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1.
Multimed Tools Appl ; : 1-42, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966164

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) disease has infected more than 135.6 million people globally. For its early diagnosis, researchers consider chest X-ray examinations as a standard screening technique in addition to RT-PCR test. Majority of research work till date focused only on application of deep learning approaches that is relevant but lacking in better pre-processing of CXR images. Towards this direction, this study aims to explore cumulative effects of image denoising and enhancement approaches on the performance of deep learning approaches. Regarding pre-processing, suitable methods for X-ray images, Histogram equalization, CLAHE and gamma correction have been tested individually and along with adaptive median filter, median filter, total variation filter and gaussian denoising filters. Proposed study compared eleven combinations in exploration of most coherent approach in greedy manner. For more robust analysis, we compared ten CNN architectures for performance evaluation with and without enhancement approaches. These models are InceptionV3, InceptionResNetV2, MobileNet, MobileNetV2, Vgg19, NASNetMobile, ResNet101, DenseNet121, DenseNet169, DenseNet201. These models are trained in 4-way (COVID-19 pneumonia vs Viral vs Bacterial pneumonia vs Normal) and 3-way classification scenario (COVID-19 vs Pneumonia vs Normal) on two benchmark datasets. The proposed methodology determines with TVF + Gamma, models achieve higher classification accuracy and sensitivity. In 4-way classification MobileNet with TVF + Gamma achieves top accuracy of 93.25% with 1.91% improvement in accuracy score, COVID-19 sensitivity of 98.72% and F1-score of 92.14%. In 3-way classification our DenseNet201 with TVF + Gamma gains accuracy of 91.10% with improvement of 1.47%, COVID-19 sensitivity of 100% and F1-score of 91.09%. Proposed study concludes that deep learning modes with gamma correction and TVF + Gamma has superior performance compared to state-of-the-art models. This not only minimizes overlapping between COVID-19 and virus pneumonia but advantageous in time required to converge best possible results.

2.
Pattern Recognit ; 131: 108826, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1946219

ABSTRACT

The devastating outbreak of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) cases in early 2020 led the world to face health crises. Subsequently, the exponential reproduction rate of COVID-19 disease can only be reduced by early diagnosis of COVID-19 infection cases correctly. The initial research findings reported that radiological examinations using CT and CXR modality have successfully reduced false negatives by RT-PCR test. This research study aims to develop an explainable diagnosis system for the detection and infection region quantification of COVID-19 disease. The existing research studies successfully explored deep learning approaches with higher performance measures but lacked generalization and interpretability for COVID-19 diagnosis. In this study, we address these issues by the Covid-MANet network, an automated end-to-end multi-task attention network that works for 5 classes in three stages for COVID-19 infection screening. The first stage of the Covid-MANet network localizes attention of the model to the relevant lungs region for disease recognition. The second stage of the Covid-MANet network differentiates COVID-19 cases from bacterial pneumonia, viral pneumonia, normal and tuberculosis cases, respectively. To improve the interpretation and explainability, three experiments have been conducted in exploration of the most coherent and appropriate classification approach. Moreover, the multi-scale attention model MA-DenseNet201 proposed for the classification of COVID-19 cases. The final stage of the Covid-MANet network quantifies the proportion of infection and severity of COVID-19 in the lungs. The COVID-19 cases are graded into more specific severity levels such as mild, moderate, severe, and critical as per the score assigned by the RALE scoring system. The MA-DenseNet201 classification model outperforms eight state-of-the-art CNN models, in terms of sensitivity and interpretation with lung localization network. The COVID-19 infection segmentation by UNet with DenseNet121 encoder achieves dice score of 86.15% outperforming UNet, UNet++, AttentionUNet, R2UNet, with VGG16, ResNet50 and DenseNet201 encoder. The proposed network not only classifies images based on the predicted label but also highlights the infection by segmentation/localization of model-focused regions to support explainable decisions. MA-DenseNet201 model with a segmentation-based cropping approach achieves maximum interpretation of 96% with COVID-19 sensitivity of 97.75%. Finally, based on class-varied sensitivity analysis Covid-MANet ensemble network of MA-DenseNet201, ResNet50 and MobileNet achieve 95.05% accuracy and 98.75% COVID-19 sensitivity. The proposed model is externally validated on an unseen dataset, yields 98.17% COVID-19 sensitivity.

3.
Soft comput ; 26(2): 645-664, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525536

ABSTRACT

The epidemic situation may cause severe social and economic impacts on a country. So, there is a need for a trustworthy prediction model that can offer better prediction results. The forecasting result will help in making the prevention policies and remedial action in time, and thus, we can reduce the overall social and economic impacts on the country. This article introduces a CNN-LSTM hybrid deep learning prediction model, which can correctly forecast the COVID-19 epidemic across India. The proposed model uses convolutional layers, to extract meaningful information and learn from a given time series dataset. It is also enriched with the LSTM layer's capability, which means it can identify long-term and short-term dependencies. The experimental evaluation has been performed to gauge the performance and suitability of our proposed model among the other well-established time series forecasting models. From the empirical analysis, it is also clear that the use of extra convolutional layers with the LSTM layer may increase the forecasting model's performance. Apart from this, the deep insides of the current situation of medical resource availability across India have been discussed.

4.
Computers, Materials, & Continua ; 66(2):1896-1919, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-953282

ABSTRACT

Infections or virus-based diseases are a significant threat to human societies and could affect the whole world within a very short time-span. Corona Virus Disease-2019 (COVID-19), also known as novel coronavirus or SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2), is a respiratory based touch contiguous disease. The catastrophic situation resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic posed a serious threat to societies globally. The whole world is making tremendous efforts to combat this life-threatening disease. For taking remedial action and planning preventive measures on time, there is an urgent need for efficient prediction models to confront the COVID-19 outbreak. A deep learning-based ARIMA-LSTM hybrid model is proposed in this article for predicting the COVID-19 outbreak by utilizing real-time information from the WHO’s daily bulletin report as well as provides information regarding clinical trials across the world. To evaluate the suitability and performance of our proposed model compared to other well-established prediction models, an experimental study has been performed. To estimate the prediction results, the three performance measures, i.e., Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Coefficient of determination (R2 Score), and Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) have been employed. The prediction results of fifty countries substantiated the fact that the proposed ARIMA-LSTM hybrid model performs very well as compared to other models. The proposed model archives the lowest RMSE, lowest MAPE, and highest R2 Score throughout the testing, under varied selection criteria (country-wise). This article aims to contribute a deep learning-based solution for the well-being of livings and to provide the current status of clinical trials across the globe.

5.
Progress in Disaster Science ; : 100137, 2020.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-939196

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has affected the whole world, and India is no exception. In India, the threat posed by COVID-19 was recognized early in its trajectory. The enormity of the problem was appropriately gauged and we committed ourselves to a scientific evidence-based approach. Under the Prime Minister's leadership, the country has put up a united fight against the pandemic. All strata of society – all social and economic groups, different regions of the country, the civil society, and the industry – came together to take on this common challenge. There has been a clear recognition that everyone is susceptible – whether rich or poor, whether from the east or the west – and this has to be a united, collective fight. National Disaster Management Authority(s preliminary analysis suggested five key lessons: 1) Need for more dynamic risk assessment tools, 2) No substitute for community action, 3) Risk is global, resilience is local, 4) From managing risk we need to focus on managing uncertainty, and 5) From managing risk we need to focus to building resilience. In this paper, discussions and arguments are made for “Black Swan” and “anti-fragile” event, and five pillars are proposed for this: 1) A further strengthened Disaster Risk Management system, particularly at the local level, 2) Resilient Infrastructure including social, economic and environmental, 3) Resilient Financial System with equitable access to savings, credit finance and insurance, 4) Social protection especially for those in the informal economy, and 5) need for Sustainable Natural Resource Management. There is a strong and significant policy environment in India which can support in considering these lessons from COVID-19 to strengthen the future risk management and risk reduction framework in the country.

6.
Appl Intell (Dordr) ; 51(3): 1492-1512, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-856188

ABSTRACT

Virus based epidemic is one of the speedy and widely spread infectious disease which can affect the economy of the country as well as it is life-threatening too. So, there is a need to forecast the epidemic lifespan, which can help us in taking preventive measures and remedial action on time. These preventive measures and corrective action may consist of closing schools, closing malls, closing theaters, sealing of borders, suspension of public services, and suspension of traveling. Resuming such restrictions is depends upon the outbreak momentum and its decay rate. The accurate forecasting of the epidemic lifespan is one of the enormously essential and challenging tasks. It is a challenging task because the lack of knowledge about the novel virus-based diseases and its consequences with complicated societal-governmental factors can influence the widespread of this newly born disease. At this stage, any forecasting can play a vital role, and it will be reliable too. As we know, the novel virus-based diseases are in a growing phase, and we also do not have real-time data samples. Thus, the biggest challenge is to find out the machine learning-based best forecasting model, which could offer better forecasting with the limited training samples. In this paper, the Multi-Task Gaussian Process (MTGP) regression model with enhanced predictions of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak is proposed. The purpose of the proposed MTGP regression model is to predict the COVID-19 outbreak worldwide. It will help the countries in planning their preventive measures to reduce the overall impact of the speedy and widely spread infectious disease. The result of the proposed model has been compared with the other prediction model to find out its suitability and correctness. In subsequent analysis, the significance of IoT based devices in COVID-19 detection and prevention has been discussed.

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