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1.
New England Journal of Medicine ; 387(24):e65, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2160400
2.
5th International Conference on Applied Informatics, ICAI 2022 ; 1643 CCIS:15-30, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2148606

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the way we go about our everyday lives, and we will continue to see its impact for a long time. These changes especially apply to the business world, where the market is very volatile as a result. Requirements of the people are changing rapidly, as are the restrictions on transport and trade of goods. Due to the intense competition and struggles brought about due to the pandemic, acting first on profit opportunities is crucial to businesses doing well in the current climate. Thus, getting the relevant news in time, out of the huge number of COVID-19 related articles published daily is of utmost importance. The same applies to other industries, like the medical industry, where innovations and solutions to managing COVID-19 can save lives, and money in other parts of the world. Manually combing through the massive number of articles posted every day is both impractical and laborious. This task has the potential to be automated using Natural Language Processing (NLP) with Deep Learning based approaches. In this paper, we conduct exhaustive experiments to find the best combination of word-embedding, feature selection, and classification techniques;and find the best structure for the Deep Learning model for article classification in the COVID-19 context. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

3.
Medical Mycology ; 60(SUPP 1):209-209, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2123119
4.
12th Annual International Research Conference of Symbiosis Institute of Management Studies, SIMSARC 2021 ; : 297-312, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2094571

ABSTRACT

The restrictions due to the pandemic have impacted mental health worldwide. The pandemic instigated health and financial pressure on everyone. The research aims to analyse the impact of the lockdown and pandemic on the mental health of the youth in India, understand the reasons behind it and try to examine whether it should be continued after the lockdown. The study also seeks to understand whether the government response to the distress created mentally by the coronavirus pandemic has been adequate or not. This study is based on primary data collected from the youth of tier-one cities in India, using web-based surveys, focus group discussions, and semi-structured interviews. Through the research, variables that impact mental health have been identified, which include sleep patterns, generalized anxiety, screen time, social media usage, life satisfaction, work pressure, the environment at home, work satisfaction, sense of productivity, physical activities, and interpersonal conflicts. There has been an inadequate promotion of the initiatives undertaken by the government, leading to unawareness of these schemes. The research observed, an increased work pressure, screen time, and generalized anxiety, and a decrease in work satisfaction, productivity, sleep time, and personal space. This research is essential to understand the ‘how’ and ‘why’ of mental health deterioration and to come up with methods to help curb these problems in the long run. The research, however, has shortcomings including small sample size, and an under-representation of the marginalized income group. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

5.
Chest ; 162(4):A2693-A2694, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060983

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Late Breaking Posters in Critical Care SESSION TYPE: Original Investigation Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:30 pm - 02:30 pm PURPOSE: This systematic review aims to better understand the clinical characteristics, comorbidities, diagnostic findings, and clinical outcomes associated with COVID-19 myocarditis. METHODS: A search for “COVID-19 OR SARS COV-2 OR Coronavirus AND Myocarditis” was performed on 1/4/2022. 2011 studies from Embase and 1165 studies from PubMed were identified. Selection criteria included studies on SARS COV-2 infection-related myocarditis. 142 PubMed and 104 Embase studies were identified. Studies were appraised per protocols and s, vaccine-related myocarditis, uncertain vaccine/infection-related myocarditis, and, systematic reviews. Duplicate studies were removed. A total of 53 articles from which 57 cases were selected to be part of this systematic review. Data on age, sex, days since diagnosis, comorbid conditions such as morbid obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, CAD, preexisting CHF, ischemic heart disease, D- Dimer, ferritin, high sensitivity troponin, BNP, EKG, echocardiogram, cMRI findings, medications, ventilation requirements, and mortality were extracted from 57 studies and were analyzed using IBM SPSS v26. RESULTS: Mean EF was 32.65 ± 16.57 %. EKG findings of diffuse ST elevation were present in 22% of all cases. Echocardiogram findings of diffuse hypokinesis present in 42.1% and depressed EF in 31.6% of all cases. 21.1% required non-invasive ventilation while 26.3% of all cases ended up requiring mechanical ventilation. Ischemic cardiomyopathy was present in 1.7%, Hypertension in 24.5%, Hyperlipidemia in 7%, Morbid obesity, and a previous diagnosis of CHF was present in 0% of all cases. Overall mortality was seen in 5.3% of all cases. 50% of the cases reported using cardiac MRI (cMRI) and 58% with reported cMRI findings met the Lake Louis criteria for diagnosis of myocarditis. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review presents findings of demographics, comorbidities, diagnostic findings, and clinical outcomes of adult COVID-19 patients with myocarditis. The mean days since COVID-19 diagnosis has a wide range due to varied presentations noted in case reports. The previously presumed high-risk factors for COVID-19-related myocarditis are not present in a significant percentage of the cases. SARS-CoV2 myocarditis-related mortality is lower in cases than expected. In the setting of the appropriate clinical context, acute/subacute chest pain, with elevated cardiac biomarkers, abnormal EKGs, and echocardiogram findings in patients with recent or /remote SARS-CoV2 infection/ vaccination, a clinical diagnosis of myocarditis can be made in absence of cMRI. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Diagnosis of SARS-CoV2-related myocarditis can be made based on clinical presentation, abnormal EKG, and echocardiogram with or without the added benefit of cardiac MRI. This systematic review aims to update current knowledge on the characteristics of COVID-19 infection-related myocarditis. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Mubashir Ayaz Ahmed No relevant relationships by Hari Bhattarai No relevant relationships by shyam chalise No relevant relationships by Saral Desai No relevant relationships by Shayet Hossain Eshan No relevant relationships by Sudha Misra No relevant relationships by Zahin Islam Rafa No relevant relationships by Shrungavi Ramanathan No relevant relationships by Monica Sharma

