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1.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(6), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2021480

ABSTRACT

The observed epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in sub-Saharan Africa has varied greatly from that in Europe and the United States, with much lower reported incidence. Population-based studies are needed to estimate true cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 to inform public health interventions. This study estimated SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in four selected states in Nigeria in October 2020. We implemented a two-stage cluster sample household survey in four Nigerian states (Enugu, Gombe, Lagos, and Nasarawa) to estimate age-stratified prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. All individuals in sampled households were eligible for interview, blood draw, and nasal/oropharyngeal swab collection. We additionally tested participants for current/recent malaria infection. Seroprevalence estimates were calculated accounting for the complex survey design. Across all four states, 10,629 (96.5%) of 11,015 interviewed individuals provided blood samples. The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV- 2 antibodies was 25.2% (95% CI 21.8-28.6) in Enugu State, 9.3% (95% CI 7.0-11.5) in Gombe State, 23.3% (95% CI 20.5-26.4) in Lagos State, and 18.0% (95% CI 14.4-21.6) in Nasarawa State. Prevalence of current/recent malaria infection ranged from 2.8% in Lagos to 45.8% in Gombe and was not significantly related to SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence. The prevalence of active SARS-CoV-2 infection in the four states during the survey period was 0.2% (95% CI 0.1-0.4). Approximately eight months after the first reported COVID-19 case in Nigeria, seroprevalence indicated infection levels 194 times higher than the 24,198 officially reported COVID-19 cases across the four states;however, most of the population remained susceptible to COVID-19 in October 2020.

3.
Ps-Political Science & Politics ; : 1-7, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1996850

ABSTRACT

How can scholars conduct field research when there is limited access to the field? This article first identifies how limited and uncertain field access can affect field research and then provides recommendations to address these challenges. We focus on conducting field research in Japan because of our substantive expertise, but we believe that the problems and solutions outlined in this article are applicable to a broad range of countries. Our hope is that this article contributes to the developing literature on conducting research during times of emergency and to the larger literature on best practices for field research.

4.
Journal of General Internal Medicine ; 37:S663-S664, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1995783

ABSTRACT

SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 180 residents in an internal medicine residency program DESCRIPTION: COVID-related restrictions on gathering have created challenges to community-building during residency, an important way to mitigate burnout. The ongoing stresses of the pandemic also have led to a sense of “languishing,” which can decrease engagement with everyday activities. To promote community and support resident- driven ideas, we created an innovative “ticket drop” and mini-grant program. Residents were invited to submit ideas for either ticket-based events in the city, or for mini-grants to lead a community-building activity. The Residency Well- Being Committee sponsored one event of each type per month based on evolving COVID guidelines. The committee advertised the ticket drops to all residents, purchased tickets, and allocated them by lottery to ensure equitable access. The initiative was funded by a departmental allocation to the residency program. EVALUATION: Ticket drop and mini-grant events generated many ideas from residents and were well-attended. Residents submitted 23 ideas in the first 6 months of the initiative, and we have been able to fund 1-2 per month. Ticket drop events to date included a professional baseball game, a special exhibit at an art museum, and an evening at the science academy. Residents receiving mini-grants have planned a ceramics night, an arcade game night, and a kayaking event. The intervention is ongoing, and we will present final descriptive data about participation as well as survey data about facilitators and barriers to success of each event and the overall effects of this initiative on social cohesion in residency. Early feedback suggests that identifying a resident champion for each event increases enthusiasm, and that having events preplanned overcomes the low motivation that is widespread during the lingering pandemic. Participants also noted learning about new cultural attractions in their city, which deepened connection with the wider community outside residency. Events were attended by residents at all levels of training and promoted cohesion across residency classes. For many events, the impact extended beyond tickets paid for by the residency, as other residents bought tickets for themselves or for their partners. DISCUSSION / REFLECTION / LESSONS LEARNED: Our residency ticket drop program is a relatively low-cost, low-effort, moderate-impact innovation that represents a sustainable way to increase connections in residency. A modest financial investment can have a large impact on community building if events are targeted to meet resident-identified priorities. Nurturing interests outside of medicine, such as in the arts, entertainment, or cultural attractions, may allow residents to further connect as humans with diverse interests as well as colleagues.

