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1.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1681, 2022 09 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009375

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 related stigma has been identified as a critical issue since the beginning of the pandemic. We developed a valid and reliable questionnaire to measure COVID-19 related enacted stigma, inflicted by the non-infected general population. We applied the questionnaire to measure COVID-19 related enacted stigma among Tehran citizens from 27 to 30 September 2020. METHODS: A preliminary questionnaire with 18 items was developed. The total score ranged from 18 to 54; a higher score indicated a higher level of COVID-19 related stigma. An expert panel assessed the face and content validity. Of 1637 randomly recruited Tehran citizens without a history of COVID-19 infection, 1064 participants consented and were interviewed by trained interviewers by phone. RESULTS: Item content validity index (I-CVI), Item content validity ratio (I-CVR), and Item face validity index (I-FVI) were higher than 0.78 for all 18 items. The content and face validity were established with a scale content validity index (S-CVI) of 0.90 and a scale face validity index (S-CVI) of 93.9%, respectively. Internal consistency of the questionnaire with 18 items was confirmed with Cronbach's alpha of 0.625. Exploratory factor analysis revealed five latent variables, including "blaming", "social discrimination", "dishonor label", "interpersonal contact", and "retribution and requital attitude". The median of the stigma score was 24 [25th percentile: 22, 75the percentile: 28]. A large majority (86.8%) of participants reported a low level of stigma with a score below 31. None of the participants showed a high level of stigma with a score above 43. We found that the higher the educational level the lower the participant's stigma score. CONCLUSION: We found a low level of stigmatizing thoughts and behavior among the non-infected general population in Tehran, which may be due to the social desirability effect, to the widespread nature of COVID-19, or to the adaptation to sociocultural diversity of the large city.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Social Stigma , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
Neurological sciences : official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology ; : 1-9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1647521

ABSTRACT

The preva lence of long-COVID symptoms is rising but it is not still possible to predict which patients will present them, and which types of symptoms they will present. We followed up 95 patients with confirmed COVID-19 for 9 months to identify and characterize long-COVID symptoms. Easy fatigability was the most common symptom (51.04%), followed by anxiety (38.54%), dyspnea (38.54%), and new-onset headache (38.54%). There was no association between COVID-19 severity in the acute phase and the number of long-COVID symptoms (F(1,93) = 0.75, p = 0.45), and cognitive function (MoCA) scores (F(1,90) = 0.073, p = 0.787) at follow-up. Being female (F(1,92) =  − 2.27, p = 0.02), having a higher number of symptoms (F(1,93) = 2.76, p = 0.0068), and experiencing constitutional neuropsychiatric symptoms (F(1,93) = 2.529, p = 0.01) in the acute phase were associated with having chronic fatigue syndrome at follow-up. Moreover, constitutional neuropsychiatric symptoms in the acute phase were associated with a lower MoCA score (F(1,93) = 10.84, p = 0.001) at follow-up. Specific clinical presentations such as constitutional neuropsychiatric symptoms in the acute phase might be predictors of debilitating long-COVID symptoms such as chronic fatigue syndrome and cognitive deficits.

3.
Neurol Sci ; 43(4): 2231-2239, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1640869

ABSTRACT

The preva lence of long-COVID symptoms is rising but it is not still possible to predict which patients will present them, and which types of symptoms they will present. We followed up 95 patients with confirmed COVID-19 for 9 months to identify and characterize long-COVID symptoms. Easy fatigability was the most common symptom (51.04%), followed by anxiety (38.54%), dyspnea (38.54%), and new-onset headache (38.54%). There was no association between COVID-19 severity in the acute phase and the number of long-COVID symptoms (F(1,93) = 0.75, p = 0.45), and cognitive function (MoCA) scores (F(1,90) = 0.073, p = 0.787) at follow-up. Being female (F(1,92) = - 2.27, p = 0.02), having a higher number of symptoms (F(1,93) = 2.76, p = 0.0068), and experiencing constitutional neuropsychiatric symptoms (F(1,93) = 2.529, p = 0.01) in the acute phase were associated with having chronic fatigue syndrome at follow-up. Moreover, constitutional neuropsychiatric symptoms in the acute phase were associated with a lower MoCA score (F(1,93) = 10.84, p = 0.001) at follow-up. Specific clinical presentations such as constitutional neuropsychiatric symptoms in the acute phase might be predictors of debilitating long-COVID symptoms such as chronic fatigue syndrome and cognitive deficits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic , COVID-19/complications , Cognition , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/complications , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20957, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-953777

ABSTRACT

Several studies have reported clinical manifestations of the new coronavirus disease. However, few studies have systematically evaluated the neuropsychiatric complications of COVID-19. We reviewed the medical records of 201 patients with confirmed COVID-19 (52 outpatients and 149 inpatients) that were treated in a large referral center in Tehran, Iran from March 2019 to May 2020. We used clustering approach to categorize clinical symptoms. One hundred and fifty-one patients showed at least one neuropsychiatric symptom. Limb force reductions, headache followed by anosmia, hypogeusia were among the most common neuropsychiatric symptoms in COVID-19 patients. Hierarchical clustering analysis showed that neuropsychiatric symptoms group together in three distinct groups: anosmia and hypogeusia; dizziness, headache, and limb force reduction; photophobia, mental state change, hallucination, vision and speech problem, seizure, stroke, and balance disturbance. Three non-neuropsychiatric cluster of symptoms included diarrhea and nausea; cough and dyspnea; and fever and weakness. Neuropsychiatric presentations are very prevalent and heterogeneous in patients with coronavirus 2 infection and these heterogeneous presentations may be originating from different underlying mechanisms. Anosmia and hypogeusia seem to be distinct from more general constitutional-like and more specific neuropsychiatric symptoms. Skeletal muscular manifestations might be a constitutional or a neuropsychiatric symptom.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Ageusia/epidemiology , Anosmia/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Headache/epidemiology , Humans , Iran , Male , Middle Aged , Muscle Weakness/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
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