6.
Chest ; 162(4):A1999, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060884

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Occupational and Environmental Lung Disease Cases SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 12:25 pm - 01:25 pm INTRODUCTION: Sodium hydroxide and ammonium salt vapor exposure are known to cause epithelial necrosis of the tracheobronchial tree, but no pathologic descriptions exist of subsequent inflammatory pneumonitis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 56-year-old man presented to the outpatient clinic with 2 months of progressive scant hemoptysis and dyspnea on exertion. He had a mild smoking history, a history of longstanding stable UC, and had a history significant only for recently performing multiple weeks of cleaning work on a large, enclosed HVAC system with chemicals containing sodium hydroxide and ammonium. He wore no respiratory protection at work. CXR was significant for streaky bilateral lower lobe opacities and CT Chest revealed bilateral basilar ground-glass opacities with a small left pneumothorax. His PFT demonstrated mild restriction with a diffusion defect. Infiltrates persisted after treatment with levofloxacin. A broad autoimmune panel was normal. Bronchoscopy with cryobiopsy showed organizing pneumonia with foreign body reaction. BAL showed primarily mast cells and no organisms were found. Prednisone at 60mg daily with Bactrim prophylaxis and a subsequent prolonged wean was initiated with marked improvement. DISCUSSION: Industrial HVAC cleaning agents are widely used with the proliferation of HVAC systems in the post-COVID world. Other examples exist of prolonged cleaning product use and lung function decline (Svanes et al). Our case report hypothesizes a link between inhalational exposure to sodium hydroxide and ammonium salts with organizing pneumonia with foreign body features, a previously unknown effect. Prednisone led to improvement. CONCLUSIONS: High suspicion for occult pneumonitis should exist when patients present with prolonged exposure to cleaning/noxious chemical vapors exist. Respiratory protection should be emphasized as a public health policy to prevent lung damage among any type of cleaner use including high-skilled (HVAC) cleaners. Reference #1: Advenier, A., & Grandmaison, G. (2022). PULMONARY ACUTE LESIONS AFTER CAUSTIC EXPOSURE. Retrieved 31 March 2022, from https://www.lungdiseasesjournal.com/articles/pulmonary-acute-lesions-after-caustic-exposure.html Reference #2: Svanes, Ø., Bertelsen, R. J., Lygre, S., Carsin, A. E., Antó, J. M., Forsberg, B., García-García, J. M., Gullón, J. A., Heinrich, J., Holm, M., Kogevinas, M., Urrutia, I., Leynaert, B., Moratalla, J. M., Le Moual, N., Lytras, T., Norbäck, D., Nowak, D., Olivieri, M., Pin, I., … Svanes, C. (2018). Cleaning at Home and at Work in Relation to Lung Function Decline and Airway Obstruction. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 197(9), 1157–1163. https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201706-1311OC Reference #3: Gorguner, M., & Akgun, M. (2010). Acute inhalation injury. The Eurasian journal of medicine, 42(1), 28–35. https://doi.org/10.5152/eajm.2010.09 DISCLOSURES: no disclosure on file for Ai-Yui Maria Tan;No relevant relationships by Sudha Misra No relevant relationships by Amrik Ray

7.
IEEE Sensors Journal ; : 1-1, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2018959

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we propose a smart bedsheet –i-Sheet–for remotely monitoring the health of the COVID-19 patients. Typically, real-time health monitoring is very crucial for COVID-19 patients to prevent their health from deteriorating. Conventional healthcare monitoring systems are manual and require patient input to start monitoring health. However, it is difficult for the patients to give input in critical conditions as well as at night. For instance, if the oxygen saturation level decreases during sleep, then it is difficult to monitor. Further, there is a need for a system that monitors post-COVID effects as various vitals get affected, and there are chances of their failure even after the recovery. i-Sheet exploits these features and provides the health monitoring of the COVID-19 patients based on their pressure on the bedsheet. It works in three phases: 1. sensing the pressure exerted by the patient on the bedsheet, 2. categorizing the data into groups (comfortable, uncomfortable) based on the fluctuations in the data, and 3. alerting the caretaker about the condition of the patient. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of i-Sheet in monitoring the health of the patient. i-Sheet effectively categorizes the condition of the patient with the accuracy of 99.3% and utilizes 17.5 Watt of the power. Further, the delay involves in monitoring the health of patients using i-Sheet is 2 secs which is very diminutive and is acceptable. IEEE

8.
Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; 26:S70-S71, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2006360

ABSTRACT

Aim and background: Cases of thrombotic thrombocytopenia induced by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines have been reported recently. Herein, we describe hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) following COVID-19 vaccination. Case report: A 35-year-old male, chronic alcoholic, 3 years into abstinence received first dose Covishield vaccine. He started developing a fever, testicular pain, diminished sensorium requiring invasive ventilation, and decreased urine output 4 days after getting vaccinated. Initial workup for NCCT brain and HRCT chest was normal, tropical fever panel was negative, cultures for blood and endotracheal aspirate were sterile, liver and renal functions showed mild derangement, CSF study was normal. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen revealed mild hepatosplenomegaly, mild testicular swelling, and suprainguinal lymphadenopathy, with no focus of infection. Subsequently, he developed bicytopenia with haemoglobin 9.0 g/dL and platelet counts 50 × 109/L, ferritin 2130 μg/L, triglyceride 353 mg/dL, and decreased fibrinogen 1.41 g/L. Bone marrow as well as lymph node biopsy showed haemophagocytosis with engulfment of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and normoblasts making HLH a likely diagnosis. Soluble CD25 and NK cell function could not be performed. Extensive evaluation was done to look into the etiology of HLH. SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test was negative. RT-PCR test for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), influenza A (H1N1, H3N2), influenza B, cytomegalovirus (CMV) performed from endotracheal aspirate (ETA) was negative. Similarly, the RT-PCR test from serum samples for EBV, Parvo B-19, CMV, and from CSF sample for EBV, Parvo B-19, CMV, and HSV-1 was negative. Hepatitis B, C, and HIV serologies were negative. Culture and sensitivity repeated from blood, ETA and urine was sterile. Autoimmune panel including complements levels were negative. Peripheral smear, bone marrow, and lymph node biopsy were normal and did not reveal abnormal or malignant cells. He had persistent fevers to 38.6°C during the first 6 days of his admission, with a rise in his ferritin to 1950 μg/L. The patient received steroids but not etoposide. By the 8th day, his fevers resolved, with improvement in his lethargy and malaise. Two weeks later, his ferritin had reduced to 510 μg/L, platelet count rose to 180 × 109/L, and repeat ultrasound abdomen demonstrated resolution of his splenomegaly. In our patient, there was no clear precipitant of HLH other than the Covishield vaccine. There was no evidence of an infection or malignancy. Due to our patient's clinical stability, resolution of symptoms, and improvement of HLH parameters he did not require HLH specific therapy. It is unclear if he had a pre-existing genetic predisposition to HLH as genetic testing is pending, however, it is unlikely as he has reached the age of 35 and suffered from previous viral infections without developing HLH.

9.
Chemical Biology Letters ; 9(4), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1958111

ABSTRACT

The evolution of lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) has been remarkably interesting and in beneficent directions for food and health industries working towards human well being. Since the discovery of the first-generation lipid based self-assembled nanostructures, i.e., liposomes in the 1960s, it has witnessed significant advances in their development and distinctive potential in different application domains. Based on the composition and structure, these lipid-based structures have varied from liposome to lipid nanoparticles, e.g., solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) & nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) to overcome certain limitation pertaining to their use in different fields. The outstanding application of LNPs as therapeutic delivery systems has made them key players to treat different human disorders including the fatal cancers. Their life-saving global contribution has recently been witnessed in the form of mRNA vaccines against deadly COVID-19. They have also significantly served purpose in other domains such as biomedical imaging, cosmetics, nutrition, and agriculture. Their prominent role is in the area of anticancer therapy as delivery vectors for nucleic acids and drugs. Some issues with respect to the cellular delivery of drugs and genes, such as circulation time and stability have been somewhat resolved, but the unmet goal of site-specific substantial delivery remains the main focus in LNPs development research. Despite the promise shown by LNPs in animal studies and the fact that technological advances in LNPs research have made the approval possible of a few formulations, therapeutic outcomes in human are not satisfactory. The LNPs technology has managed to survive due to possible tailoring of their properties by virtue of the possibility of altering the composition and modifying the surface. Therefore, enormous scientific endeavours are on the rise to transform lipid structures, composition along with tinkering with surface of LNPs. The alternative methods to guide LNPs coupled with advances in small molecule nucleic acid therapeutics and drug development technology to make the entry possible to specific cells may be effective in cancer therapy. The development is very promising;however enduring efforts are required till the goal is reached. © ScienceIn Publishing.

10.
European Stroke Journal ; 7(1 SUPPL):355, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1928135

ABSTRACT

Background: During the second wave of COVID-19, India suffered from a catastrophic outburst of cases and rapid transmission of disease due to the highly infectious delta strain (B.1.617.2). Patients infected with this strain underwent prolonged hospitalisations, suffered from severe symptoms. A sudden surge of fungal infections, primarily Mucormycosis was observed. Methods: We conducted a case-control study to study various risk factors and form of intracranial involvement in cases of Mucormycosis. Results: Study included 121 patients in total;out of which 61 were Mucormycosis patients with prior COVID-19 infection. 30 out of 61 Mucormycosis patients had intracranial involvement with majority having stroke in the form of the either infarct (10 patients, 34%);or haemorrhage (3 patients, 10%) and thrombosis of artery involvement (8 patients, 29%). Other intracranial form of involvement was abscess (6 patients, 20%) and meningitis (2 patients, 7%). The most frequent type of infarcts were lacunar infarcts and the most common location of infarcts were middle cerebral artery (MCA) or anterior cerebral artery (ACA). Patients were treated with administration of Amphotericin B and Posaconazole. Telephonic follow-up was conducted after a time period of about 90 days and their health condition was recorded on basis of modified ranking scale (mRS). Out of the 30 Mucormycosis infection patients displaying the occurrence of stroke, 10 patients could not survive. q Conclusion: Intracranial Mucormycosis in COVID19 patients presenting with stroke were observed frequently and had mortality in about one-third cases.

11.
Probiotics: Advanced Food and Health Applications ; : 257-275, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1859213

ABSTRACT

Probiotics are included in the group of health promoting functional foods that promotes good gut health through the supply of essential metabolites with therapeutic characteristics. Promoting a healthy digestive tract and a healthy immune system are their most widely studied benefits of late. A series of food and pharmaceutical products have drawn the attention and interest of consumers due to their exclusive health benefits. Therefore, food-based probiotics are gaining popularity in the recent years, even though there is an increase in commercially available probiotic supplements. Probiotics can be naturally found in some food groups, whereas, the other food groups can act as a vehicle for probiotics. One of the most abundant sources of probiotics is the group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which plays an important role in preventing intestinal problems. Under certain stress conditions, intestinal microbiota may be altered manifesting in gut disorders. Probiotic bacteria stimulate the growth of indigenous beneficial gut microbiota by inhibiting the growth of opportunistic pathogenic microbes. These are also commonly known as healthy bacteria which are obtained from food, beverages and dietary supplements. Thus, this chapter will focus on the probiotics naturally occurring across different food groups of the food pyramid, and also their potential in fermented food products for healthy diets. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

12.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology ; 79(9):176-176, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1848486
13.
National Journal of Community Medicine ; 13(3):163-170, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1812230

ABSTRACT

Introduction: To statistically compare the trends of epidemiological indicators of COVID-19 in India with Italy, the UK, and the US. Methodology: In this descriptive analysis, epidemiological indicators were calculated and their trends were plotted and compared statistically. Regression analysis was done to predict the fatalities. Results: The trends of total and active cases per million populations are rising in India and US, while Italy has achieved the plateau in the total cases per million populations, and active cases have been sharply declining with time. The UK is about to achieve the same. India has remained far behind the other three countries in the number of tests per million populations (p<0.05). In the initial phase, the test positivity rate of India was quite lower but has overtaken Italy and UK. India has always reported a higher recovery rate than US and lower than Italy. CFRs have achieved a plateau in Italy and UK, in US it is declining, while it remained almost constant in India throughout the pandemic. Testing was a significant covariate in predicting the fatalities. Conclusions: India was able to manage the initial phase of this pandemic due to early and strict government interventions and strong public health responses. @ 2022 The Journal retains the copyrights of this article.

14.
Internet of Things ; : 83-103, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1739247

ABSTRACT

The emergence of coronavirus (COVID-19) is currently a challenge that has physical, economic, social, and pedagogical boundaries, thus gaining global attention. The emergence of new trends in technologies contributed to the commencement of the Internet of Things (IoT), which is gaining worldwide attention as well as becoming available for monitoring, diagnosing, forecasting, and preventing emerging communicable diseases. IoT in the medical organization is advantageous and has enabled appropriate control of individuals with COVID-19 by using interconnected wearable sensors and networks. IoT is an evolving area of investigation in infectious disease epidemiology. However, the augmented dangers of communicable diseases transmitted through worldwide integration and the pervasive availability of smart types of machinery, including the interrelatedness of the world, require its utilization for monitoring, averting, predicting, and managing transmittable viruses. This has helped in reducing the circulation rate in the hospital and increasing patient satisfaction. Therefore, this chapter discusses the overall applications of IoT during the COVID-19 pandemic. Also, the significant applications of IoT, challenges, and opportunities of deploying the technologies during the outbreak are presented. This can be of help to identify symptoms and provides better treatment for the outbreak. Taking into account the current situation worldwide, smart disease monitoring systems focused on IoT can be significantly advanced in an attempt to combat the next contagion. With the development of smartphones, wearable devices, and Internet access, IoT’s role will limit the spread of the pandemic by collecting and analyzing data already gathered. These technologies also help to provide an automated and efficient warning system that allows early and timely identification of COVID-19, thus reducing mortality and preventing global spread. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

15.
International Journal of Business Analytics ; 9(1), 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1715871

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 epidemic has triggered unmatched impairment to businesses globally. There are unmeasurable financial influences in the short-term and long-term that have caused intangible destruction within businesses. This study investigates the adoption and utilization of e-business during COVID-19 by both organizations and the general populaces. The study used a questionnaire-based survey to collect data from top managers of business organizations and their clients. SPSS was used to analyze the adoption factors. The outcomes presented that embracing e-business can assist to reduce the spread of COVID-19 and can reduce the physical ways of doing business. The findings of this study will help strategy makers, companies, and officials in making better decisions on the implementation of e-business. This will reduce the rapid spread of community transmission since ordering goods and services can easily be done virtually without physical contact, which goes in line with the social distance policy and in return boosts the country’s economy. © 2022 IGI Global. All rights reserved.

16.
2021 ASEE Virtual Annual Conference, ASEE 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1696388

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has altered best practices for instructors and teaching assistants (TAs) to support student learning in engineering. This does not necessarily mean that instructional support has diminished as a consequence of the transition to remote learning. In this study, instructional support was explored using quantitative and qualitative methods of data analysis. Surveys from over 600 students in sophomore and junior level courses in engineering at a large public institution were collected in the Spring of 2020 and compared to results from similar courses offered prior to the start of the COVID-19 crisis. Likert-scale items, as well as short answer items, that independently measured faculty support and TA support were analyzed in this study. Initial t-tests indicated that perceptions of faculty support were not significantly different between remote and traditional learning. To consider the possibility that failure to reject the null hypothesis was due to course-by-course variations, additional t-tests were used to compare student perceptions of faculty support across pairs of courses taught in both settings. Post-hoc tests showed that faculty support was significantly higher in the remote learning setting in three of seven pairs of courses and significantly lower in the remote learning setting in the four remaining courses (p < 0.05). Similarly, in considering TA support, an initial t-test indicated that perceptions of TA support were not significantly different in remote learning compared to traditional learning, but in course-by-course comparisons, students believed they were offered significantly higher TA support in remote learning in three pairs of classes and significantly lower TA support in one pair of classes (p < 0.05) with three classes indicating no significant difference. Students in both settings were also asked to identify one thing that faculty could do and one thing that TAs could do to better support their learning. Inductive coding of these short answer responses revealed that while in traditional learning, students emphasized faculty support in in-class and out of class delivery of materials, in remote learning, the emphasis shifted to needs for support in out of class delivery and out of class interactions. For TAs, student expectations were balanced between in-class delivery and out-of-class interactions in traditional learning but their needs for more out of class interactions dominated their concerns in remote learning. Overall, for faculty, about 20% of students requested greater availability in both remote and in-person settings. For TAs, 44% of students requested greater availability of and access to their TAs in remote learning, compared to 18% in in-person settings. The analysis of both Likert-scale and short answer data regarding TA and faculty support in this study reinforces the importance of availability of instructional support regardless of setting. As students, TAs, and faculty continue to navigate the uncharted waters of the traditional college education system gone online, the nature of connection differs yet its importance remains the same. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2021

17.
2021 ASEE Virtual Annual Conference, ASEE 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1696322

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 public health crisis has influenced the way American higher education institutions operate and support student success. As a result of the crisis, institutions that traditionally provided in-person instruction abruptly moved to a virtual space with little preparation time in the spring of 2020. Considering the critical roles that both faculty and teaching assistants (TAs) play in student learning and engagement, this study explored the contribution that this abrupt transition to remote learning made in international students' perceptions of faculty and TA support, and positive emotional engagement, compared to U.S. students. Data collected from surveys in in-person settings prior to COVID-19 and in spring of 2020 immediately after COVID-19 impacted the delivery of higher education (N = 1,212) were used to study if and how the remote setting influenced international student perceptions of faculty and TA support and positive emotional engagement. The pre-COVID surveys were collected from students enrolled in sophomore and junior-level engineering courses prior to 2020, and the remaining surveys were collected from students enrolled in remote learning courses in the spring of 2020. Seven of the courses were the same in both the remote and in-person survey populations, and the remaining five courses were similar (in mechanical or electrical engineering and involving significant TA support). The data were analyzed cross-sectionally using hierarchical linear models. All models considered demographics (gender and citizenship status), behavioral engagement, and emotional engagement variables. The study found that international students' perceived level of faculty support was more sensitive to their level of self-efficacy than that of their U.S. peers. International students' perceptions of TA support were also found to be generally higher than that of U.S. students. Finally, international students' positive emotional engagement was higher than that of U.S. peers, more sensitive to participation, and less sensitive to perceptions of TA support. Faculty and TA support are both important to student learning and this is particularly true for international students. Contrary to the perception that remote learning is substandard compared to traditional learning, this study suggests that students overall felt that the instructional team provided adequate support during the COVID-19 crisis. This study was not able to explain whether this effect will “wear off” as remote learning continues, and students become less charitable in their assessments. Although this data was collected from only a single institution, it suggests that what engineering faculty and TAs did in the first term of remote learning worked;and carrying forward those practices into future remote instruction and instruction beyond the COVID-19 pandemic may be recommended. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2021

18.
2021 ASEE Virtual Annual Conference, ASEE 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1695666