5.
International Perspectives in Psychology: Research, Practice, Consultation ; 11(3):178-187, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1972528

ABSTRACT

A rise in mental health concerns in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic has been observed. Examining patterns in how people experienced health, economic, and social concerns in the context of the pandemic and documenting relationships between these groups with mental health outcomes will fill a gap in the literature. Describing these associations is also in line with the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Developmental Goals of promoting health and reducing inequalities. In the current study, we conducted a latent class analysis with items assessing health, economic, and social concerns in a sample of 1,394 people. Associations between groups with depressive and anxiety symptoms were also examined. A six-class model showed good fit, and groups were named: high overall concern (32.98%), health concerns without health care (14.78%), health and economic concerns (17.46%), economic concerns (4.57%), health concerns with health care (19.77%), and low overall concern (10.43%). Group membership was associated with mental health, with four groups reporting anxiety symptoms above a clinical cutoff. The intersection of concerns observed in these groups may serve as a barrier to mental health treatment during or following the pandemic. Consistent with the UN Sustainable Developmental Goals, ensuring equitable access to mental health care in the United States following the pandemic must include addressing the unique intersections of social determinants of health that people face. © 2022 Hogrefe Publishing.

6.
Neurology ; 98(18 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925241

ABSTRACT

Objective: We sought to determine the emotional impact, stress, and burden of the COVID-19 pandemic on movement disorders patients. Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused stress for the whole population, as it is the only major incidence of a widespread infectious illness that most have experienced in their lifetime. The impact of COVID-19 on patients with chronic neurodegenerative disease, including movement disorders, is largely unknown. Design/Methods: Over 4 months (May to August 2021), subjects were asked to fill out a subjective questionnaire that asked whether neurological symptoms, relationships, mental health care, finances, or healthcare delays worsened during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the Pandemic Emotional Impact Scale (PEIS). The PEIS is a validated scale designed to measure the emotional impact of a worldwide pandemic. The scale has 16 questions, each of which is scored on a scale of 1 to 5, 5 being the worst. The two-sample t-test was used to obtain p-values at α=0.05. Results: The cohort had a mean age of 68.0 ± 10.5 years, with 54% males and 46% females. 62% of subjects had diagnoses of PD, and 38% had either ET, ataxia, or dystonia. The average disease duration for the cohort was 8.80 ± 9.47 years. The mean PEIS score for the cohort was 32.52 ± 12.61 (range 16-80). Higher (worse) PEIS scores were significantly associated with “personal financial loss” (p=0.0077), “worsening neurological symptoms” (p=0.0006), “strained relationships” (p=0.0021), “friends/family experiencing financial loss” (p=0.0006), “friends/family hospitalized” (p=0.0178), “delay in healthcare” (p < 0.0001), and “masks impacting health” (p = 0.0064). Conclusions: Although the emotional burden of COVID-19 was reasonably low in this cohort, patients were affected by financial burden, strained relationships, delays in healthcare, and mask wearing. The mental health and emotional burden of movement disorder patients should be carefully addressed.

9.
Appl Mater Today ; 27: 101473, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777973

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has made biotextiles, including face masks and protective clothing, quite familiar in our daily lives. Biotextiles are one broad category of textile products that are beyond our imagination. Currently, biotextiles have been routinely utilized in various biomedical fields, like daily protection, wound healing, tissue regeneration, drug delivery, and sensing, to improve the health and medical conditions of individuals. However, these biotextiles are commonly manufactured with fibers with diameters on the micrometer scale (> 10 µm). Recently, nanofibrous materials have aroused extensive attention in the fields of fiber science and textile engineering because the fibers with nanoscale diameters exhibited obviously superior performances, such as size and surface/interface effects as well as optical, electrical, mechanical, and biological properties, compared to microfibers. A combination of innovative electrospinning techniques and traditional textile-forming strategies opens a new window for the generation of nanofibrous biotextiles to renew and update traditional microfibrous biotextiles. In the last two decades, the conventional electrospinning device has been widely modified to generate nanofiber yarns (NYs) with the fiber diameters less than 1000 nm. The electrospun NYs can be further employed as the primary processing unit for manufacturing a new generation of nano-textiles using various textile-forming strategies. In this review, starting from the basic information of conventional electrospinning techniques, we summarize the innovative electrospinning strategies for NY fabrication and critically discuss their advantages and limitations. This review further covers the progress in the construction of electrospun NY-based nanotextiles and their recent applications in biomedical fields, mainly including surgical sutures, various scaffolds and implants for tissue engineering, smart wearable bioelectronics, and their current and potential applications in the COVID-19 pandemic. At the end, this review highlights and identifies the future needs and opportunities of electrospun NYs and NY-based nanotextiles for clinical use.

