Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 10 de 10
Filter
1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5323, 2022 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931439

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir has been shown to reduce recovery time and mortality among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, data regarding the efficacy and safety of remdesivir use are limited in Japan. We conducted a single-center retrospective cohort study at Yokohama Municipal Citizen's Hospital, Kanagawa, Japan. Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia treated with remdesivir were included. The onset of acute pancreatitis and increased pancreatic enzyme levels and clinical, laboratory, treatment, and outcome data were collected and analyzed. A total of 201 patients were included. Among the 201 patients treated with remdesivir, 177 recovered from COVID-19. Increased pancreatic enzyme levels of grade 3 or higher or acute pancreatitis developed in 23 of the 201 patients. The potential etiopathogenetic effects of remdesivir on increased pancreatic enzyme levels of grade 3 or higher or acute pancreatitis were ascertained by reviewing the characteristics of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 who did not receive remdesivir treatment. Only 3 of 159 patients had increased pancreatic enzyme levels of grade 3 or higher during the treatment course. Multivariate analysis indicated remdesivir administration and severe COVID-19 infection by National Institute of Health standards as independent risk factors. Acute pancreatitis and severe increases in pancreatic enzyme levels were observed among patients with COVID-19 treated with remdesivir.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pancreatitis , Acute Disease , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pancreatitis/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies
2.
Int J Infect Dis ; 121: 98-101, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814524

ABSTRACT

We report the first case with COVID-19-like acute respiratory distress syndrome after mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. An 88-year-old woman developed dyspnea several hours after vaccination with the second dose of mRNA-1273. She was hospitalized on day nine due to worsening dyspnea. Chest computed tomography showed bilateral ground-glass opacities and consolidations, mainly in the peripheral lung areas. Repeat polymerase chain reaction tests for SARS-CoV-2 were negative, although the serum level of antibodies against spike protein was extremely elevated. Her condition did not improve with high-dose corticosteroids and high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy; she died on day 18. Autopsy findings revealed very early-phase diffuse alveolar damage in the whole lung without other lung diseases. The clinical and pathological findings suggested vaccine-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome. Serological and pathological tests might be useful to differentiate the disease from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Dyspnea , Female , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
3.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-328531

ABSTRACT

Background: Non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV or IMV) is used to treat critically ill patients with the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the mortality rate for these remains high. High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is an alternative device and prone position (PP) is a therapeutic option. However, there is also no evidence to support the efficacy of these methods for patients with COVID-19. Thus, our study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the therapeutic combination of early high-flow nasal cannula and the prone position. Methods: We conducted an observational, retrospective, single-center study. We enrolled COVID-19 patients with HFNC support admitted to our hospital between February 1, 2020 and February 28, 2021. We considered the threshold level for HFNC use as Oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) < 90% and respiratory rate > 20 breaths/min with a non-rebreather mask at 7 L/min or more. SpO 2 as measured by pulse oximetry to the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO 2 ) (S/F) ratio was calculated to estimate the partial pressure of arterial oxygen to FiO 2 ratio. The primary outcome was the all-cause 28-day mortality. The secondary outcome was intubation rates, time until liberation from HFNC and the length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) and the hospital. Continuous variables with normal distribution are shown as mean ± standard deviation, others as median and interquartile range, and categorical variables as counts and percentages. Results: A total of 451 COVID-19 patients were enrolled. Of these, 54 (12%) patients required HFNC. The median S/F ratio before HFNC initiation was 103.9, and the worst median S/F ratio with HFNC was 181. Six patients (11%) died. If we exclude patients who are not eligible for IMV due to their PS, the presence of comorbidities, or the wishes of the patient or their family, only two patients (4%) died. IMV or NIV was required in five patients (9%), of whom three patients died. The median duration of HFNC use, ICU stay, and hospitalization were seven, seven, and 23 days, respectively. Conclusion: The combination therapy of early HFNC and PP has the potential to improve the mortality rate and reduce intubation.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322408

ABSTRACT

An expanded myeloid cell compartment is a hallmark of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19);however, it remains unclear whether myeloid cells are beneficial or detrimental to the clinical outcome. Here, we tracked cellular dynamics of myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) subsets and examined whether any of them correlate with disease severity and prognosis by flow cytometric analysis of blood samples from COVID-19 patients. We observed that polymorphonuclear (PMN)-MDSCs, rather than other MDSC subsets, transiently expanded in severe cases but not in mild or moderate cases. Notably, this subset was selectively expanded in survivors of severe cases and diminished during recovery. Analysis of plasma cytokines/chemokines revealed that interleukin-8 increased prior to PMN-MDSC expansion in survivors and returned to basal levels during the recovery phase. In contrast, interleukin-6 and interferon--induced protein 10 were abundantly induced in non-survivors, suggesting possible downstream targets for the immunosuppressive effects of the MDSC subset. Our data indicate that increased cellularity of PMN-MDSCs might be beneficial for the clinical outcome and could be useful as a possible predictor of prognosis in cases of severe COVID-19.

5.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(2): 329-332, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531583

ABSTRACT

Lymphoma has been reported to worsen the prognosis of COVID-19 partly because it disturbs the normal production of antibodies. We treated a man with mantle cell lymphoma treated with rituximab, who developed severe COVID-19 with viral shedding that lasted for 78 days. He stayed in the intensive care unit for 28 days and did not respond to any treatment against COVID-19. His increased oxygen demand at rest eventually resolved despite the absence of anti-SARS-CoV-2-IgG. This case illustrates that recovery from COVID-19 can occur without antibody production, and that even patients with an inability to produce antibodies can recover from severe COVID-19. It also illustrates that lymphoma patients who develop severe COVID-19 while on rituximab therapy can recover from a prolonged viral shedding state if the acute lung injury can be overcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , Humans , Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell/drug therapy , Male , Rituximab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Respirol Case Rep ; 9(11): e0850, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479442

ABSTRACT

We report an acute clinical course of pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila in a patient receiving chemotherapy for lung cancer and corticosteroid therapy. A 57-year-old man presented with fever and dyspnoea and was admitted to our hospital. Chest computed tomography revealed a new left lower lung infiltrate, tumour progression in the right upper lung region, metastases to lymph nodes and pleural effusion. The urinary antigen test for Legionella was positive. The patient's oxygen requirement increased on the day of admission, and he died the day after hospitalization. Legionnaires' disease may manifest with an acute presentation, and patients in Japan with physical risk factors for this disease could get infected despite the absence of environmental risk factors. Early treatment for suspected Legionnaire's disease should be considered.

7.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(12): 1713-1715, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351750

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination is one of the most important tools to control the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there is little information on the antibody response in humans after the COVID-19 vaccination. METHODS: This single-center, prospective study was conducted in Yokohama, Japan. We included health care workers who had received two doses of COVID-19 vaccination (BNT162b2) 21 days apart. We measured serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) to nucleoprotein and spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 with commercially available kits before and 7, 14, and 35 days after the first dose of vaccination. RESULTS: A total of 104 workers participated in this study. Of these, 7 participants were seropositive with antibodies to spike protein at baseline and 4 of the 7 seropositive participants had COVID-19 history. The mean level of IgG to spike protein (QT) was 45.2, 1219, 2845, and 23489 AU/mL at baseline, on days 7, 14, and 35, respectively, although the values for nucleoprotein (NG) were 0.2, 0.21, 0.22, and 0.19 S/C, respectively. On day 7, QT in seropositive participants at baseline was elevated, whereas it was not elevated in seronegative participants at baseline until day 14. CONCLUSIONS: QT was elevated over the cutoff in all the participants at day 35, but NG did not change between baseline and day 35.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , Health Personnel , Humans , Japan , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254640, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308183

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to clarify how SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia is related to COVID-19 critical condition development and mortality in comparison with other predictive markers and scoring systems. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study conducted at Yokohama Municipal Citizen's Hospital and National Institute of Infectious Diseases. We recruited adult patients with COVID-19 admitted between March 2020 and January 2021. We compared RNAemia with clinical status on admission including scoring systems such as the 4C Mortality, CURB-65, and A-DROP, as well as the Ct value of the nasopharyngeal PCR, in predicting COVID-19 mortality and critical condition development. RESULTS: Of the 92 recruited patients (median age, 58; interquartile range, 45-71 years), 14 (14.9%) had RNAemia. These patients had an older age (median, 68 years vs. 55.5 years; p = 0.011), higher values of lactated dehydrogenase (median, 381 U/L vs. 256.5 U/L, p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (median, 10.9 mg/dL vs. 3.8 mg/dL; p < 0.001), D-dimer (median, 2.07 µg/mL vs. 1.28 µg/mL; p = 0.015), lower values of lymphocyte (median, 802/µL vs. 1007/µL, p = 0.025) and Ct of the nasopharyngeal PCR assay (median, 20.59 vs. 25.54; p = 0.021) than those without RNAemia. Univariate analysis showed RNAemia was associated with mortality (odds ratio [OR], 18.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.92-89.76; area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC], 0.7851; p = 0.002) and critical condition (OR, 72.00; 95% CI, 12.98-399.29; AUC, 0.8198; p < 0.001). Plus, multivariate analysis also revealed the association of RNAemia with critical condition (adjusted OR, 125.71; 95% CI, 11.47-1377.32; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: On-admission SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia is a potent predictive marker of COVID-19 critical condition and mortality. The adjusted OR for critical condition was as high as 125.71.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/analysis , Aged , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasal Mucosa/virology , Patient Admission , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Load
9.
HLA ; 98(1): 37-42, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199730

ABSTRACT

HLA-A, -C, -B, and -DRB1 genotypes were analyzed in 178 Japanese COVID-19 patients to investigate the association of HLA with severe COVID-19. Analysis of 32 common HLA alleles at four loci revealed a significant association between HLA-DRB1*09:01 and severe COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR], 3.62; 95% CI, 1.57-8.35; p = 0.00251 [permutation p value = 0.0418]) when age, sex, and other common HLA alleles at the DRB1 locus were adjusted. The DRB1*09:01 allele was more significantly associated with risk for severe COVID-19 compared to preexisting medical conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. These results indicate a potential role for HLA in predisposition to severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HLA-DRB1 Chains , Alleles , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/genetics , Gene Frequency , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , HLA-DRB1 Chains/genetics , Humans
10.
Int Immunol ; 33(4): 241-247, 2021 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066348

ABSTRACT

An expanded myeloid cell compartment is a hallmark of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, data regarding myeloid cell expansion have been collected in Europe, where the mortality rate by COVID-19 is greater than those in other regions including Japan. Thus, characteristics of COVID-19-induced myeloid cell subsets remain largely unknown in the regions with low mortality rates. Here, we analyzed cellular dynamics of myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) subsets and examined whether any of them correlate with disease severity and prognosis, using blood samples from Japanese COVID-19 patients. We observed that polymorphonuclear (PMN)-MDSCs, but not other MDSC subsets, transiently expanded in severe cases but not in mild or moderate cases. Contrary to previous studies in Europe, this subset selectively expanded in survivors of severe cases and subsided before discharge, but such transient expansion was not observed in non-survivors in Japanese cohort. Analysis of plasma cytokine/chemokine levels revealed positive correlation of PMN-MDSC frequencies with IL-8 levels, indicating the involvement of IL-8 on recruitment of PMN-MDSCs to peripheral blood following the onset of severe COVID-19. Our data indicate that transient expansion of the PMN-MDSC subset results in improved clinical outcome. Thus, this myeloid cell subset may be a predictor of prognosis in cases of severe COVID-19 in Japan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Interleukin-8/blood , Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Humans , Interleukin-8/immunology , Japan , Leukocyte Count , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Neutrophil Activation/immunology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL