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1.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725884

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (Sars-CoV-2) global pandemic is a devastating event that is causing thousands of victims every day around the world. One of the main reasons of the great impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on society is its unexpected spread, which has not allowed an adequate preparation. The scientific community is fighting against time for the production of a vaccine, but it is difficult to place a safe and effective product on the market as fast as the virus is spreading. Similarly, for drugs that can directly interfere with viral pathways, their production times are long, despite the great efforts made. For these reasons, we analyzed the possible role of non-pharmacological substances such as supplements, probiotics, and nutraceuticals in reducing the risk of Sars-CoV-2 infection or mitigating the symptoms of COVID-19. These substances could have numerous advantages in the current circumstances, are generally easily available, and have negligible side effects if administered at the already used and tested dosages. Large scientific evidence supports the benefits that some bacterial and molecular products may exert on the immune response to respiratory viruses. These could also have a regulatory role in systemic inflammation or endothelial damage, which are two crucial aspects of COVID-19. However, there are no specific data available, and rigorous clinical trials should be conducted to confirm the putative benefits of diet supplementation, probiotics, and nutraceuticals in the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diet therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diet , Dietary Supplements , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diet therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/therapeutic use
2.
Panminerva Med ; 63(3): 324-331, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504553

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: New messenger RNA (mRNA) and adenovirus-based vaccines (AdV) against Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have entered large scale clinical trials. Since healthcare professionals (HCPs) and armed forces personnel (AFP) represent a high-risk category, they act as a suitable target population to investigate vaccine-related side effects, including headache, which has emerged as a common complaint. METHODS: We investigated the side-effects of COVID-19 vaccines among HCPs and AFP through a 38 closed-question international survey. The electronic link was distributed via e-mail or via Whatsapp to more than 500 contacts. Responses to the survey questions were analyzed with bivariate tests. RESULTS: A total of 375 complete surveys have been analyzed. More than 88% received an mRNA vaccine and 11% received AdV first dose. A second dose of mRNA vaccine was administered in 76% of individuals. No severe adverse effects were reported, whereas moderate reactions and those lasting more than 1 day were more common with AdV (P=0.002 and P=0.024 respectively). Headache was commonly reported regardless of the vaccine type, but less frequently, with shorter duration and lower severity that usually experienced by participants, without significant difference irrespective of vaccine type. CONCLUSIONS: Both mRNA and AdV COVID-19 vaccines were safe and well tolerated in a real-life subset of HCPs and AFP subjects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Headache/chemically induced , Vaccination/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Headache/diagnosis , Headache/epidemiology , Health Care Surveys , Health Personnel , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Health , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
3.
Card Electrophysiol Clin ; 14(1): 125-131, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487632

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide pandemic, patients with cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) refused scheduled follow-up visits because of the risk of infection. In this scenario, different telemedicine strategies have been implemented to ensure continuity of care to CIED patients. Patients can be monitored through dedicated applications, telephone calls, or virtual visits providing easy access to valuable information, such as arrhythmic events, acute decompensation manifestations, and device-related issues, without the need for in-person visits. This review provides a comprehensive description of the many possible applications of telemedicine for CIED patients during the COVID-19 period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Defibrillators, Implantable , Pacemaker, Artificial , Telemedicine , Electronics , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Cardiovasc Dev Dis ; 8(10)2021 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463717

ABSTRACT

At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, the lung was recognized as the main target organ; now, new evidence suggests that SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to vascular disease. In a previous review, we supposed a bidirectional link between endothelial dysfunction and COVID-19, identifying atherosclerosis as having a crucial role in its pathogenesis. Atherosclerosis with an existing endothelial dysfunction may worsen COVID-19 manifestations, leading to adverse outcomes, as largely reported. However, COVID-19 may be the trigger factor in the progression of the atherosclerotic process up to making it clinically manifest. The thrombotic complications can involve not only the atherosclerotic plaque, but also the durability of the surgical device implanted to treat a pre-existing coronary artery disease as recently reported. The burden of the disease makes necessary a long-term stratification of patients, revising drastically targeted therapy among others.

5.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 59(4): 901-907, 2021 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114845

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Healthcare systems worldwide have been overburdened by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. Accordingly, hospitals had to implement strategies to profoundly reshape both non-COVID-19 medical care and surgical activities. Knowledge about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cardiac surgery practice is pivotal. The goal of the present study was to describe the changes in cardiac surgery practices during the health emergency at the national level. METHODS: A 26-question web-enabled survey including all adult cardiac surgery units in Italy was conducted to assess how their clinical practice changed during the national lockdown. Data were compared to data from the corresponding period in 2019. RESULTS: All but 2 centres (94.9%) adopted specific protocols to screen patients and personnel. A significant reduction in the number of dedicated cardiac intensive care unit beds (-35.4%) and operating rooms (-29.2%), along with healthcare personnel reallocation to COVID departments (nurses -15.4%, anaesthesiologists -7.7%), was noted. Overall adult cardiac surgery volumes were dramatically reduced (1734 procedures vs 3447; P < 0.001), with a significant drop in elective procedures [580 (33.4%) vs 2420 (70.2%)]. CONCLUSIONS: This national survey found major changes in cardiac surgery practice as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic. This experience should lead to the development of permanent systems-based plans to face possible future pandemics. These data may effectively help policy decision-making in prioritizing healthcare resource reallocation during the ongoing pandemic and once the healthcare emergency is over.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Italy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(1): 105-110, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002136

ABSTRACT

Patients with Coronavirus-associated disease-2019 (COVID-19) display alterations of the hemostatic system and the presence of a prothrombotic status frequently leading to vascular complications. However, the impact of COVID-19 on platelet activity, aggregation and agglutination still needs to be clarified. We measured total levels of von Willebrand factor (vWF) and vWF binding to the platelet glycoprotein (Gp) complex (GPIb-IX-V), in a cohort of COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit of our Institution. Moreover, we evaluated platelet aggregation in response to agonists (ADP, collagen, arachidonic acid) and platelet agglutination in response to ristocetin. We found that levels of vWF antigen and the active form of vWF binding to platelets (vWF:RCo), were markedly increased in these patients. These results were associated with higher agglutination rates induced by ristocetin, thereby indirectly indicating an increased capability of vWF to bind to platelets. Conversely, we found that platelet aggregation in response to both ADP and collagen was lower in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy volunteers. This study shows that COVID-19 is associated with increased vWF-induced platelet agglutination but reduced platelet responsivity to aggregation stimuli. Our findings have translational relevance since platelet adhesion to vWF may represent a marker to predict possible complications and better delineate therapeutic strategies in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , Platelet Aggregation , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Agglutination , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Function Tests , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/virology
7.
Minerva Cardioangiol ; 68(5): 368-372, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-125105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection due to severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), i.e. coronavirus-associated disease 2019 (COVID-2019), may occasionally lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), requiring in the most severe cases extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Yet, limited data, if any, are currently available on the role of ECMO in critically ill patients with COVID-19. We aimed at providing a snapshot analysis of ECMO for COVID-19 in Europe. METHODS: Freely available data on ECMO in COVID-19 patients reported by the European Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (EuroELSO) were extracted and analyzed after conversion into long format. The primary outcome was the incidence of death during ECMO. Bootstrapping and logistic regression were used for inferential estimates. RESULTS: Details from a total of 333 patients treated in 90 institutions spanning 17 countries were obtained, with 22% women and mean age of 52 years. Death rate was 17.1% (95% confidence interval: 13.1% to 21.1%), even if significant between-center differences were found, with some institutions reporting 100% case fatality. Exploratory inferential analysis showed no nominally statistically significant association between death and gender (P=0.788), but a significant association was found with age, mainly due to increased case fatality in subjects >60 years (odds ratio: 4.80 [95% confidence interval 1.64 to 14.04], P=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: ECMO may play an important role in critically ill patients with COVID-19 refractory to less invasive treatments. The increased risk of early death in older patients may be used to prioritize ECMO indication in resource-conscious settings, if confirmed externally.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Sex Factors
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