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Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(5): 921-928, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-921757


Serological test is a valuable diagnostic tool for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, considerable improvements to these tests are needed, especially in the detection sensitivity. In this study, six recombinant nucleocapsid and spike proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were prepared and evaluated, including three prokaryotic expression nucleocapsid proteins (rN, rN1, rN2) and three eukaryotic expression spike proteins (rS1, rS-RBD, rS-RBD-mFc). The recombinant proteins with the highest ELISA titers (rS1 and rS-RBD-mFc) were selected to develop a double-antigen sandwich colloidal gold immunochromatography assay (GICA) to detect total antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. The clinical evaluation results showed that the sensitivity and specificity of GICA were 92.09% (419/455) and 99.44% (706/710), respectively. Moreover, a significant number (65.63%, 21/32) of COVID-19 patients with undetectable viral RNA were correctly diagnosed by the GICA method. In conclusion, the eukaryotic expression spike proteins (rS1 and rS-RBD-mFc) are more suitable than the prokaryotic expression nucleocapsid proteins for serological diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2. The proposed GICA for detection of total antibodies could be a powerful complement to the current RNA tests for COVID-19.

COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Humans , Immunoassay , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/immunology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
Nature ; 586(7830): 572-577, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691301


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes a respiratory disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the spread of which has led to a pandemic. An effective preventive vaccine against this virus is urgently needed. As an essential step during infection, SARS-CoV-2 uses the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein to engage with the receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on host cells1,2. Here we show that a recombinant vaccine that comprises residues 319-545 of the RBD of the spike protein induces a potent functional antibody response in immunized mice, rabbits and non-human primates (Macaca mulatta) as early as 7 or 14 days after the injection of a single vaccine dose. The sera from the immunized animals blocked the binding of the RBD to ACE2, which is expressed on the cell surface, and neutralized infection with a SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus and live SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Notably, vaccination also provided protection in non-human primates to an in vivo challenge with SARS-CoV-2. We found increased levels of RBD-specific antibodies in the sera of patients with COVID-19. We show that several immune pathways and CD4 T lymphocytes are involved in the induction of the vaccine antibody response. Our findings highlight the importance of the RBD domain in the design of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and provide a rationale for the development of a protective vaccine through the induction of antibodies against the RBD domain.

Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Macaca mulatta/immunology , Macaca mulatta/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Models, Animal , Models, Molecular , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2 , Serum/immunology , Spleen/cytology , Spleen/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccination