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1.
Biomedicines ; 10(8):1952, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1987651

ABSTRACT

Considering virus-related and drug-induced immunocompromised status of critically ill COVID-19 patients, we hypothesize that these patients would more frequently develop ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) than patients with ARDS from other viral causes. We conducted a retrospective observational study in two intensive care units (ICUs) from France, between 2017 and 2020. We compared bacterial co-infection at ICU admission and throughout the disease course of two retrospective longitudinally sampled groups of critically ill patients, who were admitted to ICU for either H1N1 or SARS-CoV-2 respiratory infection and depicted moderate-to-severe ARDS criteria upon admission. Sixty patients in the H1N1 group and 65 in the COVID-19 group were included in the study. Bacterial co-infection at the endotracheal intubation time was diagnosed in 33% of H1N1 and 16% COVID-19 patients (p = 0.08). The VAP incidence per 100 days of mechanical ventilation was 3.4 (2.2–5.2) in the H1N1 group and 7.2 (5.3–9.6) in the COVID-19 group (p < 0.004). The HR to develop VAP was of 2.33 (1.34–4.04) higher in the COVID-19 group (p = 0.002). Ten percent of H1N1 patients and 30% of the COVID-19 patients had a second episode of VAP (p = 0.013). COVID-19 patients have fewer bacterial co-infections upon admission, but the incidence of secondary infections increased faster in this group compared to H1N1 patients.

2.
Blood Adv ; 6(13): 3884-3898, 2022 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923509

ABSTRACT

Mild thrombocytopenia, changes in platelet gene expression, enhanced platelet functionality, and presence of platelet-rich thrombi in the lung have been associated with thromboinflammatory complications of patients with COVID-19. However, whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) gets internalized by platelets and directly alters their behavior and function in infected patients remains elusive. Here, we investigated platelet parameters and the presence of viral material in platelets from a prospective cohort of 29 patients with severe COVID-19 admitted to an intensive care unit. A combination of specific assays, tandem mass spectrometry, and flow cytometry indicated high levels of protein and lipid platelet activation markers in the plasma from patients with severe COVID-19 associated with an increase of proinflammatory cytokines and leukocyte-platelets interactions. Platelets were partly desensitized, as shown by a significant reduction of αIIbß3 activation and granule secretion in response to stimulation and a decrease of surface GPVI, whereas plasma from patients with severe COVID-19 potentiated washed healthy platelet aggregation response. Transmission electron microscopy indicated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 particles in a significant fraction of platelets as confirmed by immunogold labeling and immunofluorescence imaging of Spike and nucleocapsid proteins. Compared with platelets from healthy donors or patients with bacterial sepsis, platelets from patients with severe COVID-19 exhibited enlarged intracellular vesicles and autophagolysosomes. They had large LC3-positive structures and increased levels of LC3II with a co-localization of LC3 and Spike, suggesting that platelets can digest SARS-CoV-2 material by xenophagy in critically ill patients. Altogether, these data show that during severe COVID-19, platelets get activated, become partly desensitized, and develop a selective autophagy response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Macroautophagy , Platelet Activation , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320301

ABSTRACT

Background: Recent ESPEN guidelines highlighted the interest of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of malnutrition in the management of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of malnutrition in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Methods: : Prospective observational cohort study on COVID-19 inpatients admitted to a tertiary hospital. Malnutrition was diagnosed according to the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition two-step approach. Patients were divided in two groups according to the diagnosis of malnutrition. Covariate selection for the multivariate analysis was based on P value <0.2 in univariate analysis, with a logistic regression model and a backward elimination procedure. A partitioning of the population was represented using a Classification and Regression Tree analysis. Results: : 80 patients were prospectively enrolled in the study. Thirty patients (37.5%) had criteria for malnutrition. The need for ICU admission (n=46, 57.5%) was similar in the two groups. Three patients who died (3.75%) were malnourished. Multivariate analysis exhibited that low BMI (OR=0.83, 95% CI [0.73-0.96], p=0.0083), dyslipidemia (OR=29.45, 95% CI [3.12-277.73], p=0.0031), oral intakes reduction <50% (OR=3.169, 95% CI [1.04-9.64], p=0.0422) and GFR (CKD-EPI) at admission (OR=0.979, 95% CI [0.96-0.998], p=0.0297) were associated with the occurrence of malnutrition in COVID-19 inpatients. Conclusions: : We demonstrate the existence of a high prevalence of malnutrition (37.5%) in a general cohort of COVID-19 inpatients according to GLIM criteria. Considering this high prevalence, nutritional support in COVID-19 care seems an essential element. Trial registration : Ethical Committee N o 2020-A01237-32)(RC31/20/0165 NUTRI-COV

