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1.
Cell Host Microbe ; 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082311

ABSTRACT

The rapid emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants challenges vaccination strategies. Here, we collected 201 serum samples from persons with a single infection or multiple vaccine exposures, or both. We measured their neutralization titers against 15 natural variants and 7 variants with engineered spike mutations and analyzed antigenic diversity. Antigenic maps of primary infection sera showed that Omicron sublineages BA.2, BA.4/BA.5, and BA.2.12.1 are distinct from BA.1 and more similar to Beta/Gamma/Mu variants. Three mRNA COVID-19 vaccinations increased neutralization of BA.1 more than BA.4/BA.5 or BA.2.12.1. BA.1 post-vaccination infection elicited higher neutralization titers to all variants than three vaccinations alone, although with less neutralization to BA.2.12.1 and BA.4/BA.5. Those with BA.1 infection after two or three vaccinations had similar neutralization titer magnitude and antigenic recognition. Accounting for antigenic differences among variants when interpreting neutralization titers can aid the understanding of complex patterns in humoral immunity that informs the selection of future COVID-19 vaccine strains.

2.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276241, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079762

ABSTRACT

Class I- and Class II-restricted epitopes have been identified across the SARS-CoV-2 structural proteome. Vaccine-induced and post-infection SARS-CoV-2 T-cell responses are associated with COVID-19 recovery and protection, but the precise role of T-cell responses remains unclear, and how post-infection vaccination ('hybrid immunity') further augments this immunity To accomplish these goals, we studied healthy adult healthcare workers who were (a) uninfected and unvaccinated (n = 12), (b) uninfected and vaccinated with Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 vaccine (2 doses n = 177, one dose n = 1) or Moderna mRNA-1273 vaccine (one dose, n = 1), and (c) previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 and vaccinated (BNT162b2, two doses, n = 6, one dose n = 1; mRNA-1273 two doses, n = 1). Infection status was determined by repeated PCR testing of participants. We used FluoroSpot Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and Interleukin-2 (IL-2) assays, using subpools of 15-mer peptides covering the S (10 subpools), N (4 subpools) and M (2 subpools) proteins. Responses were expressed as frequencies (percent positive responders) and magnitudes (spot forming cells/106 cytokine-producing peripheral blood mononuclear cells [PBMCs]). Almost all vaccinated participants with no prior infection exhibited IFN-γ, IL-2 and IFN-γ+IL2 responses to S glycoprotein subpools (89%, 93% and 27%, respectively) mainly directed to the S2 subunit and were more robust than responses to the N or M subpools. However, in previously infected and vaccinated participants IFN-γ, IL-2 and IFN-γ+IL2 responses to S subpools (100%, 100%, 88%) were substantially higher than vaccinated participants with no prior infection and were broader and directed against nine of the 10 S glycoprotein subpools spanning the S1 and S2 subunits, and all the N and M subpools. 50% of uninfected and unvaccinated individuals had IFN-γ but not IL2 or IFN-γ+IL2 responses against one S and one M subpools that were not increased after vaccination of uninfected or SARS-CoV-2-infected participants. Summed IFN-γ, IL-2, and IFN-γ+IL2 responses to S correlated with IgG responses to the S glycoprotein. These studies demonstrated that vaccinations with BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 results in T cell-specific responses primarily against epitopes in the S2 subunit of the S glycoprotein, and that individuals that are vaccinated after SARS-CoV-2 infection develop broader and greater T cell responses to S1 and S2 subunits as well as the N and M proteins.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon-gamma , Interleukin-2 , Adult , Humans , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Epitopes , Immunoglobulin G , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Interleukin-2/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Proteome , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
3.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(645): eabn8543, 2022 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774930

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of the highly contagious Omicron variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) along with its high number of mutations in the spike gene has raised alarms about the effectiveness of current medical countermeasures. To address this concern, we measured the neutralization of the Omicron BA.1 variant pseudovirus by postvaccination serum samples after two and three immunizations with the Pfizer/BioNTech162b2 SARS-CoV-2 mRNA (Pfizer/BNT162b2) vaccine, convalescent serum samples from unvaccinated individuals infected by different variants, and clinical-stage therapeutic antibodies. We found that titers against the Omicron variant were low or undetectable after two immunizations and in many convalescent serum samples, regardless of the infecting variant. A booster vaccination increased titers more than 30-fold against Omicron to values comparable to those seen against the D614G variant after two immunizations. Neither age nor sex was associated with the differences in postvaccination antibody responses. We also evaluated 18 clinical-stage therapeutic antibody products and an antibody mimetic protein product obtained directly from the manufacturers. Five monoclonal antibodies, the antibody mimetic protein, three antibody cocktails, and two polyclonal antibody preparations retained measurable neutralization activity against Omicron with a varying degree of potency. Of these, only three retained potencies comparable to the D614G variant. Two therapeutic antibody cocktails in the tested panel that are authorized for emergency use in the United States did not neutralize Omicron. These findings underscore the potential benefit of mRNA vaccine boosters for protection against Omicron and the need for rapid development of antibody therapeutics that maintain potency against emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(4): 828-832, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771000

