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1.
Vaccine ; 41(2):486-495, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2184268

ABSTRACT

IntroductionSupplementary immunization activities (SIAs) aim to interrupt measles transmission by reaching susceptible children, including children who have not received the recommended two routine doses of MCV before the SIA. However, both strategies may miss the same children if vaccine doses are highly correlated. How well SIAs reach children missed by routine immunization is a key metric in assessing the added value of SIAs.MethodsChildren aged 9 months to younger than 5 years were enrolled in cross-sectional household serosurveys conducted in five districts in India following the 2017–2019 measles-rubella (MR) SIA. History of measles containing vaccine (MCV) through routine services or SIA was obtained from documents and verbal recall. Receipt of a first or second MCV dose during the SIA was categorized as "added value” of the SIA in reaching un- and under-vaccinated children.ResultsA total of 1,675 children were enrolled in these post-SIA surveys. The percentage of children receiving a 1st or 2nd dose through the SIA ranged from 12.8% in Thiruvananthapuram District to 48.6% in Dibrugarh District. Although the number of zero-dose children prior to the SIA was small in most sites, the proportion reached by the SIA ranged from 45.8% in Thiruvananthapuram District to 94.9% in Dibrugarh District. Fewer than 7% of children remained measles zero-dose after the MR SIA (range: 1.1–6.4%) compared to up to 28% before the SIA (range: 7.3–28.1%).DiscussionWe demonstrated the MR SIA provided considerable added value in terms of measles vaccination coverage, although there was variability across districts due to differences in routine and SIA coverage, and which children were reached by the SIA. Metrics evaluating the added value of an SIA can help to inform the design of vaccination strategies to better reach zero-dose or undervaccinated children.

2.
Glycobiology ; 32(11):1007-1008, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2135201

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has created a global pandemic. Viral entry into host cells is mediated by spike glycoprotein (SGP) interactions with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans on the cell surface. Carbohydrate small molecules were found to bind to the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SGP, which also interacts with ACE2, forming a ternary complex. Moreover, glycans isolated from sea cucumber and red alga species exhibited anti-SARS-CoV-2 activities, presumably by blocking viral entry mediated through SGP-heparan sulfate interactions. Here we report a collection of computational studies conducted as part of a collaborative effort to investigate the effects of marine natural products (NPs) on the wild-type and N501Y mutant SGP RBD. Starting from an X-ray crystal structure of the RBD-ACE2 complex, a model of SGP RBD was built. To investigate the static and dynamic behavior of RBD-NP interactions, blind and site-targeted molecular docking using diverse docking programs (Glide, AutoDock Vina or ClusPro) was carried out, followed by extensive molecular dynamics simulations with two force fields (CHARMM36 or Glycam06) and binding free energy calculations. Predicted conformations of the NPs varied considerably when modeled in water or in complex with RBD. Five NP binding sites on the RBD were studied. NP binding specificities towards SARS-CoV-2 variants were explained and important RBD residues were identified. Statistical analyses of the stability of various protein-NP complexes during molecular dynamics simulations helped to differentiate pseudo-vs. real-binding sites. Our results provide significant insights into the importance of extensive molecular dynamics calculations in order to move beyond the limitations of molecular docking.

3.
Glycobiology ; 32(11):1006, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2135198

ABSTRACT

Glycoscience continues to emerge as a high-value information-rich field providing medical insight in the post-genomic era. Among the glycans, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) represent a large family of highly sulfated, complex, linear, periodic polysaccharides that display a variety of important biological roles via interaction with protein targets. One of the recent examples is that heparan sulfate, itself a GAG, facilitates SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binding to the ACE2 receptor which triggers coronavirus infection. Not only this, but certain other kinds of GAGs have also been found to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 activity considerably and have been proposed as potential therapeutics. Computational modeling is an effective tool in studying biological systems but the nature of these long periodic linear and negatively charged polysaccharides makes it challenging to model GAG systems alone or their complexes with proteins. Docking is an essential tool for understanding protein-GAG interactions, but there has been a lack of validation studies to show the reliability of docking programs in predicting protein-GAG complexes. In this work, we will show some of the challenges and limitations of current software in modeling protein-GAG interactions by docking.