10.
PubMed; 2022.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-331840

ABSTRACT

Phage Immunoprecipitation-Sequencing (PhIP-Seq) allows for unbiased, proteome-wide autoantibody discovery across a variety of disease settings, with identification of disease-specific autoantigens providing new insight into previously poorly understood forms of immune dysregulation. Despite several successful implementations of PhIP-Seq for autoantigen discovery, including our previous work (Vazquez et al. 2020), current protocols are inherently difficult to scale to accommodate large cohorts of cases and importantly, healthy controls. Here, we develop and validate a high throughput extension of PhIP-seq in various etiologies of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, including APS1, IPEX, RAG1/2 deficiency, Kawasaki Disease (KD), Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), and finally, mild and severe forms of COVID19. We demonstrate that these scaled datasets enable machine-learning approaches that result in robust prediction of disease status, as well as the ability to detect both known and novel autoantigens, such as PDYN in APS1 patients, and intestinally expressed proteins BEST4 and BTNL8 in IPEX patients. Remarkably, BEST4 antibodies were also found in 2 patients with RAG1/2 deficiency, one of whom had very early onset IBD. Scaled PhIP-Seq examination of both MIS-C and KD demonstrated rare, overlapping antigens, including CGNL1, as well as several strongly enriched putative pneumonia-associated antigens in severe COVID19, including the endosomal protein EEA1. Together, scaled PhIP-Seq provides a valuable tool for broadly assessing both rare and common autoantigen overlap between autoimmune diseases of varying origins and etiologies.

11.
Health Education ; 122(1):37-46, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1746149

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The purpose of this case study is to describe one Southern United States of America (US), historically Black medical school's approach to adapting medical education training through learning communities (LCs) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design/methodology/approach: The COVID-19 pandemic created a wide variety of problems for higher education. Classes moved quickly from in-person to virtual instruction with little time for training;faculty and students had to adapt to new learning platforms, learning styles, study techniques and technological challenges. Emotions ran high due to constant change, transitions and numerous unknowns. The LC structure embedded in the curriculum of this US medical school aided in the navigation of these challenges. Findings: Of the 95 MD1-MD4 respondents combined who responded to the COVID-19 LC survey, 67% rated the LC sessions good/outstanding, 20% average, 7% poor/fair and 5% N/A. When asked if LCs had helped them during the pandemic, overall, 66% said "yes" and 34% said "no." When asked how LCs have helped during the pandemic, themes emerged related to safety, adapting to feelings of isolation/mental health/emotional support, and academic progress. Originality/value: The small LC group structure created a sense of security for receiving academic help, emotional support, a network of assistance resources and a place to process COVID-19 losses and insecurities. Receptivity to utilizing the LC structure for support may relate to the medical students' commitment to addressing health disparities, serving the underserved and embracing a medical school culture that values community.

12.
British Journal of Diabetes ; 21(2):305, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1737428

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLPIRAs) are increasingly used in the management of type 2 diabetes. There is uncertainty surrounding their use during acute hospitalisation and few data for inpatient outcomes - especially during COVID-19 infection. Methods: Electronic records of all patients using GLPIRAs at the point of hospital admission during the COVID-19 second wave were obtained. Data were collected on COVID-19 status, inpatient glycaemic control, continuation of GLP1RA or reason(s) for discontinuation. Glycaemic control was determined by the number of Good Diabetes Days (GDD), defined as days with no values <4 mmol/L and <1 value >11 mmol/L and >2 tests/day. Results: 101 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. 43% of these had GLP1RAs discontinued on admission. Positive COVID-19 infection was seen in 14, and 12 of these were treated with dexamethasone. In those with COVID-19 infection, GLP1RAs were discontinued in 71% compared with 38% without COVID (p=0.12). GDD were seen in 19% of total hospital days in COVID-19 positive patients and 47% in COVID-19 negative patients (p<0.001). In COVID-19 positive patients, continuing GLP1RA was associated with poorer glycaemic control than discontinuation (11% vs 20%, p=0.32). In COVID-19 negative patients, glycaemic control was no different in those continuing and discontinuing treatment (48% vs 45% GDD, p=0.44). Discontinuation of treatment with GLP1RAs on admission to hospital was common. In COVID-19 positive patients, this may be due to reduced efficacy in the context of treatment with highdose steroids but no difference in glycaemic outcomes was seen in non-COVID admissions.

