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1.
Annals of Library and Information Studies ; 69(3):208-220, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2081660

ABSTRACT

The current study curates a list of authentic and open-access sources of alphanumeric COVID-19 pandemic data. We have gathered 74 datasets from 42 sources, including sources from 18 countries. The datasets are searched through the Kaggle and GitHub repositories besides Google, providing a representation of varieties of pandemic-related datasets. The datasets are categorized according to their sources-primary and secondary, and according to their geographical distribution. While analyzing the dataset, we came across some classes in which the datasets can be categorized. We present the categorization in the form of taxonomy and highlight the present COVID-19 data collection and use challenges. The study will help researchers and data curators in the identification and classification of pandemic data. © 2022, National Institute of Science Communication and Policy Research. All rights reserved.

2.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics ; 114(3):e330-e330, 2022.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-2036100
3.
Kidney international reports ; 7(9):S477-S478, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2034051
4.
Lessons from COVID-19: Impact on Healthcare Systems and Technology ; : 371-403, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2027806

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented crisis of COVID-19 pandemic has wreaked havoc across the whole world. The menacing disease has not only claimed lives of innumerable people but also rattled all the countries pushing them at the face of an inevitable and inimitable global meltdown. Ever since its outbreak, all major sectors of each and every nation have been stymied, and India is no exception. In this context, it becomes highly relevant to deliberate on the impact of COVID-19 on different sectors of India. The current case study is attempted in discussing the impact of COVID-19 on healthcare and technology sector of India, in which both the merits and demerits of the impact of COVID-19 will be highlighted. To serve this purpose, an anonymous choice of various relevant subsectors has been made that has been delved into which will ultimately help to have an intimate understanding of the effects triggered by COVID-19 on the sectors of healthcare and technology. To strengthen the worth of the present case-based study, few surveys have also been conducted among the people of India especially from selected districts in the states of West Bengal, Jharkhand, and Tamil Nadu, through which robust empirical insights will be reflected. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

5.
3rd IEEE Conference on VLSI Device, Circuit and System, VLSI DCS 2022 ; : 254-260, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1985510

ABSTRACT

World wide spread of COVID-19 pandemic, is throttling the normal life nearly for two years and claiming millions of life all over the globe. Starting from Wuhan of China it crosses more than 200 countries, thereby imposing a overwhelming challenge to health care system. On the other hand, there has been unprecedented advancement of the social media, namely, Twitter, Facebook, WhatsApp and Instagram etc. in an exponential manner. The essence of this paper is to extract and elucidate the opinion or sentiments of the people all around the globe regarding Coronavirus pandemic based on Twitter data. The analysis are based on both lexicon-based approach followed by machine learning algorithms and aims to express the state-of-the-art of the sentiment analysis on the current Coronavirus epidemic prevailing in the entire world and the awareness of the people regarding the disease, its symptoms and impact followed by the preventive measures that need to be undertaken. © 2022 IEEE.

6.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation ; 37(SUPPL 3):i357-i358, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1915722

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients on kidney replacement therapy (KRT) are at a particularly high risk of mortality from COVID-19. In this study, we investigated COVID-19 mortality in KRT patients in the first and second waves of the pandemic and potential reasons for any difference in mortality between the two waves. METHOD: Data from the European Renal Association COVID-19 Database (ERACODA) of KRT patients who presented between 1 March 2020 and 28 February 2021 with COVID-19 were analyzed. The cut-off for dividing the first and second waves was set for 1 August 2020. The primary study outcome was 28-day mortality. Multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between the pandemic waves and mortality with follow-up time starting at the date of presentation. Dialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients were analyzed separately. RESULTS: Among 3004 dialysis patients (1253 in the first and 1751 in the second wave), the 28-day mortality was 24.3% in the first wave and 19.6% in the second wave (P = .002). Compared with the first wave, in the second wave, identification of patients with limited to no symptoms was higher (14.3% versus 24.8%;P < .001), hospitalization was lower (71.3% versus 44.3%;P < .001), but in-hospital mortality was similar (30.4% versus 30.7%;P = .92) (Fig. 1). Crude hazard ratio (HR) for 28-day mortality in the second wave was 0.77 (95% CI: 0.66, 0.89). However, in a fully adjusted model, when correcting for differences in patient and disease characteristics, including the reason for COVID-19 screening and disease severity, the HR for mortality in the second wave was 0.93 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.79-1.10]. When follow-up was chosen to start at the date of first symptoms to account for possible lead-time bias, crude HR for 28-day mortality in the second wave was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.75-1.07) and the fully adjusted HR was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.81-1.18). Among 1035 kidney transplant recipients (475 in the first and 560 in the second wave), results were essentially similar except that patients in the second wave were younger (55.6 years versus 58.2 years;P = .002), and crude HR for 28-day mortality from the date of first symptoms was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.47-0.93), whereas the fully adjusted HR was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.70-1.49). CONCLUSION: Among patients on KRT with COVID-19, 28-day mortality rates were lower in the second wave compared with the first wave. However, a greater proportion of patients with minimal symptoms, lead-time bias in dialysis patients, and younger age in kidney transplant recipients possibly explain the lower mortality during the second wave. Any improvement in patient management during the second wave may not be the main reason for lower mortality. (Table Presented).

7.
Data Science for COVID-19: Volume 2: Societal and Medical Perspectives ; : 705-728, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1872875

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has witnessed a total of 2, 631, 338 infected cases as on April 22, 2020. The first case being recorded in January 2020, followed by more than 20, 000 case in a matter of 3 months creating a tremor among the population of India. The United States tops the total number of infected cases in the world with 8, 45, 822 cases, followed by Spain summing up to 2, 08, 389 cases. India having 21, 370 total infected cases, along with 4370 recoveries and a total death toll of 681, ranks 17th among the other countries. In this study, a detailed summary has been conducted on how India is working together to fight this pandemic. The countrymen, along with following the strict instructions provided by the WHO, have set up new rules to fight this disease. This study includes the various medical procedures adopted by the government of India along with the economic guidelines for its fellow citizens during these hard times;a geospatial approach has also been used to identify the infected regions of the country and their pandemic control methods in the 1-month period (22 March-22 April). To date, being the second most populated developing country in the world, India has managed to control the spread of the virus to a large extent. The WHO has praised India’s efforts in monitoring the spread of the virus and has alerted India that a simple lockdown would not stop the spread of the virus. They have recommended India to increase the number of tests to segregate the people showing early/mild symptoms. The outcomes of the precautions taken are also discussed in this study. © 2022 Elsevier Inc.

8.
Ieee Sensors Letters ; 6(2):4, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1746045

ABSTRACT

We propose a battery-free temperature monitoring device that can be fitted inside the ear for an accurate body temperature measurement of a subject. The proposed application consists of two primary systems: 1) a battery-free temperature sensing ultra-high-frequency radio frequency identification sensory tag and 2) an auxiliary energy harvesting system, which enhances the sensing device's measurement accuracy and precision. The system can record changes in the localized body temperature of authenticated users with an average latency of 501 ms. The assembly demonstrated a temperature average accuracy of +/- 0.14 degrees C operating at 866 MHz. The system performance demonstrated high stability and repeatability of reported temperature measurements. The device's dimension is a form factor that can easily fit in a front shirt pocket, with a wire tethered earbud temperature sensor. The system is developed to make sensor measurements without requiring a battery for the device. Measurements are made remotely as users pass by checkpoints installed throughout a building. The device is a cost-effective solution for monitoring body temperature in work environments.

9.
Journal of Advanced Biotechnology and Experimental Therapeutics ; 5(1):100-114, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1742884

ABSTRACT

Neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, are the leading causes of dementia in the elderly. In the coming days, an alarming upsurge of dementia patients is expected with increasing life expectancy. This is the scenario not only in the developed world but also in the developing world, where older people live in vulnerable situations. Even in the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease-19) pandemic, the situation has worsened. Due to the limitations of conventional therapeutic strategies, it is necessary to explore integrated approaches consisting of both pharmacological and non-pharmaceutical interventions. As existing anti-dementia drugs pose many adverse effects on patients, pharmacological intervention through naturally occurring agents should be employed to explore targeted therapy. Alongside, non-pharmacological interventions such as cognitive and motor rehabilitation, occupational therapy, and psychological therapy need to be explored. From this perspective, multidisciplinary approaches need to be employed in order to develop a sustainable patient-friendly treatment strategy for the management of these emerging health issues with tremendous social burdens. © 2022, Bangladesh Society for Microbiology, Immunology and Advanced Biotechnology. All rights reserved.

10.
5th IEEE International Conference on Computational Systems and Information Technology for Sustainable Solutions, CSITSS 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1741148

ABSTRACT

Wearing masks has been one of the key methods of preventing the spread of COVID-19. Being able to ensure that the people entering the premises of any institution are wearing masks reduces the risk of the people within those premises to be affected by the virus. This paper describes the approach of taking Google's pre-trained Inception-V3 architecture and using transfer learning to adapt it for mask detection in Indian scenario. The mask detection model was converted to a TFlite version deployable on Raspberry Pi 3 Model B. Pi camera was used for data capture. All hardware chosen and software adaptations were done with the focus of making the model portable and affordable. This model was created with the focus of providing a cost-efficient way to enforce preventive measures during this pandemic. © 2021 IEEE.

11.
Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money ; 77, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1683199

ABSTRACT

The cryptocurrency markets are perceived as being dominated by Bitcoin leading the overall system dynamics. Although the previous empirical evidence points towards strong connections among selected cryptocurrencies or, from the other side, weak dependence between Bitcoin and traditional financial assets, a focused study on the dynamics of return and volatility connectedness among a wider range of cryptocurrencies is lacking, and more so, one directed towards the very first actual critical period of the global economy coinciding with relevant crypto-markets. Using data for the 10 most capitalized cryptocurrencies between 1st October 2017 and 5th January 2021, we examine how cryptocurrencies interact and whether they have a clear leader, with a special focus on differences with respect to investment horizons and how the relationship structure evolves in time. We uncover a structural change in the connectedness evolving in 2020 as the market restructures in reaction to the unprecedented monetary injections as a counter to the COVID-19-induced economic standstill. The structural change is shown not only for cryptocurrencies considered separately but also when we jointly examine them with traditional assets. © 2022 Elsevier B.V.

12.
IEEE Sensors Letters ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1575426

ABSTRACT

We propose a battery-free temperature monitoring device that can be fitted inside the ear for an accurate core-body temperature (CBT) measurement of a subject. The system can record instantaneous changes in the localized body temperature of authenticated users. The proposed application consists of 2 primary systems: (i) a battery-free temperature sensing Ultra High Frequency Radio Frequency Identification (UHF RFID) sensory tag and (ii), an auxiliary energy harvesting system, which enhances the sensing devices measurement accuracy and precision. The assembly demonstrated a temperature average accuracy of 0.14 C operating at 866 MHz. The system performance demonstrated high stability and repeatability of reported temperature measurements. The devices dimension is a form factor that can easily fit in a front shirt pocket, with a wire tethered earbud temperature sensor. The system is developed to make sensor measurements without requiring a battery for the device. Measurements are made remotely as users pass by checkpoints installed throughout a building. The device is a cost-effective solution for monitoring body temperature in work environments. IEEE

13.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(22): 7162-7184, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1552083

ABSTRACT

The last two decades have witnessed the emergence of three deadly coronaviruses (CoVs) in humans: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). There are still no reliable and efficient therapeutics to manage the devastating consequences of these CoVs. Of these, SARS-CoV-2, the cause of the currently ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, has posed great global health concerns. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in an unprecedented crisis with devastating socio-economic and health impacts worldwide. This highlights the fact that CoVs continue to evolve and have the genetic flexibility to become highly pathogenic in humans and other mammals. SARS-CoV-2 carries a high genetic homology to the previously identified CoV (SARS-CoV), and the immunological and pathogenic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS contain key similarities and differences that can guide therapy and management. This review presents salient and updated information on comparative pathology, molecular pathogenicity, immunological features, and genetic characterization of SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2; this can help in the design of more effective vaccines and therapeutics for countering these pathogenic CoVs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Pathology, Molecular/methods , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Global Health/economics , Humans , Male , Mammals , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virulence
14.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation ; 36:322-322, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1539586
16.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(19): 5947-5964, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478937

ABSTRACT

The recent Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak has resulted in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic worldwide, affecting millions of lives. Although vaccines are presently made available, and vaccination drive is in progress to immunize a larger population; still the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and related mortality is persistent amid threats of the third wave of the ongoing pandemic. In the scenario of unavailability of robust and efficient treatment modalities, it becomes essential to understand the mechanism of action of the virus and deeply study the molecular mechanisms (both at the virus level and the host level) underlying the infection processes. Recent studies have shown that coronaviruses (CoVs) cause-specific epigenetic changes in the host cells to create a conducive microenvironment for replicating, assembling, and spreading. Epigenetic mechanisms can contribute to various aspects of the SARS-CoV-2 multiplication cycle, like expressing cytokine genes, viral receptor ACE2, and implicating different histone modifications. For SARS-CoV-2 infection, viral proteins are physically associated with various host proteins resulting in numerous interactions between epigenetic enzymes (i.e., histone deacetylases, bromodomain-containing proteins). The involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in the virus life cycle and the host immune responses to control infection result in epigenetic factors recognized as emerging prognostic COVID-19 biomarkers and epigenetic modulators as robust therapeutic targets to curb COVID-19. Therefore, this narrative review aimed to summarize and discuss the various epigenetic mechanisms that control gene expression and how these mechanisms are altered in the host cells during coronavirus infection. We also discuss the opportunities to exploit these epigenetic changes as therapeutic targets for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Epigenetic alterations and regulation play a pivotal role at various levels of coronavirus infection: entry, replication/transcription, and the process of maturation of viral proteins. Coronaviruses modulate the host epigenome to escape the host immune mechanisms. Therefore, host epigenetic alterations induced by CoVs can be considered to develop targeted therapies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Epigenesis, Genetic/genetics , Epigenome , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans
17.
IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence (IEEE SSCI) ; : 2521-2527, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1431378

ABSTRACT

With the ever increasing demand for screening millions of prospective "novel coronavirus" or COVID-19 cases, and due to the emergence of high false negatives in the commonly used PCR tests, the necessity for probing an alternative simple screening mechanism of COVID-19 using radiological images (like chest X-Rays) assumes importance. In this scenario, machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) offer fast, automated, effective strategies to detect abnormalities and extract key features of the altered lung parenchyma, which may he related to specific signatures of the COVID-19 virus. However, the available COVID-19 datasets are inadequate to train deep neural networks. Therefore, we propose a new concept called domain extension transfer learning (DETL). We employ DETL, with pre-trained deep convolutional neural network, on a related large chest XRay dataset that is tuned for classifying between four classes viz. normal, pneumonia, other_disease, and Covid - 19. A 5-fold cross validation is performed to estimate the feasibility of using chest X-Rays to diagnose COVID-19. The initial results show promise, with the possibility of replication on bigger and more diverse data sets. The overall accuracy was measured as 90.13% +/- 0.14. In order to get an idea about the COVID-19 detection transparency, we employed the concept of Gradient Class Activation Map (Grad-CAM) for detecting the regions where the model paid more attention during the classification. This was found to strongly correlate with clinical findings, as validated by experts.

18.
EAI/Springer Innovations in Communication and Computing ; : 31-65, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1404619

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic poses a threat to human civilization. This infectious outbreak induced a global menace, resulting in day-to-day community and social services standstill. Countries like China and Italy are positioned at an alarming stage of this pandemic, and India is also testifying a rapid outbreak of the COVID-19.This unprecedented scenario warrants the formulation of a robust mechanism to estimate the misfortunes of this pandemic in these three countries to assist governments in countermeasuring the COVID-19 catastrophe. In the light of fast varying fatality data rendered by the World Health Organization (WHO), a spectrum of case-based fatality assessments for the COVID-19 is presented that differs considerably in measurements. This publication elucidates the scope of the curve-fitting methods in terms of the goodness-of-fit statistics and support vector machine-based regression (SVR) in estimating the misfortunes of COVID-19 in China, Italy, and India in a given time frame. Consequently, we achieved a reasonably small root mean squared error (RMSE) for the SVR method in predicting the adversities induced by this global pandemic in China and India. In contrast, conventional regression offers a better estimate to sketch the outbreak pattern in Italy. © 2022, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

19.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation ; 36(SUPPL 1):i20, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1402539

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients on kidney replacement therapy (KRT) are at high risk of developing severe COVID-19 illness and often require high intensity care and utilisation of hospital resources. During the ongoing pandemic, the optimal care pathway and triage for KRT patients presenting with varying severity of COVID-19 illness is unknown. We studied clinical factors and outcomes associated with admission, readmission and short-term outcomes. METHOD: Data from the European Renal Association COVID-19 Database (ERACODA) was analysed. This database includes granular data on dialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19 from all over Europe. The clinical and laboratory features at first presentation of hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients and those who returned for second presentation were studied. In addition, possible predictors of outcome in those who were not hospitalized at first presentation were identified. RESULTS: Among 1,423 KRT patients (haemodialysis;1017/kidney transplant;406) with COVID-19, 25% (n=355) were not hospitalized at first presentation. Of them, only 10% (n=36), presented for a second time in the hospital. The median interval between the first and second presentation was 5 days (Interquartile interval: 2-7 days). Patients who re-presented had worsening of pulmonary symptoms, a fall in oxygen saturation (97% to 90%), and an increase in C-reactive protein (26 mg/L to 73 mg/L) between their attendances. Patients who re-presented after initial assessment were older (72 vs. 63 years) and initially more often had pulmonary symptoms and abnormalities on lung imaging compared with those who did not present for a second time. The 28-day mortality rate of patients admitted at the second presentation was similar to that of patients admitted at first presentation (26.5% vs. 29.7%, p=0. 61). Among patients who were not hospitalized at first presentation (mortality 6%), age, prior smoking, clinical frailty scale, and shortness of breath at first presentation were identified as predictors of mortality. CONCLUSION: KRT patients with COVID-19 and mild pulmonary abnormalities and no signs of pulmonary insufficiency can be safely returned without hospitalization. These patients should be advised to seek immediate contact when they develop respiratory distress. Our findings provide support for a risk-stratified clinical approach to admissions of KRT patients presenting with COVID-19. The study findings may be valuable for clinical triage and optimising hospital capacity utilisation during the ongoing pandemic.

20.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation ; 36(SUPPL 1):i322, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1402443

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients living with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at greater susceptibility of sustaining hip fractures compared to those without CKD due to higher falls risk. Post-trauma clinical outcomes for patients living with CKD are exacerbated by frailty, co-morbidities and sarcopenia. Patients living with CKD may require lengthy hospitalization following hip fracture, considering the additional indications for extensive treatment and rehabilitation. A long hospital stay may bring greater risks of contracting COVID-19, given the magnitude of this current global pandemic. Complications from COVID-19 significantly increase mortality risks for older patients living with CKD after acute trauma, as a considerable proportion will have a poor baseline health and functional status. Our study aims to determine the most useful clinical and laboratory assessment tools to predict for a positive COVID-19 status following hospitalization with hip fracture in patients living with CKD. METHOD: Patients with CKDG3b-5 admitted from home to a tertiary hospital in North West UK with hip fracture between Feb and Dec 2020 were included. Each patient included in this study received at least one COVID-19 nasopharyngeal swab during their hospitalization. Parameters assessed on hospital admission for each patient included Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS), Charlson's Co-morbidity Index (CCI), Chronic Kidney Disease Frailty Index Laboratory Score (CKD FI-LAB), Estimated VO2 Peak, Karnofsky Performance Status Scale, Sernbo Score, Nottingham Hip Fracture Score, ASA Physical Status Classification System Score and Abbreviated Mental Test Score. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were performed to evaluate the ability of individual parameters to predict for a positive COVID-19 status following hip fracture in patients living with CKD. Events of 30-day mortality were recorded. RESULTS: 92 patients met study inclusion criteria. The mean age was 84.667.8 years and the female:male ratio was 1.6:1. 7 patients (7.6%) were on long-term dialysis and the mean eGFR amongst non-dialysis patients was 36.5±13.8 ml/min/1.73m2. The median length of hospitalization was 17 days. 22 patients (23.9%) tested positive for COVID-19. Area under a Curve (AUC) values from ROC analyses are shown in Table 1. The difference in 30-day mortality rate between patients who tested positive for COVID-19 and those who tested negative was +6.8% (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Frailty and co-morbidity assessment tools (CFS, CCI and CKD FILAB) displayed the best predictive ability for positive COVID-19 status following hip fracture in patients living with CKD. A continuous, holistic multi-disciplinary team approach during hospitalization for comprehensive geriatric assessment and optimization of medical co-morbidities may improve outcomes, in anticipation of a potential lengthy hospital stay. To improve prognosis, research efforts should continue to explore avenues on reducing COVID-19 rates within this patient population.

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