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1.
Immunology ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1968139

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the kinetics of antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) antigens over 5 cross-sectional visits (January-November 2021), and the determinants of pre-booster immunoglobulin levels, in a prospective cohort of vaccinated primary health care workers in Catalonia, Spain. Antibodies against S antigens after a full primary vaccination course, mostly with BNT162b2, decreased steadily over time and were higher in pre-exposed (n=247) than naïve (n=200) individuals, but seropositivity was maintained at 100% (100% IgG, 95.5% IgA, 30.6% IgM) up to 319?days after the first dose. Antibody binding to variants of concern was highly maintained for IgG compared to wild type but significantly reduced for IgA and IgM, particularly for Beta and Gamma. Factors significantly associated with longer-term antibodies included age, sex, occupation, smoking, adverse reaction to vaccination, levels of pre-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, interval between disease onset and vaccination, hospitalization, oxygen supply, post COVID and symptomatology. Earlier morning vaccination hours were associated with higher IgG responses in pre-exposed participants. Symptomatic breakthroughs occurred in 9/447 (2.01%) individuals, all among naïve (9/200, 4.5%) and generally boosted antibody responses. Additionally, an increase in IgA and/or IgM seropositivity to variants, and N seroconversion at later time points (6.54%), indicated asymptomatic breakthrough infections, even among pre-exposed. Seropositivity remained highly stable over almost a year after vaccination. However, gradually waning of anti-S IgGs that correlate with neutralizing activity, coupled to evidence of an increase in breakthrough infections during the Delta and Omicron predominance, provides a rationale for booster immunization.

2.
EBioMedicine ; 75: 103805, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850947

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Two doses of mRNA vaccination have shown >94% efficacy at preventing COVID-19 mostly in naïve adults, but it is not clear if the second dose is needed to maximize effectiveness in those previously exposed to SARS-CoV-2 and what other factors affect responsiveness. METHODS: We measured IgA, IgG and IgM levels against SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) antigens from the wild-type and S from the Alpha, Beta and Gamma variants of concern, after BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccination in a cohort of health care workers (N=578). Neutralizing capacity and antibody avidity were evaluated. Data were analyzed in relation to COVID-19 history, comorbidities, vaccine doses, brand and adverse events. FINDINGS: Vaccination induced robust IgA and IgG levels against all S antigens. Neutralization capacity and S IgA and IgG levels were higher in mRNA-1273 vaccinees, previously SARS-CoV-2 exposed, particularly if symptomatic, and in those experiencing systemic adverse effects (p<0·05). A second dose in pre-exposed did not increase antibody levels. Smoking and comorbidities were associated with 43% (95% CI, 19-59) and 45% (95% CI, 63-18) lower neutralization, respectively, and 35% (95% CI, 3-57%) and 55% (95% CI, 33-70%) lower antibody levels, respectively. Among fully vaccinated, 6·3% breakthroughs were detected up to 189 days post-vaccination. Among pre-exposed non-vaccinated, 90% were IgG seropositive more than 300 days post-infection. INTERPRETATION: Our data support administering a single-dose in pre-exposed healthy individuals as primary vaccination. However, heterogeneity of responses suggests that personalized recommendations may be necessary depending on COVID-19 history and life-style. Higher mRNA-1273 immunogenicity would be beneficial for those expected to respond worse to vaccination and in face of variants that escape immunity such as Omicron. Persistence of antibody levels in pre-exposed unvaccinated indicates maintenance of immunity up to one year. FUNDING: This work was supported by Institut de Salut Global de Barcelona (ISGlobal) internal funds, in-kind contributions from Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, the Fundació Privada Daniel Bravo Andreu, and European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT) Health (grant number 20877), supported by the European Institute of Innovation and Technology, a body of the European Union receiving support from the H2020 Research and Innovation Programme. We acknowledge support from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation and State Research Agency through the "Centro de Excelencia Severo Ochoa 2019-2023" Program (CEX2018-000806-S), and support from the Generalitat de Catalunya through the CERCA Program. L. I. work was supported by PID2019-110810RB-I00 grant from the Spanish Ministry of Science & Innovation. Development of SARS-CoV-2 reagents was partially supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Centers of Excellence for Influenza Research and Surveillance (contract number HHSN272201400008C). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, the decision to publish, or the preparation of the manuscript.


Subject(s)
/administration & dosage , Antibody Formation/drug effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , /immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
3.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 309, 2021 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Surveillance tools to estimate viral transmission dynamics in young populations are essential to guide recommendations for school opening and management during viral epidemics. Ideally, sensitive techniques are required to detect low viral load exposures among asymptomatic children. We aimed to estimate SARS-CoV-2 infection rates in children and adult populations in a school-like environment during the initial COVID-19 pandemic waves using an antibody-based field-deployable and non-invasive approach. METHODS: Saliva antibody conversion defined as ≥ 4-fold increase in IgM, IgA, and/or IgG levels to five SARS-CoV-2 antigens including spike and nucleocapsid constructs was evaluated in 1509 children and 396 adults by high-throughput Luminex assays in samples collected weekly in 22 summer schools and 2 pre-schools in 27 venues in Barcelona, Spain, from June 29th to July 31st, 2020. RESULTS: Saliva antibody conversion between two visits over a 5-week period was 3.22% (49/1518) or 2.36% if accounting for potentially cross-reactive antibodies, six times higher than the cumulative infection rate (0.53%) assessed by weekly saliva RT-PCR screening. IgG conversion was higher in adults (2.94%, 11/374) than children (1.31%, 15/1144) (p=0.035), IgG and IgA levels moderately increased with age, and antibodies were higher in females. Most antibody converters increased both IgG and IgA antibodies but some augmented either IgG or IgA, with a faster decay over time for IgA than IgG. Nucleocapsid rather than spike was the main antigen target. Anti-spike antibodies were significantly higher in individuals not reporting symptoms than symptomatic individuals, suggesting a protective role against COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Saliva antibody profiling including three isotypes and multiplexing antigens is a useful and user-friendlier tool for screening pediatric populations to detect low viral load exposures among children, particularly while they are not vaccinated and vulnerable to highly contagious variants, and to recommend public health policies during pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Pandemics , Saliva , Schools , Spain/epidemiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4740, 2021 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345557

ABSTRACT

Unraveling the long-term kinetics of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and the individual characteristics influencing it, including the impact of pre-existing antibodies to human coronaviruses causing common cold (HCoVs), is essential to understand protective immunity to COVID-19 and devise effective surveillance strategies. IgM, IgA and IgG levels against six SARS-CoV-2 antigens and the nucleocapsid antigen of the four HCoV (229E, NL63, OC43 and HKU1) were quantified by Luminex, and antibody neutralization capacity was assessed by flow cytometry, in a cohort of health care workers followed up to 7 months (N = 578). Seroprevalence increases over time from 13.5% (month 0) and 15.6% (month 1) to 16.4% (month 6). Levels of antibodies, including those with neutralizing capacity, are stable over time, except IgG to nucleocapsid antigen and IgM levels that wane. After the peak response, anti-spike antibody levels increase from ~150 days post-symptom onset in all individuals (73% for IgG), in the absence of any evidence of re-exposure. IgG and IgA to HCoV are significantly higher in asymptomatic than symptomatic seropositive individuals. Thus, pre-existing cross-reactive HCoVs antibodies could have a protective effect against SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus 229E, Human/immunology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Common Cold/immunology , Common Cold/virology , Cross Protection/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood
5.
J Infect Dis ; 223(1): 62-71, 2021 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1010364

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At the COVID-19 spring 2020 pandemic peak in Spain, prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a cohort of 578 randomly selected health care workers (HCWs) from Hospital Clínic de Barcelona was 11.2%. METHODS: A follow-up survey 1 month later (April-May 2020) measured infection by rRT-PCR and IgM, IgA, and IgG to the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein by Luminex. Antibody kinetics, including IgG subclasses, was assessed until month 3. RESULTS: At month 1, the prevalence of infection measured by rRT-PCR and serology was 14.9% (84/565) and seroprevalence 14.5% (82/565). We found 25 (5%) new infections in 501 participants without previous evidence of infection. IgM, IgG, and IgA levels declined in 3 months (antibody decay rates 0.15 [95% CI, .11-.19], 0.66 [95% CI, .54-.82], and 0.12 [95% CI, .09-.16], respectively), and 68.33% of HCWs had seroreverted for IgM, 3.08% for IgG, and 24.29% for IgA. The most frequent subclass responses were IgG1 (highest levels) and IgG2, followed by IgG3, and only IgA1 but no IgA2 was detected. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous and improved surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 infections in HCWs remains critical, particularly in high-risk groups. The observed fast decay of IgA and IgM levels has implications for seroprevalence studies using these isotypes.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Health Personnel , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Seroconversion , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spain/epidemiology
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3500, 2020 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635939

ABSTRACT

Health care workers (HCW) are a high-risk population to acquire SARS-CoV-2 infection from patients or other fellow HCW. This study aims at estimating the seroprevalence against SARS-CoV-2 in a random sample of HCW from a large hospital in Spain. Of the 578 participants recruited from 28 March to 9 April 2020, 54 (9.3%, 95% CI: 7.1-12.0) were seropositive for IgM and/or IgG and/or IgA against SARS-CoV-2. The cumulative prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection (presence of antibodies or past or current positive rRT-PCR) was 11.2% (65/578, 95% CI: 8.8-14.1). Among those with evidence of past or current infection, 40.0% (26/65) had not been previously diagnosed with COVID-19. Here we report a relatively low seroprevalence of antibodies among HCW at the peak of the COVID-19 epidemic in Spain. A large proportion of HCW with past or present infection had not been previously diagnosed with COVID-19, which calls for active periodic rRT-PCR testing in hospital settings.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Health , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/blood , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spain/epidemiology
7.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 32(11): 1466-1469, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-529872

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a global pandemic that started in Wuhan, China. COVID-19 related liver enzyme elevations have been described however the clinical presentation, enzyme kinetics, and associated laboratory abnormalities of these patients have not been well described. Five cases of COVID-19 associated liver enzyme elevations are reported here. We found that COVID-19 related liver enzyme elevations occurred in a hepatocellular pattern and persisted throughout the initial hospitalization in all patients. Abnormalities in lactate dehydrogenase and ferritin levels were seen in all five cases. In conclusion, abnormalities in aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and ferritin levels are commonly seen in COVID-19 related liver injury. Elevated aminotransferase levels often persist throughout the entire hospitalization. However, the clinical course of COVID-19 related liver injury appears benign.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Humans , Incidence , Liver Diseases/enzymology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
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