13.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22271253

ABSTRACT

BackgroundSigns of anosmia can help detect COVID-19 infection when testing for viral positivity is not available. Inexpensive mass-produced disposable olfactory sensitivity tests suitable for worldwide use might serve not only as a screening tool for potential infection but also to identify cases at elevated risk of severe disease as anosmic COVID-19 patients have a better prognosis. Methods and FindingsWe adopted paired crushable ampules with two concentrations of a standard test odorant (n-butanol) as standard of care in several clinics as community prevalence of COVID-19 infection waxed and waned. This was not a clinical trial; a chart review was undertaken to evaluate the operating characteristics and potential utility of the test device as RT-PCR testing became routine. The risk of anosmia was greater in COVID-19 patients. Olfactory sensitivity was concentration-dependent and decreased with aging. Hyposmia was detected across a wider age range than expected from the literature, and tests can be optimized to characterize different age groups. Conclusionsn-Butanol at 0.32 and 3.2% in crushable ampules can be used to characterize olfactory function quickly and inexpensively and thus has potential benefits in pandemic screening, epidemiology, and clinical decision-making.

14.
Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine ; 9(7_suppl3), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1685808

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted a multitude of public health response measures including social distancing, school cancellations, and cessation of organized sports. A change in the epidemiology of injuries commonly caused by sporting activities is expected. Hypothesis/Purpose: Examine the effect of public health measures on the incidence and characteristics of common pediatric sports injuries. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study comparing sporting injuries presenting to a level I pediatric trauma hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic to sporting injuries during a pre-pandemic period at the same institution. Nine specific injury types were evaluated including ACL injury, meniscus injury, patellar dislocation, osteochondritis dissecans (OCD), shoulder dislocation, ankle sprain, clavicle fracture, medial epicondyle fracture, and tibial spine fracture. Patients were included if they presented for initial care between 3/15/20 and 4/15/20 for the “pandemic” group and the same time window in 2018 and 2019 for the “pre-pandemic” group. Results: 487 patients were included in our study with an average of 222.5 patients in 2018 and 2019 compared to 42 patients in 2020. The average patient age decreased during the pandemic compared to the pre-pandemic period (9.4 ± 6.0 vs 12.4 ± 4.2, p=0.007). Additionally, a decrease in the proportion of injuries attributed to sports (26.2% vs 47.6%, p=0.005) and those occurring at school/daycare (4.8% vs 10.3%, p<0.001) were observed. During the pandemic there was an increase in the proportion of injuries occurring at the patients home (50.0% vs 16.9%, p<0.001)(Table 1). The distribution was significantly different across the nine injury types included with a decrease in the proportion of ankle sprains (31.0% vs 59.8%, p<0.001) and an increase in the proportion of clavicle fractures (50.0% vs 16.2%, p<0.001)(Figure 1). For ankle sprains, there was no significant difference in the proportion of anterior talofibular ligament injuries to high ankle sprains (p=0.898). There was no delay in presentation in the “pandemic” group compared to the “pre-pandemic” group (6.6 ± 9.6 vs 5.4 ±9.9, p=0.424). Conclusion: At our institution, we observed an over fivefold reduction in presentation for common pediatric musculoskeletal injuries typically associated with sports. The dramatic drop off in injuries occurring across both sports and non-sports injury mechanisms raises concern for presentation of untreated injuries in the future. Additionally, the increased proportion of injuries occurring in the home setting creates an opportunity for emphasis to be placed on basic safety precautions, especially for young children. Tables/Figures:

15.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-296900

ABSTRACT

Background: Sequencing of the SARS-CoV-2 viral genome from patient samples is an important epidemiological tool for monitoring and responding to the pandemic, including the emergence of new mutations in specific communities. Methods: SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequences were generated from positive samples collected, along with epidemiological metadata, at a walk-up, rapid testing site in the Mission District of San Francisco, California during November 22-December 2, 2020 and January 10-29, 2021. Secondary household attack rates and mean sample viral load were estimated and compared across observed variants. Results: A total of 12,124 tests were performed yielding 1,099 positives. From these, 811 high quality genomes were generated. Certain viral lineages bearing spike mutations, defined in part by L452R, S13I, and W152C, comprised 54.9% of the total sequences from January, compared to 15.7% in November. Household contacts exposed to "West Coast" variants were at higher risk of infection compared to household contacts exposed to lineages lacking these variants (0.357 vs 0.294, RR=1.29;95% CI:1.01-1.64). The reproductive number was estimated to be modestly higher than other lineages spreading in California during the second half of 2020. Viral loads were similar among persons infected with West Coast versus non-West Coast strains, as was the proportion of individuals with symptoms (60.9% vs 64.1%). Conclusions: The increase in prevalence, relative household attack rates, and reproductive number are consistent with a modest transmissibility increase of the West Coast variants;however, additional laboratory and epidemiological studies are required to better understand differences between these variants. Summary: We observed a growing prevalence and elevated attack rate for "West Coast" SARS-CoV-2 variants in a community testing setting in San Francisco during January 2021, suggesting its modestly higher transmissibility.

16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 767319, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538373

ABSTRACT

The importance of innate immune cells to sense and respond to their physical environment is becoming increasingly recognized. Innate immune cells (e.g. macrophages and neutrophils) are able to receive mechanical signals through several mechanisms. In this review, we discuss the role of mechanosensitive ion channels, such as Piezo1 and transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), and cell adhesion molecules, such as integrins, selectins, and cadherins in biology and human disease. Furthermore, we explain that these mechanical stimuli activate intracellular signaling pathways, such as MAPK (p38, JNK), YAP/TAZ, EDN1, NF-kB, and HIF-1α, to induce protein conformation changes and modulate gene expression to drive cellular function. Understanding the mechanisms by which immune cells interpret mechanosensitive information presents potential targets to treat human disease. Important areas of future study in this area include autoimmune, allergic, infectious, and malignant conditions.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Innate/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , Mechanotransduction, Cellular/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Animals , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Ion Channels/immunology , Ion Channels/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , TRPV Cation Channels/immunology , TRPV Cation Channels/metabolism
17.
HSS J ; 18(2): 205-211, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523250

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically altered the practice of pediatric orthopedic trauma surgery in both outpatient and inpatient settings. While significant declines in patient volume have been noted, the impact on surgeon decision-making is unclear. Purpose: We sought to investigate changes in pediatric orthopedic trauma care delivery as a result of COVID-19 and determine their implications for future orthopedic practice. Methods: An electronic survey was distributed to all members (N = 1515) of the Pediatric Orthopedic Society of North America (POSNA) in March to April 2021; only members who provided care for pediatric orthopedic trauma patients were asked to complete it. The survey included questions on hospital trauma call, inpatient care, outpatient clinic practice, and 3 unique fracture case scenarios. Results: A total of 147 pediatric orthopedic surgeons completed the survey, for a 9.7% response rate, with 134 (91%) taking trauma call at a hospital as part of their practice. Respondents reported significant differences across institutions regarding COVID-19 testing, hospital rounding, and employee COVID-19 screening. Changes in outpatient fracture management were observed, including a decreased number of follow-up visits for nondisplaced clavicle fractures, distal radius buckle fractures, and toddler's fractures. Of respondents who changed their fracture follow-up schedules due to COVID-19, over 75% indicated that they would continue these outpatient treatment schedules after the pandemic. Conclusions: This survey found changes in pediatric orthopedic trauma care as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The use of telemedicine and abbreviated follow-up practices for common fracture types are likely to persist following the resolution of the COVID-19 pandemic.

18.
International Journal for Human Caring ; 25(3):226-232, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1471247

ABSTRACT

The issue of new graduates prematurely exiting the profession has a long-standing, complicated history in nursing. Current retention is further complicated by the COVID-19 pandemic. The state of the global workforce and transition shock theory situate this issue. Ray's theory of bureaucratic caring frames the analysis with proposed recommendations for individual nurses, healthcare organizations, and academia. The sociocultural and political domains of Ray's theory offer guidance for nurse leaders in academic and practice settings. The importance of a collaborative relationship between academic and practice settings is vital to mitigate the phenomenon of early exit of new graduates. © Copyright 2021 International Association for Human Caring.

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