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International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 130(Supplement 2):S135, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2321593


Intro: Acinetobacter calcoaceticus - A.baumannii complex is an opportunistic pathogen that has emerged as one of the multidrug resistant organism frequently associated with nosocomial infections especially causing ventilator- associated pneumonia (VAP). Colistin and Polymyxin B are currently being used as salvage therapy for treating MDR Acinetobacter spp. However, the emergence of resistance of colistin has been reported and treatment is further complicated by poor lung tissue penetration. Thus, we implied to explore on the prevalence of its resistance in our own facility, being the national COVID-19 referral hospital. Method(s): This is a cross-sectional retrospective analysis of MDR Acinetobacter spp. done for isolates of 2019 and 2021. Only clinically significant isolates were sent to Institute of Medical Research (IMR) for colistin susceptibility testing by broth microdilution. The identification of the isolates was performed by Bruker MALDI-ToF. CLSI breakpoints were used to determine susceptibility, applying the change of breakpoints interpretation in year 2020. Finding(s): In 2021, out of 203 isolates, 195 (96%) were Acinetobacter baumannii. Other spp. isolated were A. nosocomialis (6, 3%) and A. proteolyticus (2, 1%). Out of that, 107 (52.7%) were resistant with MIC of >4 ug/ml and 96 (47.3 %) were intermediate with MIC of <2 ug/ml. Pre-pandemic, resistance rates were compared with 2019 and this showed 47% were resistant with MIC of >4 ug/ml and 52% were susceptible with MIC <2 ug/ml. Clinical characteristics of patients were analysed;previous use of carbapenem, ventilation history, length of stay, and outcome (alive or deceased). Most of patients were severely ill with majority of admissions due to Category 4-5 COVID-19 and required ventilation in critical care unit. Previous carbapenem exposure was not significantly associated with colistin resistance (p=0.936). Conclusion(s): Emergence of colistin resistant MDR Acinetobacter spp. is alarming. Infection control measures are crucial and other therapeutic options need to be explored to improve quality of care.Copyright © 2023

Malays J Pathol ; 45(1): 87-95, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2290508


INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of convalescent plasma (CP) transfusion on clinical and serial laboratory parameters in severe COVID-19 patients. The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic presents a challenge to the healthcare system worldwide due to the limited treatment options available. The body of evidence reported that CP containing anti- COVID-19 antibodies could be effective against the infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study that involved retrospective data collection of severe COVID-19 adult patients who received CP transfusion along with the best-of-care (CP group, n: 53) and best-of-care only (control group, n: 53). An age, gender, and comorbidity were manually matched approximately at a 1:1 ratio. RESULTS: The prevalence of adverse transfusion reactions was 5.7%. A shorter duration of oxygen support (median: 12 days vs 14 days, P=0.030) and a shorter duration of mechanical ventilation (median: 6 days vs 10 days, P=0.048) were found in the CP group. The laboratory parameters were also improved. However, there was no significant difference in the mechanical ventilation rate, length of hospital stay, length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and mortality rate across both groups (P = 0.492, 0.614, 0.793, 0.374). CONCLUSION: CP transfusion is safe and effective in the treatment of severe COVID-19 patients. However, a revision of our approaches such as early CP transfusion and use of a high-titre anti-COVID-19 neutralising antibody (nAb) unit is necessary to unlock the full potential benefits of CP transfusion among COVID-19 patients.

COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Blood Component Transfusion , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects , COVID-19 Serotherapy , Plasma , Treatment Outcome
Kidney international reports ; 7(2):S378-S378, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1695366