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies decay but persist 6 months postvaccination; lower levels of neutralizing titers persist against Delta than wild-type virus. Of 227 vaccinated healthcare workers tested, only 2 experienced outpatient symptomatic breakthrough infections, despite 59/227 exhibiting serologic evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, defined as presence of nucleocapsid protein antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Personnel , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
5.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(3): ofac030, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706326

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The frequency of asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections is unclear and may be influenced by how symptoms are evaluated. In this study, we sought to determine the frequency of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections in a prospective cohort of health care workers (HCWs). METHODS: A prospective cohort of HCWs, confirmed negative for SARS-CoV-2 exposure upon enrollment, were evaluated for SARS-CoV-2 infection by monthly analysis of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies as well as referral for polymerase chain reaction testing whenever they exhibited symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Participants completed the standardized and validated FLU-PRO Plus symptom questionnaire scoring viral respiratory disease symptom intensity and frequency at least twice monthly during baseline periods of health and each day they had any symptoms that were different from their baseline. RESULTS: Two hundred sixty-three participants were enrolled between August 25 and December 31, 2020. Through February 28, 2021, 12 participants were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Symptom analysis demonstrated that all 12 had at least mild symptoms of COVID-19, compared with baseline health, near or at time of infection. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in unvaccinated, immunocompetent adults is less common than previously reported. While infectious inoculum doses and patient factors may have played a role in the clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infections in this cohort, we suspect that the high rate of symptomatic disease was due primarily to participant attentiveness to symptoms and collection of symptoms in a standardized, prospective fashion. These results have implications for studies that estimate SARS-CoV-2 infection prevalence and for public health measures to control the spread of this virus.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314818

ABSTRACT

Sensitive and specific SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays remain critical for community and hospital-based SARS-CoV-2 surveillance. Here, we developed and applied a multiplex microsphere-based immunoassay (MMIA) for COVD-19 antibody studies that incorporates spike protein trimers of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV, and the seasonal human betacoronaviruses, HCoV-HKU1 and HCoV-OC43, that enables measurement of off-target pre-existing cross-reactive antibodies. The MMIA performances characteristics are: 98% sensitive and 100% specific for human subject samples collected as early as 10 days from symptom onset. The MMIA permitted the simultaneous identification of SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion and the induction of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody cross reactions to SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV. Further, synchronous increases of HCoV-OC43 IgG antibody levels was detected with SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in a subset of subjects for whom early infection sera were available prior to their SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion, suggestive of an HCoV-OC43 memory response triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection.

7.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(1): ofab575, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631248

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The relationship between postvaccination symptoms and strength of antibody responses is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine whether adverse effects caused by vaccination with the Pfizer/BioNTech BNT162b2 vaccine are associated with the magnitude of vaccine-induced antibody levels. METHODS: We conducted a single-center, observational cohort study consisting of generally healthy adult participants that were not severely immunocompromised, had no history of coronavirus disease 2019, and were seronegative for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein before vaccination. Severity of vaccine-associated symptoms was obtained through participant-completed questionnaires. Testing for immunoglobulin G antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and receptor-binding domain was conducted using microsphere-based multiplex immunoassays performed on serum samples collected at monthly visits. Neutralizing antibody titers were determined by microneutralization assays. RESULTS: Two hundred six participants were evaluated (69.4% female, median age 41.5 years old). We found no correlation between vaccine-associated symptom severity scores and vaccine-induced antibody titers 1 month after vaccination. We also observed that (1) postvaccination symptoms were inversely correlated with age and weight and more common in women, (2) systemic symptoms were more frequent after the second vaccination, (3) high symptom scores after first vaccination were predictive of high symptom scores after second vaccination, and (4) older age was associated with lower titers. CONCLUSIONS: Lack of postvaccination symptoms after receipt of the BNT162b2 vaccine does not equate to lack of vaccine-induced antibodies 1 month after vaccination.

9.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S323-S323, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564384

ABSTRACT

Background The Prospective Assessment of SARS-CoV-2 Seroconversion (PASS) study is following over 200 healthcare workers who have received the Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. A major aim of the study is to determine whether baseline antibody titers against the seasonal human coronaviruses are associated with altered levels of vaccine-induced antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2. Methods Serial serum samples obtained pre-vaccination and 1 month after the second dose were tested for IgG antibodies against the full pre-fusion spike protein and the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2, as well as the full pre-fusion spike proteins of OC43, HKU1, 229E, and NL63. Antibodies were measured using highly sensitive and specific multiplex assays based on Luminex-xMAP technology. Results Preliminary analyses of the first 103 subjects in whom we have 1 month post-vaccination serum demonstrate development of high IgG geometric mean titers (GMT) to both the full spike protein (GMT: 13,685, 12,014-15,589, 95% CI) and the RBD (GMT: 19,448, 17,264-21,908, 95% CI) of SARS-CoV-2 after the 2nd vaccine dose. Preliminary analysis demonstrates no association between baseline antibody titers against spike protein of OC43 and antibody titers against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (Pearson’s r-value= 0.13, P-value= 0.21) or RBD (Pearson’s r-value= 0.09, P-value= 0.36) one month after vaccination. Future analyses will evaluate whether there is an association with baseline seasonal coronavirus antibody titers and either SARS-CoV-2 neutralization titers or anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein titers at 6 months after vaccination. Conclusion These preliminary results suggest that baseline antibody responses to seasonal coronaviruses neither boost nor impede SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced antibody responses. Longitudinal sampling will enable assessment of vaccine durability and determination of whether baseline seasonal coronavirus antibody levels are associated with altered duration of detectable COVID-19 vaccine-induced antibody responses. Disclosures Simon Pollett, MBBS, Astra Zeneca (Other Financial or Material Support, HJF, in support of USU IDCRP, funded under a CRADA to augment the conduct of an unrelated Phase III COVID-19 vaccine trial sponsored by AstraZeneca as part of USG response (unrelated work)) David Tribble, M.D., DrPH, Astra Zeneca (Other Financial or Material Support, HJF, in support of USU IDCRP, funded under a CRADA to augment the conduct of an unrelated Phase III COVID-19 vaccine trial sponsored by AstraZeneca as part of USG response (unrelated work))

10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 544, 2021 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262498

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 is a recently emerged pandemic coronavirus (CoV) capable of causing severe respiratory illness. However, a significant number of infected people present as asymptomatic or pauci-symptomatic. In this prospective assessment of at-risk healthcare workers (HCWs) we seek to determine whether pre-existing antibody or T cell responses to previous seasonal human coronavirus (HCoV) infections affect immunological or clinical responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination. METHODS: A cohort of 300 healthcare workers, confirmed negative for SARS-CoV-2 exposure upon study entry, will be followed for up to 1 year with monthly serology analysis of IgM and IgG antibodies against the spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and the four major seasonal human coronavirus - HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1, HCoV-229E, and HCoV-NL63. Participants will complete monthly questionnaires that ask about Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) exposure risks, and a standardized, validated symptom questionnaire (scoring viral respiratory disease symptoms, intensity and severity) at least twice monthly and any day when any symptoms manifest. SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing will be performed any time participants develop symptoms consistent with COVID-19. For those individuals that seroconvert and/or test positive by SARS-CoV-2 PCR, or receive the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, additional studies of T cell activation and cytokine production in response to SARS-CoV-2 peptide pools and analysis of Natural Killer cell numbers and function will be conducted on that participant's cryopreserved baseline peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Following the first year of this study we will further analyze those participants having tested positive for COVID-19, and/or having received an authorized/licensed SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, quarterly (year 2) and semi-annually (years 3 and 4) to investigate immune response longevity. DISCUSSION: This study will determine the frequency of asymptomatic and pauci-symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in a cohort of at-risk healthcare workers. Baseline and longitudinal assays will determine the frequency and magnitude of anti-spike glycoprotein antibodies to the seasonal HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1, HCoV-229E, and HCoV-NL63, and may inform whether pre-existing antibodies to these human coronaviruses are associated with altered COVID-19 disease course. Finally, this study will evaluate whether pre-existing immune responses to seasonal HCoVs affect the magnitude and duration of antibody and T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, adjusting for demographic covariates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seroconversion , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Coronavirus/immunology , Cross Reactions , Humans , Prospective Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
11.
Res Sq ; 2020 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-955189

ABSTRACT

Sensitive and specific SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays remain critical for community and hospital-based SARS-CoV-2 surveillance. Here, we developed and applied a multiplex microsphere-based immunoassay (MMIA) for COVD-19 antibody studies that incorporates spike protein trimers of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV, and the seasonal human betacoronaviruses, HCoV-HKU1 and HCoV-OC43, that enables measurement of off-target pre-existing cross-reactive antibodies. The MMIA performances characteristics are: 98% sensitive and 100% specific for human subject samples collected as early as 10 days from symptom onset. The MMIA permitted the simultaneous identification of SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion and the induction of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody cross reactions to SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV. Further, synchronous increases of HCoV-OC43 IgG antibody levels was detected with SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in a subset of subjects for whom early infection sera were available prior to their SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion, suggestive of an HCoV-OC43 memory response triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection.

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