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Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e645-e652, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722274


BACKGROUND: Vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are highly efficacious, but severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections do occur after vaccination. We characterized COVID-19 cases among fully vaccinated persons with an outcome of death. METHODS: We analyzed COVID-19 cases voluntarily reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention by US health departments from 1 January to 30 April 2021. We included cases among US residents with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result ≥14 days after completion of an authorized primary vaccine series and who had a known outcome (alive or dead) as of 31 May 2021. When available, specimens were sequenced for viral lineage and death certificates were reviewed for cause(s) of death. RESULTS: Of 8084 fully vaccinated persons with reported COVID-19 during the surveillance period, 245 (3.0%) died. Compared with patients who remained alive, those who died were older (median age, 82 vs 57 years;), more likely to reside in a long-term care facility (51% vs 18%), and more likely to have ≥1 underlying health condition associated with risk for severe disease (64% vs 24%) (all P < .01). Among 245 deaths, 191 (78%) were classified as COVID-19 related. Of 106 deaths with available death certificates, COVID-19 was listed for 81 deaths (77%). There were no differences in the type of vaccine administered or the most common viral lineage (B.1.1.7). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 deaths are rare in fully vaccinated persons, occurring most commonly in those with risk factors for severe disease, including older age and underlying health conditions. All eligible persons should be fully vaccinated against COVID-19 and follow other prevention measures to mitigate exposure risk.

COVID-19 , Vaccines , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(2): 319-326, 2022 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662107


BACKGROUND: To inform prevention strategies, we assessed the extent of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission and settings in which transmission occurred in a Georgia public school district. METHODS: During 1 December 2020-22 January 2021, SARS-CoV-2-infected index cases and their close contacts in schools were identified by school and public health officials. For in-school contacts, we assessed symptoms and offered SARS-CoV-2 reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing; performed epidemiologic investigations and whole-genome sequencing to identify in-school transmission; and calculated secondary attack rate (SAR) by school setting (eg, sports, elementary school classroom), index case role (ie, staff, student), and index case symptomatic status. RESULTS: We identified 86 index cases and 1119 contacts, 688 (61.5%) of whom received testing. Fifty-nine of 679 (8.7%) contacts tested positive; 15 of 86 (17.4%) index cases resulted in ≥2 positive contacts. Among 55 persons testing positive with available symptom data, 31 (56.4%) were asymptomatic. Highest SARs were in indoor, high-contact sports settings (23.8% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 12.7%-33.3%]), staff meetings/lunches (18.2% [95% CI, 4.5%-31.8%]), and elementary school classrooms (9.5% [95% CI, 6.5%-12.5%]). The SAR was higher for staff (13.1% [95% CI, 9.0%-17.2%]) vs student index cases (5.8% [95% CI, 3.6%-8.0%]) and for symptomatic (10.9% [95% CI, 8.1%-13.9%]) vs asymptomatic index cases (3.0% [95% CI, 1.0%-5.5%]). CONCLUSIONS: Indoor sports may pose a risk to the safe operation of in-person learning. Preventing infection in staff members, through measures that include coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination, is critical to reducing in-school transmission. Because many positive contacts were asymptomatic, contact tracing should be paired with testing, regardless of symptoms.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Contact Tracing , Georgia/epidemiology , Humans , Schools , Students
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(12): 2217-2225, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595231


BACKGROUND: We investigated patients with potential severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reinfection in the United States during May-July 2020. METHODS: We conducted case finding for patients with potential SARS-CoV-2 reinfection through the Emerging Infections Network. Cases reported were screened for laboratory and clinical findings of potential reinfection followed by requests for medical records and laboratory specimens. Available medical records were abstracted to characterize patient demographics, comorbidities, clinical course, and laboratory test results. Submitted specimens underwent further testing, including reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), viral culture, whole genome sequencing, subgenomic RNA PCR, and testing for anti-SARS-CoV-2 total antibody. RESULTS: Among 73 potential reinfection patients with available records, 30 patients had recurrent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms explained by alternative diagnoses with concurrent SARS-CoV-2 positive RT-PCR, 24 patients remained asymptomatic after recovery but had recurrent or persistent RT-PCR, and 19 patients had recurrent COVID-19 symptoms with concurrent SARS-CoV-2 positive RT-PCR but no alternative diagnoses. These 19 patients had symptom recurrence a median of 57 days after initial symptom onset (interquartile range: 47-76). Six of these patients had paired specimens available for further testing, but none had laboratory findings confirming reinfections. Testing of an additional 3 patients with recurrent symptoms and alternative diagnoses also did not confirm reinfection. CONCLUSIONS: We did not confirm SARS-CoV-2 reinfection within 90 days of the initial infection based on the clinical and laboratory characteristics of cases in this investigation. Our findings support current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidance around quarantine and testing for patients who have recovered from COVID-19.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Laboratories , Reinfection