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Nature ; 594(7862): 240-245, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225510


The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is the cause of the ongoing pandemic of COVID-191. Coronaviruses have developed a variety of mechanisms to repress host mRNA translation to allow the translation of viral mRNA, and concomitantly block the cellular innate immune response2,3. Although several different proteins of SARS-CoV-2 have previously been implicated in shutting off host expression4-7, a comprehensive picture of the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on cellular gene expression is lacking. Here we combine RNA sequencing, ribosome profiling and metabolic labelling of newly synthesized RNA to comprehensively define the mechanisms that are used by SARS-CoV-2 to shut off cellular protein synthesis. We show that infection leads to a global reduction in translation, but that viral transcripts are not preferentially translated. Instead, we find that infection leads to the accelerated degradation of cytosolic cellular mRNAs, which facilitates viral takeover of the mRNA pool in infected cells. We reveal that the translation of transcripts that are induced in response to infection (including innate immune genes) is impaired. We demonstrate this impairment is probably mediated by inhibition of nuclear mRNA export, which prevents newly transcribed cellular mRNA from accessing ribosomes. Overall, our results uncover a multipronged strategy that is used by SARS-CoV-2 to take over the translation machinery and to suppress host defences.

COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Protein Biosynthesis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , 5' Untranslated Regions/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Line , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Protein Biosynthesis/genetics , RNA Stability , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Ribosomes/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
Nature ; 589(7840): 125-130, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-752477


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic1. To understand the pathogenicity and antigenic potential of SARS-CoV-2 and to develop therapeutic tools, it is essential to profile the full repertoire of its expressed proteins. The current map of SARS-CoV-2 coding capacity is based on computational predictions and relies on homology with other coronaviruses. As the protein complement varies among coronaviruses, especially in regard to the variety of accessory proteins, it is crucial to characterize the specific range of SARS-CoV-2 proteins in an unbiased and open-ended manner. Here, using a suite of ribosome-profiling techniques2-4, we present a high-resolution map of coding regions in the SARS-CoV-2 genome, which enables us to accurately quantify the expression of canonical viral open reading frames (ORFs) and to identify 23 unannotated viral ORFs. These ORFs include upstream ORFs that are likely to have a regulatory role, several in-frame internal ORFs within existing ORFs, resulting in N-terminally truncated products, as well as internal out-of-frame ORFs, which generate novel polypeptides. We further show that viral mRNAs are not translated more efficiently than host mRNAs; instead, virus translation dominates host translation because of the high levels of viral transcripts. Our work provides a resource that will form the basis of future functional studies.

Gene Expression Profiling , Genome, Viral/genetics , Open Reading Frames/genetics , Protein Biosynthesis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/biosynthesis , Viral Proteins/genetics , Animals , Cell Line , Humans , Molecular Sequence Annotation , Peptides/genetics , Peptides/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Ribosomes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Proteins/metabolism