Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 50
Filter
1.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 16(1): 102379, 2021 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587937
2.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(6): 102329, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487694

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Molnupiravir is a newer oral antiviral drug that has recently been tested in COVID-19. We aim to conduct a systematic review of literature to find out the efficacy and safety of molnupiravir in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We systematically searched the electronic database of PubMed, MedRxiv and Google Scholar from inception until October 15, 2021, using MeSH keywords. Ongoing trials of molnupiravir in COVID-19 were additionally searched from the ClinicalTrials.Gov and ctri.nic.in/Clinicaltrials. We retrieved all the available granular details of phase 1 to 3 studies of molnupiravir in COVID-19. Subsequently we reviewed the results narratively. RESULTS: Two phase 1 double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled (DBRPC) studies of molnupiravir showed that 1600 mg daily dose is safe and tolerable, without any serious adverse events up to 5.5 days. One phase 2 DBPRC study found significantly lower time to clearance (RNA negativity) with molnupiravir 800 mg twice daily compared to the placebo (log-rank p value = 0.013) in mild to moderate COVID-19. Interim report of one phase 3 DBRPC study in non-hospitalized COVID-19 found a significant reduction in the risk of hospital admission or death by 50% (p = 0.0012). However, no significant benefit was observed with molnupiravir in the later stage of moderate to severe COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Molnupiravir is first oral antiviral drug to demonstrate a significant benefit in reducing hospitalization or death in mild COVID-19 and could be an important weapon in the battle against SARS-CoV-2. However, its role in moderate to severe COVID-19 is questionable and more studies are needed.

3.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(6): 102322, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482539

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mucormycosis is an invasive fungal infection and carries a significant morbidity and mortality. A number of cases of mucormycosis have been reported in association with COVID-19. In this study, a consortium of clinicians from various parts of India studied clinical profile of COVID-19 associated mucormycosis (CAM) and this analysis is presented here. METHODS: Investigators from multiple sites in India were involved in this study. Clinical details included the treatment and severity of COVID-19, associated morbidities, as well as the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of mucormycosis. These data were collected using google spreadsheet at one centre. Descriptive analysis was done. RESULTS: There were 115 patients with CAM. Importantly, all patients had received corticosteroids. Diabetes was present in 85.2% of patients and 13.9% of patients had newly detected diabetes. The most common site of involvement was rhino-orbital. Mortality occurred in 25 (21.7%) patients. On logistic regression analysis, CT scan-based score for severity of lung involvement was associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: Universal administration of corticosteroids in our patients is notable. A large majority of patients had diabetes, while mortality was seen in ∼1/5th of patients, lower as compared to recently published data.

4.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(6): 102302, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433152

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Post COVID-19 syndrome (PCS) has emerged as a major roadblock in the recovery of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Amongst many symptoms like myalgia, headache, cough, breathlessness; fatigue is is most prevalent and makes the patient severely debilitated. Research on PCS, in particular fatigue, in patients with diabetes has not been done. METHODOLOGY: In this prospective study, we included patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) who had COVID-19 (mild to moderate severity), and matched T2D patients who did not suffer from COVID-19. Demography, anthropometry, glycemic measures, treatment, and details of COVID-19 were recorded. Symptoms were scored using Chalder Fatigue Scale (reported as fatigue score, FS) and handgrip strength (in kg) was recorded by Jamar Hydraulic Hand Dynamometer. RESULTS: A total of 108 patients were included (cases, 52, controls, 56). Both groups were matched for age, duration of diabetes, BMI, TSH, serum albumin and vitamin D levels. T2D patients who had COVID-19 showed significantly more fatigue when compared with patients who did not have COVID-19 but both groups had comparable handgrip strength. Furthermore, patients with T2D with previous COVID-19 infection and who had FS > 4 have had significant higher inflammation markers during acute illness, and post COVID-19, had increased post prandial blood glucose levels, lost more weight, had reduced physical activity and showed significantly lower handgrip strength as compared to those with FS < 4. CONCLUSION: Patients with T2D who had COVID-19 infection as compared to those without had significantly more fatigue after the acute illness, and those with higher FS had reduced handgrip strength indicating sarcopenia, even after careful matching for common contributory factors to fatigue at baseline. Rehabilitation of those with FS>4 after acute infection would require careful attention to nutrition, glycemic control and graduated physical activity protocol.

5.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(5): 102242, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397297

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Emergence of COVID-19 pandemic has led to increased use of telemedicine in health care delivery. Telemedicine facilitates long-term clinical care for monitoring and prevention of complications of diabetes mellitus. GUIDELINES: Precise indications for teleconsultation, clinical care services which can be provided, and good clinical practices to be followed during teleconsultation are explained. Guidance on risk assessment and health education for diabetes risk factors, counselling for blood glucose monitoring, treatment compliance, and prevention of complications are described. CONCLUSION: The guidelines will help physicians in adopting teleconsultation for management of diabetes mellitus, facilitate access to diabetes care and improve health outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Remote Consultation/standards , Biomedical Research/organization & administration , Biomedical Research/standards , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Expert Testimony , Humans , India/epidemiology , Pandemics , Remote Consultation/methods , Remote Consultation/organization & administration , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Telemedicine/standards
6.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 75(9): 1332-1336, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392823

ABSTRACT

The advent and rapid spread of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID19) pandemic across the world has focused attention on the relationship of commonly occurring comorbidities such as diabetes on the course and outcomes of this infection. While diabetes does not seem to be associated with an increased risk of COVID19 infection per se, it has been clearly demonstrated that the presence of hyperglycemia of any degree predisposes to worse outcomes, such as more severe respiratory involvement, ICU admissions, need for mechanical ventilation and mortality. Further, COVID19 infection has been associated with the development of new-onset hyperglycemia and diabetes, and worsening of glycemic control in pre-existing diabetes, due to direct pancreatic damage by the virus, body's stress response to infection (including cytokine storm) and use of diabetogenic drugs such as corticosteroids in the treatment of severe COVID19. In addition, public health measures taken to flatten the pandemic curve (such as lockdowns) can also adversely impact persons with diabetes by limiting their access to clinical care, healthy diet, and opportunities to exercise. Most antidiabetic medications can continue to be used in patients with mild COVID19 but switching over to insulin is preferred in severe disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(6): 102268, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385429

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aim to cover most of the current evidence on the mutual effect of diabetes & COVID-19 infection on each other and the management of the COVID-19 patients with diabetes. METHODS: We utilized databases to review the current evidence related to diabetes mellitus and COVID-19. RESULTS: We discussed the most recent evidence of diabetes milieus and COVID-19 regarding risk factors, management, complications, and telemedicine. CONCLUSION: Diabetes mellitus is associated with a significant risk of complications, extended hospital stays, and mortality in COVID-19 infected patients.

8.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(5): 102235, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330757

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Post Covid-19 syndrome (PCS) is a major cause of morbidity. In this article we intend to review the association and consequences of PCS and diabetes. METHODS: We reviewed all studies on "Long Covid", "Post COVID-19 Syndrome" and diabetes in PubMed and Google Scholar. RESULTS: The symptoms of PCS can be due to organ dysfunction, effects of hospitalisation and drugs, or unrelated to these. Type 2 diabetes mellitus has a bidirectional relationship with COVID-19. Presence of diabetes also influences PCS via various pathophysiological mechanisms. COVID-19 can add to or exacerbate tachycardia, sarcopenia (and muscle fatigue), and microvascular dysfunction (and organ damage) in patients with diabetes. CONCLUSION: PCS in patients with diabetes could be detrimental in multiple ways. Strict control of diabetes and other comorbidities, supervised rehabilitation and physical exercise, and optimal nutrition could help in reducing and managing PCS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Fatigue/diagnosis , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Fatigue/therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sarcopenia/diagnosis , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , Sarcopenia/etiology , Sarcopenia/therapy , Tachycardia/diagnosis , Tachycardia/epidemiology , Tachycardia/etiology , Tachycardia/therapy
9.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(4): 102169, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291233

ABSTRACT

AIMS: With a sudden increase in cases of mucormycosis seen in Covid -19 patients, we conducted a retrospective analysis of all admitted patients in a tertiary care covid-19 hospital looking at incidence of mucormycosis. METHODS: Intensive care unit daily rounds data stored in an electronic format was retrieved by one of the consultants, looking for incidence of mucormycosis, diabetes mellitus, adherence to protocol for steroid use, glycemic control and use of monoclonal antibodies. Also, patients follow up data base of post covid Outpatients Department was searched for cases of mucormycosis. RESULTS: A total of 5248 patients were admitted between March 2020 to May 2021, of which 1027 were in ICU and 4221 in wards. Of the 1027 patients admitted in Intensive care unit, 915 received steroids and 417 had diabetes as existing co-morbidity. No case of mucormycosis was reported during the stay in the hospital and during immediate outpatient department follow up. The low dose steroids were administered as per state government protocol for treating COVID 19, a nurse driven strict glycemic control regime (blood glucose level was maintained between 140 and 180 mg/dl through the admission in ICU and was achieved consistently in 842 (82%) patients, followed along with minimal use of other immunomodulatory like monoclonal antibodies. CONCLUSION: A strict adherence to protocol of low dose steroids coupled with strict glycemic control helped in eliminating the risk and incidence of mucormycosis in a tertiary care dedicated covid-19 hospital.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Mucormycosis/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Steroids/administration & dosage , Tertiary Healthcare/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Disease Management , Humans , India/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/virology , Retrospective Studies
10.
Nutr Diabetes ; 11(1): 21, 2021 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281687

ABSTRACT

The advent and rapid spread of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID19) pandemic across the world has focused attention on the relationship of commonly occurring comorbidities such as diabetes on the course and outcomes of this infection. While diabetes does not seem to be associated with an increased risk of COVID19 infection per se, it has been clearly demonstrated that the presence of hyperglycemia of any degree predisposes to worse outcomes, such as more severe respiratory involvement, ICU admissions, need for mechanical ventilation and mortality. Further, COVID19 infection has been associated with the development of new-onset hyperglycemia and diabetes, and worsening of glycemic control in pre-existing diabetes, due to direct pancreatic damage by the virus, body's stress response to infection (including cytokine storm) and use of diabetogenic drugs such as corticosteroids in the treatment of severe COVID19. In addition, public health measures taken to flatten the pandemic curve (such as lockdowns) can also adversely impact persons with diabetes by limiting their access to clinical care, healthy diet, and opportunities to exercise. Most antidiabetic medications can continue to be used in patients with mild COVID19 but switching over to insulin is preferred in severe disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Blood Glucose , COVID-19/blood , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Humans , Pandemics
11.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(3): 757-764, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269263

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: COVID-19 is a pandemic that has affected beyond 100 million and caused nearly 3 million deaths globally. Vitamin D is a known risk factor for COVID-19. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association of prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and mean vitamin D level with COVID-19 infection and mortality in Asia, predicting with other confounding factors such as median age, obesity, and diabetes. METHODS: COVID-19 infections and mortalities among the Asian countries were retrieved from the Worldometer website. Information on prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and mean vitamin D values in each Asian country was retrieved through literature searching on PubMed® and Google scholar. The associations between COVID-19 infections and mortalities with prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and mean vitamin D level were explored with correlation coefficients. As a predictive analysis, multiple linear regression was carried out with all confounders. RESULTS: Positive correlations were observed for prevalence of vitamin D deficiency with COVID-19 infections (r = 0.55; p = 0.01; R2 = 0.31) and mortalities (r = 0.50; p = 0.01; R2 = 0.25). Moreover, the associations for the COVID-19 infections and mortalities improved to r = 0.76 (p = 0.002; R2 = 0.58) and r = 0.65 (p = 0.03; R2 = 0.42), respectively, after predicting with confounding factors. Similarly, mean vitamin D level had a significant negative correlation with COVID-19 infections (r = -0.77; p = 0.04; R2 = 0.59) and mortalities (r = -0.80; p = 0.03; R2 = 0.63) when combining with confounders. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is significantly positively associated whereas the mean vitamin D level is significantly negatively associated with both infection and mortality rate of COVID-19 among Asian countries upon predicting with all confounders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asia/epidemiology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/mortality , Young Adult
12.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(4): 102167, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263248

