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1.
Vaccine ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1783827

ABSTRACT

Background We have reported the vaccine effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccine in children aged 6 months to 15 years between the 2013/14 and 2018/19 seasons. Younger (6-11 months) and older (6-15 years old) children tended to have lower vaccine effectiveness. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the recent vaccine can be recommended to all age groups. Methods The overall adjusted vaccine effectiveness was assessed from the 2013/14 until the 2020/21 season using a test-negative case-control design based on rapid influenza diagnostic test results. Vaccine effectiveness was calculated by influenza type and by age group (6–11 months, 1–2, 3–5, 6–12, and 13–15 years old) with adjustments including influenza seasons. Results A total of 29,400 children (9347, 4435, and 15618 for influenza A and B, and test-negatives, respectively) were enrolled. The overall vaccine effectiveness against influenza A, A(H1N1)pdm09, and B was significant (44% [95% confidence interval (CI), 41–47], 63% [95%CI, 51–72], and 37% [95%CI, 32–42], respectively). The vaccine was significantly effective against influenza A and B, except among children 6 to 11 months against influenza B. The age group with the highest vaccine effectiveness was 1 to 2 years old with both influenza A and B (60% [95%CI, 55–65] and 52% [95%CI, 41–61], respectively). Analysis for the 2020/21 season was not performed because no cases were reported. Conclusions This is the first report showing influenza vaccine effectiveness by age group in children for several seasons, including immediately before the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) era. The fact that significant vaccine effectiveness was observed in nearly every age group and every season shows that the recent vaccine can still be recommended to children for the upcoming influenza seasons, during and after the COVID-19 era.

2.
Jpn J Radiol ; 2022 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782926

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Using CT findings from a prospective, randomized, open-label multicenter trial of favipiravir treatment of COVID-19 patients, the purpose of this study was to compare the utility of machine learning (ML)-based algorithm with that of CT-determined disease severity score and time from disease onset to CT (i.e., time until CT) in this setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From March to May 2020, 32 COVID-19 patients underwent initial chest CT before enrollment were evaluated in this study. Eighteen patients were randomized to start favipiravir on day 1 (early treatment group), and 14 patients on day 6 of study participation (late treatment group). In this study, percentages of ground-glass opacity (GGO), reticulation, consolidation, emphysema, honeycomb, and nodular lesion volumes were calculated as quantitative indexes by means of the software, while CT-determined disease severity was also visually scored. Next, univariate and stepwise regression analyses were performed to determine relationships between quantitative indexes and time until CT. Moreover, patient outcomes determined as viral clearance in the first 6 days and duration of fever were compared for those who started therapy within 4, 5, or 6 days as time until CT and those who started later by means of the Kaplan-Meier method followed by Wilcoxon's signed-rank test. RESULTS: % GGO and % consolidation showed significant correlations with time until CT (p < 0.05), and stepwise regression analyses identified both indexes as significant descriptors for time until CT (p < 0.05). When divided all patients between time until CT of 4 days and that of more than 4 days, accuracy of the combined quantitative method (87.5%) was significantly higher than that of the CT disease severity score (62.5%, p = 0.008). CONCLUSION: ML-based CT texture analysis is equally or more useful for predicting time until CT for favipiravir treatment on COVID-19 patients than CT disease severity score.

3.
Intern Med ; 2022 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760075

ABSTRACT

Objective Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread globally. Although the relationship between anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies and COVID-19 severity has been reported, information is lacking regarding the seropositivity of patients with particular types of diseases, including hematological diseases. Methods In this single-center, retrospective study, we compared SARS-CoV-2 IgG positivity between patients with hematological diseases and those with non-hematological diseases. Results In total, 77 adult COVID-19 patients were enrolled. Of these, 30 had hematological disorders, and 47 had non-hematological disorders. The IgG antibody against the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein was detected less frequently in patients with hematological diseases (60.0%) than in those with non-hematological diseases (91.5%; p=0.029). Rituximab use was significantly associated with seronegativity (p=0.010). Conclusion Patients with hematological diseases are less likely to develop anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies than those with non-hematological diseases, which may explain the poor outcomes of COVID-19 patients in this high-risk group.

4.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732253

ABSTRACT

Assays using ELISA measurements on serially diluted serum samples have been heavily used to measure serum reactivity to SARS-CoV-2 antigens and are widely used in virology and elsewhere in biology. We test a method using Bayesian hierarchical modelling to reduce the workload of these assays and measure reactivity of SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV antigens to human serum samples collected before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Inflection titers for SARS-CoV-2 full-length spike protein (S1S2), spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD), and nucleoprotein (N) inferred from 3 spread-out dilutions correlated with those inferred from 8 consecutive dilutions with an R2 value of 0.97 or higher. We confirm existing findings showing a small proportion of pre-pandemic human serum samples contain cross-reactive antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 S1S2 and N, and that SARS-CoV-2 infection increases serum reactivity to the beta-HCoVs OC43 and HKU1 S1S2. In serial dilution assays, large savings in resources and/or increases in throughput can be achieved by reducing the number of dilutions measured and using Bayesian hierarchical modelling to infer inflection or endpoint titers. We have released software for conducting these types of analysis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Pandemics , Seasons , Workload
5.
EClinicalMedicine ; 32: 100734, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385450

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To develop an effective vaccine against a novel viral pathogen, it is important to understand the longitudinal antibody responses against its first infection. Here we performed a longitudinal study of antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 in symptomatic patients. METHODS: Sequential blood samples were collected from 39 individuals at various timepoints between 0 and 154 days after onset. IgG or IgM titers to the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the S protein, the ectodomain of the S protein, and the N protein were determined by using an ELISA. Neutralizing antibody titers were measured by using a plaque reduction assay. FINDINGS: The IgG titers to the RBD of the S protein, the ectodomain of the S protein, and the N protein peaked at about 20 days after onset, gradually decreased thereafter, and were maintained for several months after onset. Extrapolation modeling analysis suggested that the IgG antibodies were maintained for this amount of time because the rate of reduction slowed after 30 days post-onset. IgM titers to the RBD decreased rapidly and disappeared in some individuals after 90 days post-onset. All patients, except one, possessed neutralizing antibodies against authentic SARS-CoV-2, which they retained at 90 days after onset. The highest antibody titers in patients with severe infections were higher than those in patients with mild or moderate infections, but the decrease in antibody titer in the severe infection cohort was more remarkable than that in the mild or moderate infection cohort. INTERPRETATION: Although the number of patients is limited, our results show that the antibody response against the first SARS-CoV-2 infection in symptomatic patients is typical of that observed in an acute viral infection. FUNDING: The Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development and the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(27)2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276013

ABSTRACT

The spike (S) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) plays a key role in viral infectivity. It is also the major antigen stimulating the host's protective immune response, specifically, the production of neutralizing antibodies. Recently, a new variant of SARS-CoV-2 possessing multiple mutations in the S protein, designated P.1, emerged in Brazil. Here, we characterized a P.1 variant isolated in Japan by using Syrian hamsters, a well-established small animal model for the study of SARS-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19). In hamsters, the variant showed replicative abilities and pathogenicity similar to those of early and contemporary strains (i.e., SARS-CoV-2 bearing aspartic acid [D] or glycine [G] at position 614 of the S protein). Sera and/or plasma from convalescent patients and BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccinees showed comparable neutralization titers across the P.1 variant, S-614D, and S-614G strains. In contrast, the S-614D and S-614G strains were less well recognized than the P.1 variant by serum from a P.1-infected patient. Prior infection with S-614D or S-614G strains efficiently prevented the replication of the P.1 variant in the lower respiratory tract of hamsters upon reinfection. In addition, passive transfer of neutralizing antibodies to hamsters infected with the P.1 variant or the S-614G strain led to reduced virus replication in the lower respiratory tract. However, the effect was less pronounced against the P.1 variant than the S-614G strain. These findings suggest that the P.1 variant may be somewhat antigenically different from the early and contemporary strains of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Replication , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , Cricetinae , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Lung/pathology , Mesocricetus , Mice , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , X-Ray Microtomography
7.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 61(10): 1459-1463, 2020.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-916549

ABSTRACT

At our institution, an outbreak of hospital-acquired coronavirus infection (COVID-19) occurred in the hematology department. We used immunochromatography to examine the anti-COVID-19 IgG antibody level in 10 COVID-19 positive patients who exhibited little or no symptoms. Six patients were negative for IgG antibody at an average of 26 days (range: 11-39 days) after the COVID-19 diagnosis. Among them, two had been negative on PCR twice and were discharged but subsequently became positive on PCR 2-4 weeks later and developed pneumonia. These patients were also positive for IgG antibody after the confirmed diagnosis based on PCR accompanied with the development of pneumonia. Our findings suggest an immune response delay to COVID-19 in immunocompromised patients, such as those with hematologic disorders. Thus, follow-up examinations with antibody testing are important in these patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Hematologic Diseases/virology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Chromatography, Affinity , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
IDCases ; 20: e00775, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-102253

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), is spreading globally and poses a major public health threat. We reported a case of influenza A virus and SARS-CoV-2 co-infection. As the number of COVID-19 cases increase, it will be necessary to comprehensively evaluate imaging and other clinical findings as well as consider co-infection with other respiratory viruses.

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