ABSTRACT

A 2015 survey of 256 institutions from the US revealed that 70% of their capstone programs were funded by industry and government sponsors. This indicates the pervasiveness of capstone programs that partner with external sponsors to provide a “real-world” design experience to students. In this vein, the industry-sponsored Engineering Innovation and Entrepreneurship (ENGINE) capstone program was established at the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at a large research university in the US. ENGINE is designed to provide a holistic and professional engineering experience to students in an educational setting, where student teams work on a six-month long project under the guidance of an industry and a faculty mentor. The program is overseen by a course instructor and teaching assistants who manage the course structure and expectations. This study compares student experiences in ENGINE during remote learning necessitated by the COVID-19 pandemic to those in traditional, in-person learning. ENGINE students were surveyed in Spring 2018 and Spring 2020 to understand which components of the ENGINE program mattered most to student learning and how. Close-ended survey responses were analyzed using statistical methods and short answer questions were analyzed using qualitative methods in a sequential, mixed methods approach. Exploratory factor analysis of the Likert-scale items revealed that measures of instructional support and “real-world” experience contributed to student learning. No statistically significant differences in these measures between remote and traditional learning environments emerged. To address this lack of difference, a qualitative analysis was conducted to understand how the student capstone design experience changed during the pandemic. The qualitative analysis revealed that the lack of significant difference may be due to the fact that students rapidly adapted to the remote learning disruption. The results provide an insight into the various ways in which students acclimated to the crisis circumstances. These adaptations manifested in the form of product and process adaptations, in which students swiftly adjusted their final product or design process to respond to the evolving crisis. Students used various strategies such as changing team roles and ways of communication, using different tools and technology, and creative technical solutions to drive product and process adaptations. However, these adaptations may have come at the cost of students' mental health. By shedding light on student experience of the capstone during the pandemic, this study acknowledges the resilience students have displayed during a crisis, while recognizing that the cost of such resilience must not be neglected. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2021

19.
J Laryngol Otol ; 136(3): 265-267, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692720

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tracheostomy, being a high aerosol-generating procedure, poses a great challenge to surgeons, especially during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. It is important to preserve staff numbers as this fight may go on for a long time. Personal protective equipment plays a key role in the protection of healthcare workers. Barrier enclosure has been attempted in procedures such as intubation and tracheostomy. The use of boxes became popularised for intubation and they have been utilised in many centres. METHODS: This paper describes the box designed by our team and presents our surgical experience with the box. The box is made of transparent acrylic. It is sealed at all ends, with a negative-pressure environment. The hand ports were designed to allow maximum manoeuvrability for surgeons, without restricting hand movements. CONCLUSION: The proposed box will provide more protection to healthcare workers during tracheostomy. However, the box is yet to be validated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Tracheostomy , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Equipment Design , Humans , Male
20.
Stigma and Health ; : 6, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1683942

ABSTRACT

Evidence is mounting that stigma and discrimination related to coronavirus disease (COVID-19) disproportionately impact racial/ethnic minority groups, and that these experiences can worsen mental health. The present study sought to examine multiple types of COVID-related discrimination and their associations with mental health outcomes among racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. South, a region characterized by high levels of racial polarization and increasingly large numbers of undocumented immigrants. We used the cross-sectional, population-based COVID-19 Southern Cities Study (5/26/20-6/6/20) of n = 1,688 adults in Atlanta-GA, Austin-TX, Dallas-TX, Houston-TX, and New Orleans-LA. Three adapted scales (Everyday Discrimination, Major Discrimination, Heightened Vigilance) assessed self-reported COVID-related discrimination. Mental health outcomes included psychological distress, sleep troubles, physical reactions, and self-rated worsened mental health. Bivariable comparisons and adjusted logistic regression models were conducted. The study found that major discrimination was more common (p < .001) among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black than non-Hispanic Asian and non-Hispanic White respondents. All racial/ethnic minority groups experienced more everyday discrimination (p = .004) and heightened vigilance due to anticipated discrimination (p < .001) than non-Hispanic White respondents. All discrimination types were associated with all mental health outcomes (Odds Ratio;OR range: 1.63-2.61) except everyday and major discrimination with sleep troubles. Results showing greater COVID-related discrimination for racial/ethnic minority groups confirm that these discrimination experiences are not solely about the infectious disease itself, but also entrenched with persistent racism. Responses to COVID-related discrimination should also consider long-lasting impacts on mental health for racial/ethnic minority groups even after the immediate pandemic ends.

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