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The COVID-19 pandemic continues to challenge us. Despite several strides in management, steroids remain the mainstay for treating moderate to severe disease and with it arises challenges such as hyperglycemia. The review aims to enhance awareness amongst physicians on steroid use and hyperglycemia. METHODS: An advisory document describing various strategies for hyperglycemia management was prepared in the public interest by DiabetesIndia. RESULTS: The review provides awareness on steroids and hyperglycemia, adverse outcomes of elevated blood glucose levels and, advice at the time of discharge. CONCLUSIONS: The article emphasizes enhancing awareness on effective management of hyperglycemia during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Steroids/therapeutic use , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Hyperglycemia/virology
13.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(5): 102142, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245927
15.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(4): 102146, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240285

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There are increasing case reports of rhino-orbital mucormycosis in people with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), especially from India. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an independent risk factor for both severe COVID-19 and mucormycosis. We aim to conduct a systematic review of literature to find out the patient's characteristics having mucormycosis and COVID-19. METHODS: We searched the electronic database of PubMed and Google Scholar from inception until May 13, 2021 using keywords. We retrieved all the granular details of case reports/series of patients with mucormycosis, and COVID-19 reported world-wide. Subsequently we analyzed the patient characteristics, associated comorbidities, location of mucormycosis, use of steroids and its outcome in people with COVID-19. RESULTS: Overall, 101 cases of mucormycosis in people with COVID-19 have been reported, of which 82 cases were from India and 19 from the rest of the world. Mucormycosis was predominantly seen in males (78.9%), both in people who were active (59.4%) or recovered (40.6%) from COVID-19. Pre-existing diabetes mellitus (DM) was present in 80% of cases, while concomitant diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) was present in 14.9%. Corticosteroid intake for the treatment of COVID-19 was recorded in 76.3% of cases. Mucormycosis involving nose and sinuses (88.9%) was most common followed by rhino-orbital (56.7%). Mortality was noted in 30.7% of the cases. CONCLUSION: An unholy trinity of diabetes, rampant use of corticosteroid in a background of COVID-19 appears to increase mucormycosis. All efforts should be made to maintain optimal glucose and only judicious use of corticosteroids in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/pathology , Mucormycosis/virology , Prognosis , Risk Factors
17.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(3): 1007-1008, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213150

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Vaccinations for COVID19 are now open to all adults in India. However, spread of COVID19 infection continues unabated. We aimed to ascertain number of breakthrough COVID19 infections after vaccinations in a chronic care, diabetes-centric healthcare facility. METHODS: We reviewed rigorously maintained data of vaccinations, health status, symptoms of COVID19 & RT-PCR testing of all staff (doctors, nurses, paramedical workers, and other staff) in our health care facility from January 16, 2021 till date. RESULTS: Out of 123 employees, 113 were vaccinated (Covaxin, 28, Covishield, 85). Second dose was completed in 107 (94.7%) and first dose in 6 persons (5.3%). Symptomatic COVD19 infections occurred in 19 persons (16.9%) post any dose of vaccine. Symptomatic breakthrough infections > 14 days after second dose occurred in 15 persons (13.3%). Except one (required hospitalization), all 14 had mild COVID19 disease. CONCLUSIONS: We report mild symptomatic breakthrough infections as seen in our health care facility. Research in breakthrough infections in India should be extended to other institutions and community to obtain larger data.

18.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(2): 505-508, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101182

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To summarize the available evidence on the use COVID-19 vaccines in patients with diabetes mellitus. METHODS: We performed a thorough literature search with regard to COVID-19 vaccines in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. RESULTS: The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) tends to portend a poor prognosis in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Primary prevention remains the mainstay for mitigating the risks associated with COVID-19 in patients with DM. A significant step in primary prevention is timely vaccination. Routine vaccination against pneumococcal pneumonia, influenza, and hepatitis B is recommended in patients with DM with good efficacy and reasonable safety profile. With clinical data supporting a robust neutralizing antibody response in COVID-19 patients with DM, vaccination in individuals with DM is justified. In fact, as the burden of the disease is borne by people with DM, COVID-19 vaccination should be prioritized in individuals with DM. Multiple unresolved issues with regard to preferred vaccine type, vaccine efficacy and durability, frequency of administration, vaccination in children (<18 years) and pregnant/lactating women however remain, and need to be addressed through future research. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus are at a high risk of poor prognosis with COVID-19 and vaccination should be prioritized in them. However, many unresolved issues with regard to COVID-19 vaccination need to be addressed through future research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(1): 215-220, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065021

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: It is not known if new onset diabetes during Coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19; NOD COVID) is phenotypically or biochemically different than new onset diabetes before COVID-19 (NOD). METHODS: All adults diagnosed with new onset diabetes from during the time of COVID-19 were compared with new onset diabetes prior to COVID-19 from two tertiary care hospitals in Chennai and Delhi. RTPCR test for SARS-CoV-2 virus was done as appropriate, and COVID-19 antibody test was done in all other NOD COVID patients. RESULT: A total of 555 patients with new onset diabetes were included in the study (282 NOD and 273 NOD COVID patients). Patients with NOD COVID had higher fasting and post prandial blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels vs. NOD patients. Both the groups had high average body mass index; ∼28 kg/m2. Interestingly, fasting C-peptide levels were significantly higher in the NOD COVID group vs. NOD group. There was no difference in C-peptide levels or glycemic parameters between the COVID-19 antibody positive and negative NOD COVID cases. CONCLUSION: Individuals who were diagnosed with diabetes during COVID-19 epidemic (NOD COVID) do not significantly differ from those diagnosed before COVID-19 in symptomatology, phenotype, and C-peptide levels but they had more severe glycemia.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Glycemic Index/physiology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Tertiary Care Centers/trends
20.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(1): 221-227, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065020

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The measurement of vital signs is an important part of clinical work up. Presently, measurement of blood glucose is a factor for concern mostly when treating individuals with diabetes. Significance of blood glucose measurement in prognosis of non-diabetic and hospitalized patients is not clear. METHODS: A systematic search of literature published in the Electronic databases, PubMed and Google Scholar was performed using following keywords; blood glucose, hospital admissions, critical illness, hospitalizations, cardiovascular disease (CVD), morbidity, and mortality. This literature search was largely restricted to non-diabetic individuals. RESULTS: Blood glucose level, even when in high normal range, or in slightly high range, is an important determinant of morbidity and mortality, especially in hospitalized patients. Further, even slight elevation of blood glucose may increase mortality in patients with COVID-19. Finally, blood glucose variability and hypoglycemia in critically ill individuals without diabetes causes excess in-hospital complications and mortality. CONCLUSION: In view of these data, we emphasize the significance of blood glucose measurement in all patients admitted to the hospital regardless of presence of diabetes. We propose that blood glucose be included as the "fifth vital sign" for any hospitalized patient.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospitalization/trends , Vital Signs/physiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Hyperglycemia/blood , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Hypoglycemia/blood , Hypoglycemia/diagnosis , Hypoglycemia/epidemiology , Prognosis
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...