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307442

ABSTRACT

Background: To explore risk factors for unfavorable outcome (death or requiring invasive mechanical ventilation at 28 days from ICU admission) of critically ill COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the Toulouse region Methods: Retrospective cohort of critically ill COVID-19 patients sequentially admitted to 12 ICUs in Toulouse region (March 9, 2020, to April 8, 2020). All patients had laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and required invasive mechanical ventilation. Baseline characteristics, pathophysiological respiratory data, clinical outcomes, viral shredding, and chest CT scan were collected. Results: A total of 150 patients were included (median age, 68 years (interquartile range, (IQR), 58-72;81% male). The most common comorbidities were hypertension (77, 51%) and obesity (42, 28%). At ICU admission, the median PaO2/FiO2 ratio was 138 (IQR,112-178). During hospitalization, the rate of ventilator-acquired pneumonia (VAP) was 61% and 51 (34%) patients had acute kidney injury (AKI) with a Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) score > 1. The 28-day mortality was 15.3%, and 50 (33%) patients had unfavorable outcome. We found that VAP (5.91;2.10-10.03;p value = 0.002) and AKI with a KDIGO score > 1 (4.71;1.69-14.41;p value = 0.004) were associated with increased odds of unfavorable outcome. Neither, chest CT scan data on admission, nor pathophysiological respiratory data during ICU stay were associated to patient’s outcome. Conclusion: The potential risk factors of AKI and VAP could help clinicians to identify patients with poor prognosis at an early stage. Targeted care of these factors might have a significant impact on COVID-19 patient’s outcome.

5.
Simul Healthc ; 17(1): 42-48, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662158

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Avoiding coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) work-related infection in frontline healthcare workers is a major challenge. A massive training program was launched in our university hospital for anesthesia/intensive care unit and operating room staff, aiming at upskilling 2249 healthcare workers for COVID-19 patients' management. We hypothesized that such a massive training was feasible in a 2-week time frame and efficient in avoiding sick leaves. METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational study. Training focused on personal protective equipment donning/doffing and airway management in a COVID-19 simulated patient. The educational models used were in situ procedural and immersive simulation, peer-teaching, and rapid cycle deliberate practice. Self-learning organization principles were used for trainers' management. Ordinary disease quantity in full-time equivalent in March and April 2020 were compared with the same period in 2017, 2018, and 2019. RESULTS: A total of 1668 healthcare workers were trained (74.2% of the target population) in 99 training sessions over 11 days. The median number of learners per session was 16 (interquartile range = 9-25). In the first 5 days, the median number of people trained per weekday was 311 (interquartile range = 124-385). Sick leaves did not increase in March to April 2020 compared with the same period in the 3 preceding years. CONCLUSIONS: Massive training for COVID-19 patient management in frontline healthcare workers is feasible in a very short time and efficient in limiting the rate of sick leave. This experience could be used in the anticipation of new COVID-19 waves or for rapidly preparing hospital staff for an unexpected major health crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Personnel, Hospital , SARS-CoV-2 , Sick Leave
6.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 11(1): e24931, 2022 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605998

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effects of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) on the myocardium and their role in the clinical course of infected patients are still unknown. The severity of SARS-CoV-2 is driven by hyperinflammation, and the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the myocardium may be significant. This study proposes to use bedside observations and biomarkers to characterize the association of COVID-19 with myocardial injury. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to describe the myocardial function and its evolution over time in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 and to investigate the link between inflammation and cardiac injury. METHODS: This prospective, monocentric, observational study enrolled 150 patients with suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection at Toulouse University Hospital, Toulouse, France. Patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), regular cardiologic ward, and geriatric ward of our tertiary university hospital were included during the pandemic period. Blood sampling, electrocardiography, echocardiography, and morphometric and demographic data were prospectively collected. RESULTS: A total of 100 patients were included. The final enrolment day was March 31, 2020, with first report of results at the end of the first quarter of 2021. The first echocardiographic results at admission of 31 patients of the COCARDE-ICU substudy population show that biological myocardial injury in COVID-19 has low functional impact on left ventricular systolic function. CONCLUSIONS: A better understanding of the effects of COVID-19 on myocardial function and its link with inflammation would improve patient follow-up and care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT04358952; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04358952. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/24931.

