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1.
Chemosensors ; 10(5):167, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1820182

ABSTRACT

Extensive research shows that there is a close correlation between a disease diagnostic and the patient's exhale breath gas composition. It has been demonstrated, for example, that patients with a diabetes diagnosis have a certain level of acetone fume in their exhale breath. Actually, symptoms from many other diseases could be easily diagnosed if appropriate and reliable gas sensing technologies are available. The COVID-19 pandemic has created demand for a cheap and quick screening tool for the disease, where breath biomarker screening could be a very promising approach. It has been shown that COVID-19 patients potentially present a simultaneous increase in ethanal (acetaldehyde) and acetone in their exhale breath. In this paper, we explore two different sensing approaches to detect ethanal/acetone, namely by colorimetric markers, which could for example be integrated into facemasks, and by a breathalyzer containing a functionalized quartz crystal microbalance. Both approaches can successfully detect the presence of a biomarker gas on a person's breath and this could potentially revolutionize the future of healthcare in terms of non-invasive and early-stage detection of various diseases.

2.
Biomater Adv ; 135: 212726, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1800186

ABSTRACT

The development of nanoparticles (NPs) with potential therapeutic uses represents an area of vast interest in the scientific community during the last years. Recently, the pandemic caused by COVID-19 motivated a race for vaccines creation to overcome the crisis generated. This is a good demonstration that nanotechnology will most likely be the basis of future immunotherapy. Moreover, the number of publications based on nanosystems has significantly increased in recent years and it is expected that most of these developments can go on to experimentation in clinical stages soon. The therapeutic use of NPs to combat different diseases such as cancer, allergies or autoimmune diseases will depend on their characteristics, their targets, and the transported molecules. This review presents an in-depth analysis of recent advances that have been developed in order to obtain novel nanoparticulate based tools for the treatment of allergies, autoimmune diseases and for their use in vaccines. Moreover, it is highlighted that by providing targeted delivery an increase in the potential of vaccines to induce an immune response is expected in the future. Definitively, the here gathered analysis is a good demonstration that nanotechnology will be the basis of future immunotherapy.

3.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 717: 109124, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653889

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS- CoV-2) with an estimated fatality rate of less than 1%. The SARS-CoV-2 accessory proteins ORF3a, ORF6, ORF7a, ORF7b, ORF8, and ORF10 possess putative functions to manipulate host immune mechanisms. These involve interferons, which appear as a consensus function, immune signaling receptor NLRP3 (NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3) inflammasome, and inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß) and are critical in COVID-19 pathology. Outspread variations of each of the six accessory proteins were observed across six continents of all complete SARS-CoV-2 proteomes based on the data reported before November 2020. A decreasing order of percentage of unique variations in the accessory proteins was determined as ORF3a > ORF8 > ORF7a > ORF6 > ORF10 > ORF7b across all continents. The highest and lowest unique variations of ORF3a were observed in South America and Oceania, respectively. These findings suggest that the wide variations in accessory proteins seem to affect the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viroporin Proteins/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Genetic Variation , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
4.
Micro and Nano Engineering ; : 100100, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1586967

ABSTRACT

The whole world is struggling with current coronavirus pandemic that shows urgent need to develop novel technologies, medical innovations or innovative materials for controlling SARS-CoV-2 infection. The mode of infection of SARS-CoV-2 is still not well known and seems to spread through surface, air, and water. Therefore, the whole surrounding environment needs to be disinfected with continuous function. For that purpose, materials with excellent antiviral properties, cost effective, environmental friendly and practically applicable should be researched. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) under ultraviolet light produces strong oxidative effect and is utilized as photocatalytic disinfectant in biomedical field. TiO2 based photocatalysts are effective antimicrobial/antiviral agents under ambient conditions with potential to be used even in indoor environment for inactivation of bacteria/viruses. Interestingly, recent studies highlight the effective disinfection of SARS-CoV-2 using TiO2 photocatalysts. Here, scope of TiO2 photocatalysts as emerging disinfectant against SARS-CoV-2 infection has been discussed in view of their excellent antibacterial and antiviral activities against various bacteria and viruses (e.g. H1N1, MNV, HSV, NDV, HCoV etc.). The current state of development of TiO2 based nano-photocatalysts as disinfectant shows their potential to combat with SARS-CoV-2 viral infection and are promising for any other such variants or viruses, bacteria in future studies.

5.
Sci Adv ; 6(28): eabb8097, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388430

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of respiratory illness caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus associated with multiple organ failures is spreading rapidly because of its contagious human-to-human transmission and inadequate globalhealth care systems. Pharmaceutical repurposing, an effective drug development technique using existing drugs, could shorten development time and reduce costs compared to those of de novo drug discovery. We carried out virtual screening of antiviral compounds targeting the spike glycoprotein (S), main protease (Mpro), and the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD)-angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) complex of SARS-CoV-2. PC786, an antiviral polymerase inhibitor, showed enhanced binding affinity to all the targets. Furthermore, the postfusion conformation of the trimeric S protein RBD with ACE2 revealed conformational changes associated with PC786 drug binding. Exploiting immunoinformatics to identify T cell and B cell epitopes could guide future experimental studies with a higher probability of discovering appropriate vaccine candidates with fewer experiments and higher reliability.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Drug Design , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Benzamides , Benzazepines , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cysteine Endopeptidases/immunology , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/drug effects , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/drug effects , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/immunology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Protein Domains , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Spiro Compounds/pharmacology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/immunology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
7.
Biomolecules ; 11(7)2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308294

ABSTRACT

Two adenovirus-based vaccines, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and Ad26.COV2.S, and two mRNA-based vaccines, BNT162b2 and mRNA.1273, have been approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA), and are invaluable in preventing and reducing the incidence of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Recent reports have pointed to thrombosis with associated thrombocytopenia as an adverse effect occurring at a low frequency in some individuals after vaccination. The causes of such events may be related to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein interactions with different C-type lectin receptors, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) and the CD147 receptor, or to different soluble splice variants of the spike protein, adenovirus vector interactions with the CD46 receptor or platelet factor 4 antibodies. Similar findings have been reported for several viral diseases after vaccine administration. In addition, immunological mechanisms elicited by viral vectors related to cellular delivery could play a relevant role in individuals with certain genetic backgrounds. Although rare, the potential COVID-19 vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) requires immediate validation, especially in risk groups, such as the elderly, chronic smokers, and individuals with pre-existing incidences of thrombocytopenia; and if necessary, a reformulation of existing vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Thrombosis/etiology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Smokers , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombocytopenia/immunology , Thrombosis/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects
8.
ACS Nano ; 15(5): 8069-8086, 2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172013

ABSTRACT

Therapeutic options for the highly pathogenic human severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing the current pandemic coronavirus disease (COVID-19) are urgently needed. COVID-19 is associated with viral pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The proposed treatments for COVID-19 have shown little or no effect in the clinic so far. Additionally, bacterial and fungal pathogens contribute to the SARS-CoV-2-mediated pneumonia disease complex. The antibiotic resistance in pneumonia treatment is increasing at an alarming rate. Therefore, carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs), such as fullerene, carbon dots, graphene, and their derivatives constitute a promising alternative due to their wide-spectrum antimicrobial activity, biocompatibility, biodegradability, and capacity to induce tissue regeneration. Furthermore, the antimicrobial mode of action is mainly physical (e.g., membrane distortion), characterized by a low risk of antimicrobial resistance. In this Review, we evaluated the literature on the antiviral activity and broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties of CBNs. CBNs had antiviral activity against 13 enveloped positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. CBNs with low or no toxicity to humans are promising therapeutics against the COVID-19 pneumonia complex with other viruses, bacteria, and fungi, including those that are multidrug-resistant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Viral , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Carbon , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
9.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 3(11): 7306-7325, 2020 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889126

ABSTRACT

To manage the COVID-19 pandemic, development of rapid, selective, sensitive diagnostic systems for early stage ß-coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) virus protein detection is emerging as a necessary response to generate the bioinformatics needed for efficient smart diagnostics, optimization of therapy, and investigation of therapies of higher efficacy. The urgent need for such diagnostic systems is recommended by experts in order to achieve the mass and targeted SARS-CoV-2 detection required to manage the COVID-19 pandemic through the understanding of infection progression and timely therapy decisions. To achieve these tasks, there is a scope for developing smart sensors to rapidly and selectively detect SARS-CoV-2 protein at the picomolar level. COVID-19 infection, due to human-to-human transmission, demands diagnostics at the point-of-care (POC) without the need of experienced labor and sophisticated laboratories. Keeping the above-mentioned considerations, we propose to explore the compartmentalization approach by designing and developing nanoenabled miniaturized electrochemical biosensors to detect SARS-CoV-2 virus at the site of the epidemic as the best way to manage the pandemic. Such COVID-19 diagnostics approach based on a POC sensing technology can be interfaced with the Internet of things and artificial intelligence (AI) techniques (such as machine learning and deep learning for diagnostics) for investigating useful informatics via data storage, sharing, and analytics. Keeping COVID-19 management related challenges and aspects under consideration, our work in this review presents a collective approach involving electrochemical SARS-CoV-2 biosensing supported by AI to generate the bioinformatics needed for early stage COVID-19 diagnosis, correlation of viral load with pathogenesis, understanding of pandemic progression, therapy optimization, POC diagnostics, and diseases management in a personalized manner.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/therapy , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Point-of-Care Systems , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
10.
Current Research in Green and Sustainable Chemistry ; 3:100011-100011, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-644224

ABSTRACT

After the eruption of the most deadly influenza flu pandemic in 1918, also known as Spanish flu, infected about 500 million people with a death toll of approximately 50 million globally, the second most devastating pandemic flu emerged in December 2019 ​at Wuhan (Hubei Province) of China. This viral disease caused by a novel coronavirus SARS-COV-2 was named COVID-19 by World Health Organization (WHO). The COVID-19 virus affected 213 countries globally with 5.6 million cases and 353,373 deaths as of May 28, 2020 [1] Fig. 1. Still, there is no promising solution known to tackle this severe epidemic disease worldwide. For protecting the global population from COVID-19, we must follow three steps – early detection, monitoring, and treatment. At the same time, it is important to follow WHO guidelines on preventive measures. Many countries have restricted the movement of people completely and lockdown was enforced to maintain social distancing. But lockdown alone is insufficient to prevent resurgence, can upend economies and roil society. People need to step out to perform essential tasks and may get exposed to this deadly virus. Learnings from previous outbreaks suggest the usage of nanotechnology as an important avenue to develop antiviral drugs and materials. So, to effectively minimize the acquired infection of COVID-19 in public places like hospitals, transport, schools, worship places, stores, malls, etc. Antimicrobial nanocoatings at these places and development of targeted antiviral drugs through capped nanoparticles will be a major effective option to tackle the spread of this disease.

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