4.
Annals of Neurology ; 92(Supplement 29):S172-S173, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2127561

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe a case of Anterior Spinal Artery (ASA) syndrome after vaccination -coincidence or causality? Background: As efforts to improve SARS-CoV-2 vaccination continue, more questions safety of the vaccination continues to be raised. Ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and cerebrovascular venous sinus thrombosis have been reported in the literature after COVID -19 mRNA vaccination. Although rare cases of acute transverse myelitis have also been reported, literature regarding post-COVID vaccination ASA syndrome is even rarer. Design/Methods: A 32-year-old female with no significant past medical history presented with acute onset of bilateral extremity weakness and numbness that started 2 weeks ago. Result(s): Patient was awake, alert, and oriented. Physical examination showed decreased tone in wrist bilaterally. Motor examination was normal except for 1/5 handgrip, 2/5 wrist, and 3/5 triceps bilaterally. Triceps and brachioradialis reflexes were absent bilaterally. Sensory examination showed absent pinprick sensations C7 and below. Vibration and proprioception sensations were intact. Patient was recently admitted at outside hospital for same complaint. Neurological work was unremarkable except of an enlarged 4th ventricle for which she underwent left frontal ventriculostomy. Lumbar puncture showed normal IgG index and negative serum NMO Ab. She was treated with IVIG for presumed inflammatory disorder with minimal improvement. Patient underwent a repeat neurological workup at our facility due to ongoing symptoms. EKG showed normal sinus rhythm CT head showed prominent 4th ventricle. CT spine were unremarkable. MRI of the brain showed Postprocedural changes associated with recent prior left trans frontal ventriculostomy catheter. MRI of the cervical and thoracic spine showed T2 hyperintense lesion extending from C3/4 to T1 with central predominance rostrally, whole cord involvement at C5, and with anterior predominance caudally with extent to the upper thoracic level of T1;shows patchy enhancement. TTE was unremarkable. Infectious and hypercoagulable workup was also unremarkable. Patient-reported receiving first dose of Moderna mRNA Covid vaccine 2 weeks prior to onset of symptoms. She was discharged to rehab on aspirin and atorvastatin. Conclusion(s): Our patient presented with symptoms and imaging consistent with ASA syndrome 2/2 infarct of an anterior spinal artery C5-T1. Extensive neurological, infectious, rheumatological, and hypercoagulable workup was negative for etiology. The patient had onset of symptoms after receiving her first dose of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, however, unclear if the presentation is consistent with postvaccination vaccine ASA syndrome or idiopathic.

6.
2nd IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Technologies, CONIT 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2029208

ABSTRACT

In this paper, the relationship between COVID-19 Maximum Infection Rate (MIR) and the happiness indicators has been investigated for the prediction of Happiness Score of Countries using Random Forest (RF) algorithm. The per-formance of the proposed algorithm is also compared against five other algorithms such as Linear Regression (LR), Ada Boost Classifier (ABC), K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), Gaussian Naive Bayes (NB) and Logistic Regression. The comparison of performance includes parameters like training accuracy, testing accuracy and computation time. It is clear from the observation that the proposed approach is superior to others. Then the parameters like MAE, MSE, RMSE, R2 Score, Adjusted R2 Score is calculated. This proposed algorithm can be used for other classification and regression work involving large amount of data with missing values like COVID- 19 datasets. © 2022 IEEE.

7.
Healthline, Journal of Indian Association of Preventive and Social Medicine ; 13(1):83-89, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2026834

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 caused by SARS coronavirus two has halted life across the globe since its emergence in December 2019. Most of the infected persons are asymptomatic or have mild symptoms. Serosurvey is vital for the estimation of the burden of infection. In this context, our study objective is to estimate the Seroprevalence of SARS CoV 2 IgG among the first-year medical students after the first wave in February 2021. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the first-year medical students of Veer Surendra Sai Institute of Medical Sciences and Research. All the students were enrolled, and their data & serum sample was collected. Serum samples were tested for the presence of Anti-Spike IgG. Data were analyzed by using appropriate statistical tests.

8.
Social Enterprise Journal ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1901424

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Social enterprises (SEs) have experienced unprecedented uncertainty due to COVID-19, and it has challenged the fundamental assumptions underlying the SEs. Little is known about the strategic response of SEs when their fundamental characteristics are being challenged. The purpose of this paper is to explore – how do SEs respond to a crisis caused by the pandemic? Design/methodology/approach: This paper adopts a case study approach and reports the response strategy of impulse social enterprises (ISE) from India. Data were collected through interviews, Webinars and organizational reports. To analyze the data, the authors examined the fundamental assumption on SE that was challenged by the pandemic. Findings: The response strategy of ISE is driven by social and substantive rationality focusing on the relationship with the community and doing what is good for them. The role of communication was vital in gathering support and resources to continue with their function. ISE adapted a mindset of mission agility and created an alternative market for its product. Originality/value: This study highlights the response strategy of SE in an emerging economy like India, which experienced one of the stringent lockdowns. It is probably one of the few studies that examined the responses of SE under a crisis that challenged their fundamental attributes by adopting the framework of Bacq and Lumpkin (2021). © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

10.
International Journal of Global Environmental Issues ; 21(1):59-81, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1855050

ABSTRACT

This study examined the stock markets' responses to the unprecedented outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in SAARC countries. The results support these countries' surge in stock market return volatilities amid the rapid spread of the COVID-19 infection caused by investors' pessimistic sentiments. The intensive media coverage of information related to the pandemic has weakened investors' sentiments and caused sudden market plunges in the SAARC region. During the pandemic, the performances of the stock markets in SAARC countries are found to be influenced by the number of COVID-19 confirmed and death cases, and movements in the fear index. The implication is that the stock markets of the SAARC region do not qualify to be semi-strong information efficient. This implication is important for investors.

11.
Journal of Rural Development ; 40(1):28-45, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1837581

ABSTRACT

Odisha, a State vulnerable to natural disasters, is located on the eastern coast of India. The State also experienced COVID-19 pandemic which affected all parts of the globe. The study has been undertaken to assess the coping mechanism adopted by the State to address COVID-19 pandemic situation considering its poor public health system. The role of rural local self-governments in managing the pandemic situation has also been analysed during the study. The study is based on the analysis of secondary data available from COVID-19 dashboard of Government of Odisha, circulars webhosted by State in the public domain and findings of focus group discussions organised with the multiple stakeholders associated in managing the COVID-19 situation. After a detailed research on COVID-19 management in Odisha, the study concludes that multipronged strategies of State like enforcing early lockdown, establishing dedicated COVID-19 hospitals, temporary medical camps to look after large influx of migrants and decentralised management of pandemic by the rural local self-governments are major contributing factors in managing the situation effectively. Gram Panchayats of Odisha also experienced multiple challenges in dealing with the pandemic situation due to desperate return of a large number of migrants, surveillance of the suspected COVID-19 cases, and arranging facilities for quarantine and food during the period of institutional isolation. The study recommends to strengthen the comprehensive primary healthcare at Gram Panchayat level with due attention to the preventive measures, livelihood security of rural poor and decentralised management of the pandemic at the local level. © 2021 National Institute of Rural Development. All rights reserved.

12.
2nd IEEE International Conference on Applied Electromagnetics, Signal Processing, and Communication, AESPC 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1746126

ABSTRACT

Healthcare is a human right that must be accessible to all disregarding the social or economic conditions of any human being. The burden on healthcare system has increased immensely in the last few months. The COVID19 pandemic has brought to the fore gaps in the healthcare system world over. The doctors and front-line workers are directly getting exposed to the virus and patients that might need other healthcare services are vulnerable to the exposure. These problems would be catered by the proposed device as it would be operated by the patients and the real time data can be collected by the doctors to assess the vital body parameters through cloud without being physically present in the same environment. The parameters that can be monitored are body temperature, pulse rate, and oxygen saturation level. Hence, the proposed device includes sensors for measuring the body temperature (i.e. LM35) and pulse and oxygen level (i.e. MAX30100). The experimental setup has been built using Android based Blynk Cloud Platform where data is collected from remote places and stored the cloud. It is further available for assessment by the healthcare professionals. © 2021 IEEE.

14.
Management Decision ; : 19, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1691686

ABSTRACT

Purpose The purpose of this study is to comprehend the approach and adaptation of research and development (R&D) professionals in managing work and non-work life during Covid-19. Besides, it investigates the influence of organizational culture on extra-role behavior both within and outside the organizational boundaries during uncertainty. Design/methodology/approach Being an exploratory study, the data were generated through the in-depth personal interview from 23 respondents of the Indian Space Research Organization. Besides, the study also used data from secondary sources. The authors followed thematic analysis for eliciting themes from the text data. Findings Primarily, it found that the organizational culture may influence employees to perform extra-role behavior within and outside the organizational boundaries during the pandemic. Besides, it found that R&D professionals are adaptive toward the work from home culture. Research limitations/implications The qualitative study is based on in-depth interviews of 23 R&D professionals during the Covid-19. Future studies may conduct a larger-scale quantitative study to generalize the findings. Implications for future research on hybrid work culture are discussed. Practical implications This study hints that employers need to move from a short-term transactional approach to a long-term cultural approach to navigate extreme uncertainty. It also highlights reorientation of human resource professionals in managing workplace evolution. Originality/value The study extends the literature on organizational culture by attributing culture for the extra-role behaviors of R&D professionals beyond the organizational boundary and navigating uncertainty.

15.
Global Journal of Emerging Market Economies ; : 09749101211070960, 2022.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1649725

ABSTRACT

This article examined the impact of the unanticipated outbreak of global public health crisis, COVID-19 pandemic, on the equity market performances and on the degree of integration of these markets in BRICS bloc. The empirical analyses lend support to the weakened equity market integration in the BRICS economies amid the pandemic, and the key driving forces include the rate of inflation, the real rate of interest, real exchange rate and composite leading indicator in the long-run, and trade performance and composite leading indicator in the short-run. The implications on the one hand, indicate increased opportunities for international portfolio diversification, and on the other hand, suggest for controlling the macroeconomic uncertainties of inflation, interest rate and exchange rate fluctuations during global health crisis to promote stable economic conditions for ensuring equity market integration in the long-run.

16.
3rd International Conference on Inventive Research in Computing Applications, ICIRCA 2021 ; : 1362-1366, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1476065

ABSTRACT

Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic has become a cause world health crisis. It is a disease that can spread from humans to humans through physical contact with the infected droplets or via airborne. It has been scientifically proven that wearing a face mask is the most effective method against the virus. This paper's aim is to develop a face mask detector which could be used to make mitigation, evaluation, prevention, and action plans against COVID-19 pandemic by the authorities. In this study, the face mask detection is developed based on the image classification method called Mobile-NetV2. The pseudo-steps for making the detector model are accumulating data, pre-processing, breakdown of the data, training the model, and implementation of the model. The proposed model is able to detect the people with or without a face mask with an accuracy of 96.85 percent. The experimental results of the model have been performed on real-time applications. The mask detector is also able to detect the face mask on a moving subject with expected accuracy. © 2021 IEEE.

17.
Ann. Neurol. ; 90:S20-S21, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1473062
18.
Economic and Political Weekly ; 56:12, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1472977

ABSTRACT

Odisha is currently coping with the onslaught of the COVID-19 pandemic and the aftermath of supercyclone Amphan. This double occurrence is the first such experience for the state. Dealing with the twin challenges of managing both the events is extremely complex. We know that the structural and non-structural disaster preparedness of Odisha is regarded as sound when compared with other states in India. However, the co-occurrence of COVID-19 and Amphan was disastrous for the people of Odisha, who largely live in its rural areas. Therefore, a broader policy context needs to be worked upon, after identifying the overlapping impact emerging from the twin disasters. This would aid in understanding the adaptation in the decision-making process as well as in identifying the interventions required at different levels.

20.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 15(8):LC09-LC12, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1377112

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The lockdown was implemented nationally for six weeks, followed by another two weeks of graded lockdown in districts in India as a means to prevent spread of infection. During this period, there was restriction of movement of residents except for those engaged in providing essential services. Aim: To find out sociodemographic profile of patients along with the impact of lockdown and spread of COVID-19 infection post-lockdown. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study conducted in Bairagarh, a suburban area of Bhopal. The study was conducted for three months. A contact tracing questionnaire was used for data collection. The data was collected by actual visiting the patient’s address. The data collected was compiled and analysed using Microsoft Excel-2020. The patients were instructed to inform the data collector of any postviral symptoms after 15 days of diagnosis to find out any postviral complaints. Percentages and proportions were derived using Epi info-7.0. Results: During the study period of three months, in total 90 patients were interviewed. Almost 85.5% cases were found post-lockdown. Most common age group to be involved was 30-45 years. Males were more commonly infected. Only 14.44% patients who worked during lockdown were infected. Almost 26.6% patients were involved in cloth merchandise business which was closed during lockdown and had a sudden upsurge in business during unlock. In total 47.7% patients were asymptomatic when tested. Relative Risk (RR) of acquiring infection post-lockdown was 1.13. Doubling rate of infection among study population during lockdown was found to be 14.05 days compared to 5.35 days post-lockdown. Almost 80% patients did not have any postviral symptoms. The most common symptom seen was nose block. Conclusion: The lockdown was found to be effective strategy in controlling spread of COVID-19 infection as post-lockdown there was sudden increase in number positive cases.

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