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1.
J Drug Deliv Sci Technol ; 75: 103625, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977460

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir is the only clinically available antiviral drug for the treatment of COVID-19. However, its very limited aqueous solubility confines its therapeutic activity and the development of novel inhaled nano-based drug delivery systems of remdesivir for enhanced lung tissue targeting and efficacy is internationally pursued. In this work 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid (bis-MPA) hyperbranched dendritic nano-scaffolds were employed as nanocarriers of remdesivir. The produced nano-formulations, empty and loaded, consisted of monodisperse nanoparticles with spherical morphology and neutral surface charge and sizes ranging between 80 and 230 nm. The entrapment efficiency and loading capacity of the loaded samples were 82.0% and 14.1%, respectively, whereas the release of the encapsulated drug was complete after 48 h. The toxicity assays in healthy MRC-5 lung diploid fibroblasts and NR8383 alveolar macrophages indicated their suitability as potential remdesivir carriers in the respiratory system. The novel nano-formulations are non-toxic in both tested cell lines, with IC50 values higher than 400 µΜ after 72 h treatment. Moreover, both free and encapsulated remdesivir exhibited very similar IC50 values, at the range of 80-90 µM, while its aqueous solubility was increased, overall presenting a suitable profile for application in inhaled delivery of therapeutics.

2.
Biomolecules ; 12(2)2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715101

ABSTRACT

Protein-based carriers are promising vehicles for the intracellular delivery of therapeutics. In this study, we designed and studied adenovirus protein fiber constructs with potential applications as carriers for the delivery of protein and nanoparticle cargoes. We used as a basic structural framework the fibrous shaft segment of the adenovirus fiber protein comprising of residues 61-392, connected to the fibritin foldon trimerization motif at the C-terminal end. A fourteen-amino-acid biotinylation sequence was inserted immediately after the N-terminal, His-tagged end of the construct in order to enable the attachment of a biotin moiety in vivo. We report herein that this His-tag biotinylated construct folds into thermally and protease-stable fibrous nanorods that can be internalized into cells and are not cytotoxic. Moreover, they can bind to proteins and nanoparticles through the biotin-streptavidin interaction and mediate their delivery to cells. We demonstrate that streptavidin-conjugated gold nanoparticles can be transported into NIH3T3 fibroblast and HeLa cancer cell lines. Furthermore, two streptavidin-conjugated model proteins, alkaline phosphatase and horseradish peroxidase can be delivered into the cell cytoplasm in their enzymatically active form. This work is aimed at establishing the proof-of-principle for the rational engineering of diverse functionalities onto the initial protein structural framework and the use of adenovirus fiber-based proteins as nanorods for the delivery of nanoparticles and model proteins. These constructs could constitute a stepping stone for the development of multifunctional and modular fibrous nanorod platforms that can be tailored to applications at the sequence level.


Subject(s)
Viral Proteins , Adenoviridae/chemistry , Animals , Biotin/chemistry , Biotin/metabolism , Gold/chemistry , HeLa Cells , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Mice , NIH 3T3 Cells , Streptavidin/chemistry , Viral Proteins/chemistry
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