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J Neurosurg Anesthesiol ; 2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730731


BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) negatively impacts the central nervous system, and studies using a full montage of electroencephalogram (EEG) electrodes have reported nonspecific EEG patterns associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. The use of this technology is resource-intensive and limited in its implementation. In this descriptive pilot study, we report neurophysiological patterns and the potential prognostic capability of an abbreviated frontal EEG electrode montage in critically ill COVID-19 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients receiving mechanical ventilation for SARS-CoV-2 respiratory failure were monitored with Sedline Root Devices using EEG electrodes were placed over the forehead. Qualitative EEG assessments were conducted daily. The primary outcome was mortality, and secondary outcomes were duration of endotracheal intubation and lengths of intensive care and hospitalization stay. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients were included in the study, and EEG discontinuity was identified in 22 (84.6%) patients. The limited sample size and patient heterogeneity precluded statistical analysis, but certain patterns were suggested by trends in the data. Survival was 100% (4/4) for those patients in which a discontinuous EEG pattern was not observed. The majority of patients (87.5%, 7/8) demonstrating activity in the low-moderate frequency range (7 to 17 Hz) survived compared with 61.1% (11/18) of those without this observation. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of COVID-19 patients showed signs of EEG discontinuity during monitoring with an abbreviated electrode montage. The trends towards worse survival among those with EEG discontinuity support the need for additional studies to investigate these associations in COVID-19 patients.

Ann Neurol ; 91(6): 740-755, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729093


OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to estimate the time to recovery of command-following and associations between hypoxemia with time to recovery of command-following. METHODS: In this multicenter, retrospective, cohort study during the initial surge of the United States' pandemic (March-July 2020) we estimate the time from intubation to recovery of command-following, using Kaplan Meier cumulative-incidence curves and Cox proportional hazard models. Patients were included if they were admitted to 1 of 3 hospitals because of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), required endotracheal intubation for at least 7 days, and experienced impairment of consciousness (Glasgow Coma Scale motor score <6). RESULTS: Five hundred seventy-one patients of the 795 patients recovered command-following. The median time to recovery of command-following was 30 days (95% confidence interval [CI] = 27-32 days). Median time to recovery of command-following increased by 16 days for patients with at least one episode of an arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2 ) value ≤55 mmHg (p < 0.001), and 25% recovered ≥10 days after cessation of mechanical ventilation. The time to recovery of command-following  was associated with hypoxemia (PaO2 ≤55 mmHg hazard ratio [HR] = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.46-0.68; PaO2 ≤70 HR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.85-0.91), and each additional day of hypoxemia decreased the likelihood of recovery, accounting for confounders including sedation. These findings were confirmed among patients without any imagining evidence of structural brain injury (n = 199), and in a non-overlapping second surge cohort (N = 427, October 2020 to April 2021). INTERPRETATION: Survivors of severe COVID-19 commonly recover consciousness weeks after cessation of mechanical ventilation. Long recovery periods are associated with more severe hypoxemia. This relationship is not explained by sedation or brain injury identified on clinical imaging and should inform decisions about life-sustaining therapies. ANN NEUROL 2022;91:740-755.

Brain Injuries , COVID-19 , Brain Injuries/complications , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Humans , Hypoxia , Retrospective Studies , Unconsciousness/complications
Anesth Analg ; 132(5): 1182-1190, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190134


BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged as a public health crisis that disrupted normal patterns of health care in the New York City metropolitan area. In preparation for a large influx of critically ill patients, operating rooms (ORs) at NewYork-Presbyterian/Columbia University Irving Medical Center (NYP-Columbia) were converted into a novel intensive care unit (ICU) area, the operating room intensive care unit (ORICU). METHODS: Twenty-three ORs were converted into an 82-bed ORICU. Adaptations to the OR environment permitted the delivery of standard critical care therapies. Nonintensive-care-trained staff were educated on the basics of critical care and deployed in a hybrid staffing model. Anesthesia machines were repurposed as critical care ventilators, with accommodations to ensure reliable function and patient safety. To compare ORICU survivorship to outcomes in more traditional environments, we performed Kaplan-Meier survival analysis of all patients cared for in the ORICU, censoring data at the time of ORICU closure. We hypothesized that age, sex, and obesity may have influenced the risk of death. Thus, we estimated hazard ratios (HR) for death using Cox proportional hazard regression models with age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) as covariables and, separately, using older age (65 years and older) adjusted for sex and BMI. RESULTS: The ORICU cared for 133 patients from March 24 to May 14, 2020. Patients were transferred to the ORICU from other ICUs, inpatient wards, the emergency department, and other institutions. Patients remained in the ORICU until either transfer to another unit or death. As the hospital patient load decreased, patients were transferred out of the ORICU. This process was completed on May 14, 2020. At time of data censoring, 55 (41.4%) of patients had died. The estimated probability of survival 30 days after admission was 0.61 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52-0.69). Age was significantly associated with increased risk of mortality (HR = 1.05, 95% CI, 1.03-1.08, P < .001 for a 1-year increase in age). Patients who were ≥65 years were an estimated 3.17 times more likely to die than younger patients (95% CI, 1.78-5.63; P < .001) when adjusting for sex and BMI. CONCLUSIONS: A large number of critically ill COVID-19 patients were cared for in the ORICU, which substantially increased ICU capacity at NYP-Columbia. The estimated ORICU survival rate at 30 days was comparable to other reported rates, suggesting this was an effective approach to manage the influx of critically ill COVID-19 patients during a time of crisis.

COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals, Urban/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Operating Rooms/organization & administration , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitals, Urban/trends , Humans , Intensive Care Units/trends , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Operating Rooms/trends , Organization and Administration , Survival Rate/trends , Treatment Outcome