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1.
Struct Chem ; 33(5): 1789-1797, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2014353

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus that has affected the whole world is declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Since the emergence of this virus, researchers worldwide have searched for potential antivirals against it. Being an RNA virus, it shows a high rate of mutability and variability in its genome. In the present study, all the reported SARS-CoV-2 genomes isolated from diverse regions of the world available in the GISAID database have been considered for phylogenetic analysis. The strain identified at the root is subjected to phylogenetic analysis with genomes of other known human viruses obtained from NCBI for identifying the nearest viral neighbor. Furthermore, the phylogenetic relationship between various human viruses was used to repurpose the known antiviral drugs towards coronavirus using in silico docking approach. The phylogeny reveals the link of the COVID virus with adenovirus. The known drugs against adenovirus are considered in the present study for drug repurposing through molecular docking analysis. The reference inhibitors of the respective targets were also considered in the docking study. The protein targets, namely protease, endoribonuclease, methyltransferase, phosphatase, and spike protein, are considered for screening with the known drug of adenovirus. Ribavirin, known to treat adenoviral infection, shows the best docking score, suggesting its use as a repurposed drug to treat SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, the potency of the ribavirin drug is analyzed using molecular dynamics studies. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11224-022-02019-6.

2.
Structural Chemistry ; : 1-9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1958212

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus that has affected the whole world is declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Since the emergence of this virus, researchers worldwide have searched for potential antivirals against it. Being an RNA virus, it shows a high rate of mutability and variability in its genome. In the present study, all the reported SARS-CoV-2 genomes isolated from diverse regions of the world available in the GISAID database have been considered for phylogenetic analysis. The strain identified at the root is subjected to phylogenetic analysis with genomes of other known human viruses obtained from NCBI for identifying the nearest viral neighbor. Furthermore, the phylogenetic relationship between various human viruses was used to repurpose the known antiviral drugs towards coronavirus using in silico docking approach. The phylogeny reveals the link of the COVID virus with adenovirus. The known drugs against adenovirus are considered in the present study for drug repurposing through molecular docking analysis. The reference inhibitors of the respective targets were also considered in the docking study. The protein targets, namely protease, endoribonuclease, methyltransferase, phosphatase, and spike protein, are considered for screening with the known drug of adenovirus. Ribavirin, known to treat adenoviral infection, shows the best docking score, suggesting its use as a repurposed drug to treat SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, the potency of the ribavirin drug is analyzed using molecular dynamics studies. Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11224-022-02019-6.

3.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(10): 2723-2725, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486744

ABSTRACT

In May 2021, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was detected in Asiatic lions in a zoological park in India. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses showed the SARS-CoV-2 strains were the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant. To reduce transmission of variants of concern, surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in wild animal populations should be increased.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lions , Animals , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411085

ABSTRACT

Many viruses that cause serious diseases in humans and animals, including the betacoronaviruses (beta-CoVs), such as SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and the recently identified SARS-CoV-2, have natural reservoirs in bats. Because these viruses rely entirely on the host cellular machinery for survival, their evolution is likely to be guided by the link between the codon usage of the virus and that of its host. As a result, specific cellular microenvironments of the diverse hosts and/or host tissues imprint peculiar molecular signatures in virus genomes. Our study is aimed at deciphering some of these signatures. Using a variety of genetic methods we demonstrated that trends in codon usage across chiroptera-hosted CoVs are collaboratively driven by geographically different host-species and temporal-spatial distribution. We not only found that chiroptera-hosted CoVs are the ancestors of SARS-CoV-2, but we also revealed that SARS-CoV-2 has the codon usage characteristics similar to those seen in CoVs infecting the Rhinolophus sp. Surprisingly, the envelope gene of beta-CoVs infecting Rhinolophus sp., including SARS-CoV-2, had extremely high CpG levels, which appears to be an evolutionarily conserved trait. The dissection of the furin cleavage site of various CoVs infecting hosts revealed host-specific preferences for arginine codons; however, arginine is encoded by a wider variety of synonymous codons in the murine CoV (MHV-A59) furin cleavage site. Our findings also highlight the latent diversity of CoVs in mammals that has yet to be fully explored.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/virology , Codon Usage , Coronavirus/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Animals , Furin/metabolism , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral
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