7.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 11(1): e24931, 2022 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506272

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effects of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) on the myocardium and their role in the clinical course of infected patients are still unknown. The severity of SARS-CoV-2 is driven by hyperinflammation, and the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the myocardium may be significant. This study proposes to use bedside observations and biomarkers to characterize the association of COVID-19 with myocardial injury. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to describe the myocardial function and its evolution over time in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 and to investigate the link between inflammation and cardiac injury. METHODS: This prospective, monocentric, observational study enrolled 150 patients with suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection at Toulouse University Hospital, Toulouse, France. Patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), regular cardiologic ward, and geriatric ward of our tertiary university hospital were included during the pandemic period. Blood sampling, electrocardiography, echocardiography, and morphometric and demographic data were prospectively collected. RESULTS: A total of 100 patients were included. The final enrolment day was March 31, 2020, with first report of results at the end of the first quarter of 2021. The first echocardiographic results at admission of 31 patients of the COCARDE-ICU substudy population show that biological myocardial injury in COVID-19 has low functional impact on left ventricular systolic function. CONCLUSIONS: A better understanding of the effects of COVID-19 on myocardial function and its link with inflammation would improve patient follow-up and care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT04358952; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04358952. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/24931.

8.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 624808, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058426

ABSTRACT

Background: Several studies suggest an increased incidence of thrombosis in COVID-19 patients. However, evidence on how to prevent and even treat it is scarce. The aim of this study was to compare the cumulative incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) of two different methods for lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (LE-DVT) diagnosis: systematic vs. clinically guided complete compression venous ultrasonography (CCUS). We conducted a monocentric, prospective, open-label, non-randomized study. All consecutive patients admitted in three intensive care units (ICUs) of University Hospital of Toulouse for COVID-19 pneumonia were included: one performed systematic screening for LE-DVT, the others did not. The primary outcome was the 21-day cumulative incidence of VTE. The secondary end points were the 21-day cumulative incidences of major bleeding and death. Results: Among the 78 patients included, 27 (34.6%) underwent systematic screening for DVT 7 ± 2 days after ICU admission. Thirty-two patients (41.0%) were diagnosed with VTE, with a 21-day cumulative incidence of 42.3% (95% CI, 31.4-55.2), without difference between screened and non-screened patients (hazard ratio 1.45, 95% CI, 0.72-2.93). In the screened group, the frequency of isolated DVT was higher (25.9 vs. 5.9%, p-value = 0.027), but the frequency of pulmonary embolism was not reduced (25.9 vs. 29.4%, p-value = 0.745). The 21-day cumulative incidences of major bleeding and death were 9.6% (95% CI, 4.7-19.2) and 10.3% (95% CI, 5.0-20.8), respectively, without difference between the two groups. Conclusions: A systematic screening for DVT in patients hospitalized in ICU was not associated with a higher diagnosis of VTE or a reduced diagnosis of PE.

9.
Br J Nutr ; 126(9): 1296-1303, 2021 11 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1053932

ABSTRACT

Recent European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition guidelines highlighted the interest of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of malnutrition in the management of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of malnutrition in patients hospitalised for COVID-19. In a prospective observational cohort study malnutrition was diagnosed according to the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) two-step approach. Patients were divided into two groups according to the diagnosis of malnutrition. Covariate selection for the multivariate analysis was based on P <0·2 in univariate analysis, with a logistic regression model and a backward elimination procedure. A partitioning of the population was realised. Eighty patients were prospectively enrolled. Thirty patients (37·5 %) had criteria for malnutrition. The need for intensive care unit admission (n 46, 57·5 %) was similar in the two groups. Three patients who died (3·75 %) were malnourished. Multivariate analysis exhibited that low BMI (OR 0·83, 95 % CI 0·73, 0·96, P = 0·0083), dyslipidaemia (OR 29·45, 95 % CI 3·12, 277·73, P = 0·0031), oral intake reduction <50 % (OR 3·169, 95 % CI 1·04, 9·64, P = 0·0422) and glomerular filtration rate (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration; CKD-EPI) at admission (OR 0·979, 95 % CI 0·96, 0·998, P = 0·0297) were associated with the occurrence of malnutrition. We demonstrate the existence of a high prevalence of malnutrition in a general cohort of COVID-19 inpatients according to GLIM criteria. Nutritional support in COVID-19 care seems an essential element.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Malnutrition/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Malnutrition/virology , Middle Aged , Nutrition Assessment , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Young Adult
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(11): 2962-2964, 2020 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1003524

ABSTRACT

Different dosage regimens of hydroxychloroquine are used to manage coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, without information on the pharmacokinetics in this population. Blood samples (n = 101) were collected from 57 COVID-19 patients for 7 days, and concentrations were compared with simulated kinetic profiles. Hydroxychloroquine exposure is low and cannot be predicted by other populations.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Kinetics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 37(2): 449-457, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-754432

ABSTRACT

Biological cardiac injury related to the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 infection has been associated with excess mortality. However, its functional impact remains unknown. The aim of our study was to explore the impact of biological cardiac injury on myocardial functions in patients with COVID-19. 31 patients with confirmed COVID-19 (CoV+) and 16 controls (CoV-) were prospectively included in this observational study. Demographic data, laboratory findings, comorbidities, treatments and myocardial function assessed by transthoracic echocardiography were collected and analysed in CoV+ with (TnT+) and without (TnT-) elevation of troponin T levels and compared with CoV-. Among CoV+, 13 (42%) exhibited myocardial injury. CoV+/TnT + patients were older, had lower diastolic arterial pressure and were more likely to have hypertension and chronic renal failure compared with CoV+/TnT-. The control group was comparable except for an absence of biological inflammatory syndrome. Left ventricular ejection fraction and global longitudinal strain were not different among the three groups. There was a trend of decreased myocardial work and increased peak systolic tricuspid annular velocity between the CoV- and CoV + patients, which became significant when comparing CoV- and CoV+/TnT+ (2167 ± 359 vs. 1774 ± 521%/mmHg, P = 0.047 and 14 ± 3 vs. 16 ± 3 cm/s, P = 0.037, respectively). There was a decrease of global work efficiency from CoV- (96 ± 2%) to CoV+/TnT- (94 ± 4%) and then CoV+/TnT+ (93 ± 3%, P = 0.042). In conclusion, biological myocardial injury in COVID 19 has low functional impact on left ventricular systolic function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Echocardiography/methods , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Heart Diseases/etiology , Aged , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Female , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Heart/physiopathology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Adv Biol Regul ; 77: 100735, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-600913

ABSTRACT

The novel Corona virus infection (Covid-19) first identified in China in December 2019 has rapidly progressed in pandemic leading to significant mortality and unprecedented challenge for healthcare systems. Although the clinical spectrum of Covid-19 is variable, acute respiratory failure and systemic coagulopathy are common in severe Covid-19 patients. Lung is an important target of the SARS-CoV-2 virus causing eventually acute respiratory distress syndrome associated to a thromboinflammatory state. The cytokinic storm, thromboinflammation and pulmonary tropism are the bedrock of tissue lesions responsible for acute respiratory failure and for prolonged infection that may lead to multiple organ failure and death. The thrombogenicity of this infectious disease is illustrated by the high frequency of thromboembolic events observed even in Covid-19 patients treated with anticoagulation. Increased D-Dimers, a biomarker reflecting activation of hemostasis and fibrinolysis, and low platelet count (thrombocytopenia) are associated with higher mortality in Covid-19 patients. In this review, we will summarize our current knowledge on the thromboembolic manifestations, the disturbed hemostatic parameters, and the thromboinflammatory conditions associated to Covid-19 and we will discuss the modalities of anticoagulant treatment or other potential antithrombotic options.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , Acute Disease , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Heparin/therapeutic use , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lung/blood supply , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis
15.
Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med ; 39(3): 395-415, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-549176

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The world is currently facing an unprecedented healthcare crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective of these guidelines is to produce a framework to facilitate the partial and gradual resumption of intervention activity in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The group has endeavoured to produce a minimum number of recommendations to highlight the strengths to be retained in the 7 predefined areas: (1) protection of staff and patients; (2) benefit/risk and patient information; (3) preoperative assessment and decision on intervention; (4) modalities of the preanaesthesia consultation; (5) specificity of anaesthesia and analgesia; (6) dedicated circuits and (7) containment exit type of interventions. RESULTS: The SFAR Guideline panel provides 51 statements on anaesthesia management in the context of COVID-19 pandemic. After one round of discussion and various amendments, a strong agreement was reached for 100% of the recommendations and algorithms. CONCLUSION: We present suggestions for how the risk of transmission by and to anaesthetists can be minimised and how personal protective equipment policies relate to COVID-19 pandemic context.


Subject(s)
Analgesia/standards , Anesthesia/standards , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Infection Control/standards , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Airway Management , Analgesia/adverse effects , Analgesia/methods , Anesthesia/adverse effects , Anesthesia/methods , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Critical Pathways , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross Infection/transmission , Disinfection , Elective Surgical Procedures , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Informed Consent , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Operating Rooms/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Isolation , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Preoperative Care , Professional Staff Committees , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Assessment , Universal Precautions
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