdOx1 vaccine group, the neutralizing antibody level was significantly higher in women than in men (85.7 [70.3-92.5%] vs. 77.7 [59.2-91.0%], P < 0.05); however, the neutralizing antibody titer in the BNT162b2 vaccine group did not vary between the two sexes (95.9 [95.2-96.6%] vs. 95.2 [93.5-96.3%], P = 0.200). Analysis of the correlation of antibody profiles with age revealed that the levels of anti-S antibodies and signal inhibition rate (SIR) of neutralizing antibodies decreased significantly with age. CONCLUSION: Both the ChAdOx1- and BNT162b2-vaccinated groups showed high seropositivity for anti-S and neutralizing antibodies. The SIR of neutralizing antibodies in the ChAdOx1 vaccine group was higher in women than in men. Enhanced antibody responses were observed in participants vaccinated with BNT162b2 compared to those vaccinated with the ChAdOx1 vaccine.

2.
Clin Lab ; 67(11)2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513107

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) started to spread in Daegu beginning at the end of February 2020. IgG and IgM antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were measured in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 with moderate to severe symptoms to improve the understanding of antibody responses. METHODS: We enrolled 312 patients with COVID-19 admitted to seven hospitals located in Daegu. Using serum (or plasma) samples from patients with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections, both IgG and IgM antibodies were measured using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (R-FIND CO¬VID-19 ELISA, SG medical, Seoul, Korea). RESULTS: The median value from the initial diagnosis, confirmed by SARS-CoV-2 PCR, to the sampling date was 24 days (day 1 to 88). The total positive rate of IgG was 93.9% and the positive IgM rate was 39.4%, without considering the elapsed period after diagnosis. Positive IgG and IgM rates were highest at 100.0% and 59.0%, respectively, at 3 weeks (15 - 21 days). IgG showed a high positive rate of 79.3% even within 7 days after the initial diag-nosis of the disease and maintained a positive rate of 97.8% until after 8 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, IgG was detected from the beginning of the diagnosis and persisted for an extended time period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Republic of Korea , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
3.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(43): e294, 2021 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506223

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Korea, the first community outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Daegu on February 18, 2020. This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies in healthcare workers (HCWs) at 6 major hospitals in Daegu. METHODS: Blood specimens of 2,935 HCWs at 6 major hospitals in Daegu from January 2021 to February 2021 were collected. Every specimen was tested for antibody against SARS-CoV-2 using both Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (Roche Diagnostics, Rotkreuz, Switzerland) and R-FIND COVID-19 IgG/M/A enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit (SG medical Inc., Seoul, Korea) as screening tests. If 1 or more of these screening test results was positive, 2 additional antibody tests were performed using Abbott Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay (Abbott, Abbott Park, IL, USA) and cPass SARS-CoV-2 Neutralization Antibody Detection Kit (GenScript USA Inc., Piscataway, NJ, USA). If 2 or more of the total 4 test results were positive, it was determined as positive for the antibody against SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: According to the criteria of SARS-CoV-2 antibody positivity determination, 12 subjects were determined as positive. The overall positive rate of the SARS-CoV-2 antibody was 0.41% (12/2,935). Of the 12 subjects determined as positive, 7 were diagnosed with COVID-19, and the remaining 5 were nondiagnosed cases of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: In early 2021, the overall seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibody among HCW located in Daegu was 0.41%, and 0.17% excluding COVID-19 confirmed subjects. These results were not particularly high compared with the general public and were much lower than HCWs in other countries.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibody Specificity , COVID-19/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(10)2021 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463853

ABSTRACT

The efficacy and safety of the BNT162b2 vaccine are known, but antibodies are expected to decrease over time after vaccination. We collected blood samples from 104 fully vaccinated health care workers at 3 and 5 weeks after first vaccination and 4 months after second vaccination. Antibody titers and neutralizing antibodies were measured. In our study, both antibody titers and neutralizing antibodies increased significantly at 5 weeks after first vaccination but decreased rapidly at 4 months after second vaccination. Additionally, the results showed a significant decrease regardless of gender or age. Further studies are needed to help determine the interval of SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations.

5.
Clin Lab ; 67(9)2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431126

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory responses have been suggested to be associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study investigated the inflammatory markers and cytokines in COVID-19 according to its severity. METHODS: We enrolled 49 patients with COVID-19, who were classified as either moderate or critical cases. Serum or plasma interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were measured. RESULTS: Lactate dehydrogenase, ferritin, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin levels were significantly higher in the critical group than in the moderate group (p < 0.001). IL-6 and TNF-α levels were significantly higher in the critical group, with elevated IL-6 levels from the first to third weeks after confirmed PCR (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Inflammatory markers and cytokines were increased in COVID-19 and closely related to the severity of the disease. We recommend early active monitoring of IL-6 levels along with inflammatory markers for severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines , Biomarkers , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
6.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(21): e158, 2021 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249654

ABSTRACT

The antibody titer of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was observed in 289 healthy healthcare workers who had completed the second dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine. Antibody tests were performed using both the automated electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) and the chromatographic lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA). All subjects had antibodies against the receptor binding domain of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 only one week after completing the vaccination, and the antibody titer became significantly higher after another week (P < 0.001). Since there was a large amount of antibody formation within two weeks after completion of vaccination, the less sensitive method, LFIA, also showed high sensitivity. There was no significant difference between whole blood and serum in detecting SARS-CoV-2 antibodies after vaccination. This is an early study of vaccinations among Koreans and is expected to contribute to the establishment of national guidelines on COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination , Humans , Immunoassay , Luminescent Measurements , Time Factors
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