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Public Health ; 187: 157-160, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733655


OBJECTIVES: The Japanese prime minister declared a state of emergency on April 7 2020 to combat the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This declaration was unique in the sense that it was essentially driven by the voluntary restraint of the residents. We examined the change of the infection route by investigating contact experiences with COVID-19-positive cases. STUDY DESIGN: This study is a population-level questionnaire-based study using a social networking service (SNS). METHODS: To assess the impact of the declaration, this study used population-level questionnaire data collected from an SNS with 121,375 respondents (between March 27 and May 5) to assess the change in transmission routes over the study period, which was measured by investigating the association between COVID-19-related symptoms and (self-reported) contact with COVID-19-infected individuals. RESULTS: The results of this study show that the declaration prevented infections in the workplace, but increased domestic infections as people stayed at home. However, after April 24, workplace infections started to increase again, driven by the increase in community-acquired infections. CONCLUSIONS: While careful interpretation is necessary because our data are self-reported from voluntary SNS users, these findings indicate the impact of the declaration on the change in transmission routes of COVID-19 over time in Japan.

Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Self Report , Social Networking , Surveys and Questionnaires , Symptom Assessment , Young Adult
Public Health ; 192: 12-14, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-343588


OBJECTIVES: On March 28, the Japanese government decided on the "Basic Policies for Novel Coronavirus Disease Control" and called on the public to thoroughly implement social distancing measures (i.e., behavioral restrictions to limit the frequency and intensity of human contact), especially telework. METHODS: We used population-level questionnaire data from a social networking service (SNS), with 275,560 respondents from March 5 to April 6, to evaluate the relationship between telework implementation and the presence of a fever (body temperature higher than 37.5 °C) within 1 month as a surrogate indicator of COVID-19 infection, by occupation type and age-group. RESULTS: Among company employees, statistical significance was identified in the 15- to 29-year and 30- to 59-year age-groups, showing higher fever rates in the non-teleworker group (for the 15- to 29-year age-group, non-teleworkers: 7.64%; teleworkers: 6.45%; P = 0.02; for the 30- to 59-year age-group, non-teleworkers: 3.46%; teleworkers: 3.14%; P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Telework remains a controversial topic in Japan as the government called for emergency measures. Although caution is warranted in interpreting our findings because our data are limited to the voluntary SNS users, they will be essential to push forward with more measures to promote social distancing measures in the midst of Japan's current tense political climate.

COVID-19/prevention & control , Fever/epidemiology , Physical Distancing , Teleworking/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Fever/etiology , Government , Humans , Japan , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Networking , Social Work , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult