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1.
Rural Remote Health ; 22(3): 6751, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955301

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a global pandemic, giving rise to a serious global health threat. Many countries including Greece have seen a two-wave pattern of reported cases, with a first wave in spring and a second in autumn of 2020. METHODS: A cross-sectional seroprevalence study was designed to measure the prevalence of IgG antibodies with a quantitative SARS-CoV-2 IgG lab-based serology test, chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay, against novel coronavirus in rural areas in Greece after the second pandemic wave. The study was conducted on 29 January 2021 in a rural semi-closed area, the municipality of Deskati, prefecture of western Macedonia in Greece after the second pandemic wave. RESULTS: Sixty-nine participants were included in this study. The present study demonstrated a high prevalence of COVID-19 infection (31 of 69 total participants; 45%) and those who were working in the public sector were at higher risk of COVID-19 infection in comparison to their counterparts in private sector (p=0.05364), (relative risk 2.64; 95% confidence interval 1.001-7.086). CONCLUSION: The study presents data showing a high prevalence of herd immunity for COVID-19 in a semi-closed area in Greece. These findings might help to understand the characteristics of this second wave, the behaviour and danger of SARS-CoV-2 in rural areas in Greece and Europe generally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Prevalence , Rural Population , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Workplace
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(10)2022 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862780

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antibody seroprevalence in rural communities remains poorly investigated. We compared the SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in two Greek communities in June and July 2021 after the end of the Delta-driven pandemic wave that started in November 2020. One community was affected worse than the other. METHODS: The SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant method (Architect, Abbott, IL, USA) was used for antibody testing. RESULTS: We found a high rate of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity in both communities, approaching 77.5%. In the area with a higher burden of COVID-19, Malesina, seropositivity was achieved with vaccine-acquired and naturally acquired immunity, whereas in the low-burden context of Domokos, the high rates of seropositivity were achieved mainly with vaccination. Previously infected individuals were less likely to be vaccinated than previously uninfected adults. The antibody titers were significantly higher in previously infected, vaccinated participants than in unvaccinated ones. In total, 4% and 10% of the unvaccinated population were diagnosed seropositive for the first time while not knowing about the previous infection. Age and gender did not impact antibody titers in high- or low-burden contexts. CONCLUSIONS: Before the Omicron pandemic wave, herd immunity was reached in different contexts in Greece. Higher antibody titers were measured in infected vaccinated individuals than in infected unvaccinated ones.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580777

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In this work, we aimed to evaluate antibody-response longevity to SARS-CoV-2 infection and/or vaccination in one of the Greek communities that was worst hit by the pandemic, Deskati, five months after a previous serosurveillance and nine months after the pandemic wave initiation (October 2020). METHODS: The SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant method (Architect, Abbott, IL, USA) was used for antibody testing. RESULTS: A total of 69 subjects, who previously tested positive or negative for COVID-19 antibodies, participated in the study. We found that 48% of participants turned positive due to vaccination. 27% of participants were both previously infected and vaccinated. However, all previously infected participants retained antibodies to the virus, irrespective of their vaccination status. The antibody titers were significantly higher in previously infected participants that had been vaccinated than those who were unvaccinated and in those that had been previously hospitalized for COVID-19 than those with mild disease. CONCLUSIONS: Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection were maintained nine months after the pandemic. Vaccination alone had generated an immune response in almost half of the population. Higher antibody titers were found in the case of vaccination in previously infected subjects and especially in those with severe disease leading to hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Vaccination
5.
J Clin Med ; 10(13)2021 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285395

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to estimate the SARS-CoV-2 antigen and antibody seroprevalence in one of the worst-affected by the pandemic semi-closed communities in Greece, Deskati, and evaluate the sociodemographic and clinical correlations of functional antibody responses. METHODS: The Ag2019n-CoV V1310/V1330 Rapid Test (Prognosis Biotech, Greece) was used for antigen detection. The Rapid Test 2019-nCoV Total Ig, V1210/V1230 (Prognosis Biotech, Greece), and the SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant method (Architect, Abbott, Illinois, USA) were used for antibody testing. RESULTS: None of the participants had a positive antigen result. SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity ranged from 13% to 45% in the study population, depending on the method. One-third of the participants with known past infection had a positive antibody test result 77 ± 13 days after infection. Two-fifths of infections determined by serology were asymptomatic. The advancing age and hospitalization predicted seropositivity among patients with past infection. Half of the participants who tested positive for antibodies were not aware of past infection. CONCLUSIONS: High-burden contexts in Greece, such as Deskati, are not so far from herd immunity thresholds. We highlighted the value of low-cost serosurveys targeting both symptomatic and asymptomatic populations to evaluate the natural immune response to SARS-CoV-2 in nonvaccinated susceptibles and design evidence-based policies for lifting lockdowns.

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