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1.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 2022 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244957

ABSTRACT

AIM: There is scarce data on the impact of age on clinical outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHOD: The CLOT-COVID Study was a retrospective, multicenter cohort study enrolling 2894 consecutive hospitalized patients with COVID-19 among 16 centers in Japan from April 2021 to September 2021. We divided the entire cohort into five groups according to age strata; -19, 20-39, 40-59, 60-79, and 80- years. RESULTS: Most patients under 19 had mild COVID-19 on admission (99%), while older patients had more severe COVID-19. The incidence rates of clinical outcomes during hospitalization in patients aged ≤ 19, 20-39, 40-59, 60-79, and 80 ≥ years were 0.0%, 0.5%, 2.2%, 2.7%, and 1.5% for thrombosis; 0.0%, 1.2%, 1.5%, 3.4%, and 2.0% for major bleeding; and 0.0%, 0.4%, 2.0%, 12.1%, and 16.8% for all-cause death, respectively. In the stratified analysis according to COVID-19 severity on admission, the incidences of thrombosis were generally higher among patients with more severe status, although those were not significantly different among age strata in all sub-types of COVID-19 severity. However, the incidences of all-cause death were significantly higher with increasing age in all sub-types of COVID-19 severity. CONCLUSIONS: In the current large observational study of patients with COVID-19, the risk of mortality became markedly higher with increased age. However, the risks of thrombosis and major bleeding did not necessarily increase as age increases, which seemed to be consistent irrespective of COVID-19 severity on admission.

2.
J Epidemiol ; 2022 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2283357

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reports of mortality-associated risk factors in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) are limited. METHODS: We evaluated the clinical features that were associated with mortality among patients who died during hospitalization (N=158) and those who were alive at discharge (N=2,736) from the large-scale, multicenter, retrospective, observational cohort CLOT-COVID study enrolled consecutively hospitalized COVID-19 patients from 16 centers in Japan from April to September 2021. Data from 2,894 hospitalized COVID-19 participants of the CLOT-COVID study were analyzed in this study. RESULTS: Patients who died were older (71.1 years versus 51.6 years, P<0.001), had higher median D-dimer values on admission (1.7 µg/mL versus 0.8 µg/mL, P<0.001), and had more comorbidities. On admission, the patients who died had more severe COVID-19 than did those who survived (mild: 16% versus 63%, moderate: 47% versus 31%, and severe: 37% versus 6.2%, P<0.001). In patients who died, the incidence of thrombosis and major bleeding during hospitalization was significantly higher than that in those who survived (thrombosis: 8.2% vs. 1.5%, P<0.001; major bleeding: 12.7% vs. 1.4%, P<0.001). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that age >70 years, high D-dimer values on admission, heart disease, active cancer, higher COVID-19 severity on admission, and development of major bleeding during hospitalization were independently associated with a higher mortality risk. CONCLUSIONS: This large-scale observational study in Japan identified several independent risk factors for mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 that could facilitate appropriate risk stratification of patients with COVID-19.

3.
Circ J ; 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263851

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The worsening of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity is a critical issue in current clinical settings and may be associated with the development of thrombosis.Methods and Results: This study used patient data obtained in the CLOT-COVID study, a retrospective multicenter cohort study. The demographics of patients with moderate COVID-19 on admission with and without worsened severity during hospitalization were compared and predictors were identified. Of 927 patients with moderate COVID-19 on admission, 182 (19.6%) had worsened severity during hospitalization. Patients with worsening of severity were older, more likely to have hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and active cancer, and more likely to use pharmacological thromboprophylaxis. Patients with worsening of severity had higher D-dimer levels on admission and were more likely to develop thrombosis and major bleeding during hospitalization than those without worsening. Increased age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.03, P=0.005), diabetes (OR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.11-2.33, P=0.012), D-dimer levels >1.0 µg/mL on admission (OR: 2.10, 95% CI: 1.45-3.03, P<0.001), and thrombosis (OR: 6.28, 95% CI: 2.72-14.53, P<0.001) were independently associated with worsening of COVID-19 severity. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 20% of patients with moderate COVID-19 had worsened severity during hospitalization. Increased age, diabetes, D-dimer levels >1.0 µg/mL on admission, and the development of thrombosis during hospitalization were significantly associated with worsened COVID-19 severity.

4.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 30(4): 311-320, 2023 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287418

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a major health problem worldwide since 2020. Although the main pathophysiology of COVID-19 is a respiratory infectious disease, it could also cause cardiovascular complications, including thrombosis. Thus, anticoagulation therapy has been thought to help prevent thrombosis, leading to improved survival. However, to date, several aspects of the optimal anticoagulation strategies for COVID-19 remain unclear. Considering the status of COVID-19-related thrombosis and some domestic issues in Japan, the optimal anticoagulation strategies for COVID-19 might have to be based on Japanese domestic clinical data considering racial difference. Racial disparities in terms of thromboembolic risk have been well known in the pre-COVID-19 era, and the risk of COVID-19-associated thrombosis depending on race could be an important issue. Considering a potential higher risk of bleeding with anticoagulation therapy in the Asian population, it might be important to maintain a good balance between the risks of thrombosis and bleeding. Latest evidences of COVID-19-related thrombosis and anticoagulation strategies, including some domestic issues in Japan, showed a different status of COVID-19-related thrombosis in Japan from that in Western countries, suggesting the potential benefit of different anticoagulation strategies, specifically for the Japanese population. Although these insights could be useful for the consideration of anticoagulation strategies for the Japanese population, the final decision should be based on balancing the benefits and risks of anticoagulation therapy in each patient.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Humans , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , East Asian People , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Thrombosis/drug therapy
5.
Ann Vasc Dis ; 16(1): 31-37, 2023 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287325

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The relationship between the thrombotic event and prognosis in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has not yet been fully investigated in Japan. Our study aimed to investigate the clinical outcomes and risk factors for thrombosis in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Japan. Materials and Methods: We compared the patient characteristics and clinical outcomes among patients with thrombosis (N=55) and those without thrombosis (N=2839) by using a large-scale data of CLOT-COVID study (thrombosis and antiCoaguLatiOn Therapy in patients with COVID-19 in Japan Study: UMIN000045800). Thrombosis included venous thromboembolism, ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, and systemic arterial thromboembolism. Results: Higher rates of mortality and bleeding events were shown in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 with thrombosis compared to those without thrombosis (all-cause mortality, 23.6% vs. 5.1%, P<0.001; major bleeding, 23.6% vs. 1.6%, P<0.001). Multivariable analysis revealed that the independent risk factors of thrombosis were male sex, D-dimer level on admission>1.0 µg/mL, and moderate and severe COVID-19 status on admission. Conclusions: The development of thrombosis in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 was related to higher mortality and major bleeding, and several independent risk factors for thrombosis could help determine the patient-appropriate treatment for COVID-19.

6.
J Cardiol ; 81(1): 105-110, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2233931

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The influence of obesity on the development of thrombosis and severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unclear. METHOD: The CLOT-COVID study was a retrospective multicenter cohort study enrolling 2894 consecutive hospitalized patients with COVID-19 between April 2021 and September 2021 among 16 centers in Japan. The present study consisted of 2690 patients aged over 18 years with available body mass index (BMI), who were divided into an obesity group (BMI ≥30) (N = 457) and a non-obesity group (BMI <30) (N = 2233). RESULTS: The obesity group showed more severe status of COVID-19 at admission compared with the non-obesity group. The incidence of thrombosis was not significantly different between the groups (obesity group: 2.6 % versus non-obesity group: 1.9 %, p = 0.39), while the incidence of a composite outcome of all-cause death, or requirement of mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation during hospitalization was significantly higher in the obesity group (20.1 % versus 15.0 %, p < 0.01). After adjusting confounders in the multivariable logistic regression model, the risk of obesity relative to non-obesity for thrombosis was not significant (adjusted OR, 1.39; 95 % CI, 0.68-2.84, p = 0.37), while the adjusted risk of obesity relative to non-obesity for the composite outcome was significant (adjusted OR, 1.85; 95 % CI, 1.39-2.47, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In the present large-scale observational study, obesity was not significantly associated with the development of thrombosis during hospitalization; however, it was associated with severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Incidence , Cohort Studies , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/etiology
7.
JACC Asia ; 2(7): 897-907, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2179892

ABSTRACT

Background: Data on prophylactic anticoagulation are important in understanding the current issues, unmet needs, and optimal management of Japanese COVID-19 patients. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the clinical management strategies for prophylactic anticoagulation of COVID-19 patients in Japan. Methods: The CLOT-COVID study was a multicenter observational study that enrolled 2,894 consecutive hospitalized patients with COVID-19. The study population consisted of 2,889 patients (after excluding 5 patients with missing data); it was divided into 2 groups: patients with pharmacological thromboprophylaxis (n = 1,240) and those without (n = 1,649). Furthermore, we evaluated the 1,233 patients who received prophylactic anticoagulation-excluding 7 patients who could not be classified based on the intensity of their anticoagulants-who were then divided into 2 groups: patients receiving prophylactic anticoagulant doses (n = 889) and therapeutic anticoagulant doses (n = 344). Results: The most common pharmacological thromboprophylaxis anticoagulant was unfractionated heparin (68.2%). The severity of COVID-19 at admission was a predictor of the implementation of pharmacological thromboprophylaxis in the multivariable analysis (moderate vs mild: OR: 16.6; 95% CI:13.2-21.0; P < 0.001, severe vs mild: OR: 342.6, 95% CI: 107.7-1090.2; P < 0.001). It was also a predictor of the usage of anticoagulants of therapeutic doses in the multivariable analysis (moderate vs mild: OR: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.46-3.02; P < 0.001, severe vs mild: OR: 5.96; 95% CI: 3.91-9.09; P < 0.001). Conclusions: In the current real-world Japanese registry, pharmacological thromboprophylaxis, especially anticoagulants at therapeutic doses, was selectively implemented in COVID-19 patients with comorbidities and severe COVID-19 status at admission.

8.
Thromb J ; 20(1): 53, 2022 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038776

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes extensive coagulopathy and a potential benefit of anticoagulation therapy has been documented for prevention of thromboembolic events. Bleeding events has also been reported as a notable complication; whereas, the incidence, risks, and clinical impact of bleeding remain unclear. METHOD: The CLOT-COVID Study was a nationwide, retrospective, multicenter cohort study on consecutive hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Japan between April 2021 and September 2021. In this sub-analysis, we compared the characteristics of patients with and without major bleeding; moreover, we examined the risk factors for and clinical impact of bleeding events. RESULTS: Among 2882 patients with COVID-19, 57 (2.0%) had major bleeding. The incidence of major bleeding increased with COVID-19 severity as follows: 0.5%, 2.3%, and 12.3% in patients with mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19, respectively. COVID-19 severity, history of major bleeding, and anticoagulant type/dose were independently and additively associated with the bleeding incidence. Compared with patients without major bleeding, those with major bleeding exhibited a longer duration of hospitalization (9 [6-14] vs 28 [19-43] days, P < 0.001) and higher mortality during hospitalization (4.9% vs. 35.1%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In the real-world clinical practice, the incidence of major bleeding was not uncommon, especially in patients with severe COVID-19. Independent risk factors for major bleeding included history of major bleeding, COVID-19 severity, and anticoagulant use, which could be associated with poor clinical outcomes including higher mortality. Precise recognition of the risks for bleeding may be helpful for an optimal use of anticoagulants and for better outcomes in patients with COVID-19.

9.
Circ Rep ; 4(5): 215-221, 2022 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951470

ABSTRACT

Background: To date, there are no large-scale data on the association between D-dimer levels at admission and the occurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Japanese patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods and Results: The CLOT-COVID study was a retrospective, multicenter cohort study enrolling consecutive hospitalized patients with COVID-19 across 16 centers in Japan from April 2021 to September 2021. Among 2,894 enrolled patients, 2,771 (96%) had D-dimer levels measured at admission. Patients were divided into 3 groups based on tertiles of D-dimer levels at admission (1st tertile, D-dimer ≤0.5 µg/mL, n=949; 2nd tertile, D-dimer 0.51-1.09 µg/mL, n=894; 3rd tertile, D-dimer ≥1.1 µg/mL, n=928). The higher the tertile group, the more severe the COVID-19 status at admission. The incidence of VTE during hospitalization was highest in the 3rd tertile group (1st tertile, 0.3%; 2nd tertile, 0.3%; 3rd tertile, 3.6%; P<0.001). Even after adjusting for confounders in the multivariable logistic regression model, the higher D-dimer levels in the 3rd tertile (≥1.1 µg/mL) were independently associated with a higher risk of VTE during hospitalization (adjusted odds ratio 4.83 [95% confidence interval 1.93-12.11; P<0.001]; reference=1st tertile). Conclusions: Higher D-dimer levels at admission were associated with a higher risk of VTE events during hospitalization in Japanese patients with COVID-19. This could be helpful in determining patient-specific anticoagulation management strategies for COVID-19 in Japan.

10.
Circ J ; 86(7): 1137-1142, 2022 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879294

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The potential benefit of therapeutic-dose anticoagulation for critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still controversial.Methods and Results: In the CLOT-COVID study, 225 patients with severe COVID-19 on admission requiring mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were divided into patients with therapeutic-dose anticoagulation (N=110) and those with prophylactic-dose anticoagulation (N=115). There was no significant difference in the incidence of thrombosis between the groups (9.1% vs. 7.8%, P=0.73). CONCLUSIONS: Among a cohort of critically ill patients with COVID-19, approximately half received therapeutic-dose anticoagulation, although it did not show a potential benefit compared with prophylactic-dose anticoagulation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/prevention & control
11.
J Cardiol ; 80(4): 285-291, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773510

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on thrombosis and current real-world management strategies for anticoagulation therapy are scarce but important for understanding current issues and unmet needs of an optimal management of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHOD: The CLOT-COVID Study (thrombosis and antiCoaguLatiOn Therapy in patients with COVID-19 in Japan Study: UMIN000045800) was a retrospective, multicenter cohort study enrolling consecutive hospitalized patients with COVID-19 among 16 centers in Japan from April 2021 to September 2021, and we tried to capture the status of the patients in the fourth and fifth waves of the COVID-19 infections in Japan. We enrolled consecutive hospitalized patients who were diagnosed with COVID-19 and had a positive polymerase chain reaction test obtained from the hospital databases. RESULTS: Among 2894 patients with COVID-19, 1245 (43%) received pharmacological thromboprophylaxis. The proportion of pharmacological thromboprophylaxis increased according to the severity of the COVID-19 in 9.8% with mild COVID-19, 61% with moderate COVID-19, and 97% with severe COVID-19. The types and doses of anticoagulants varied widely across the participating centers. During the hospitalization, 38 patients (1.3%) and 126 (4.4%) underwent ultrasound examinations for the lower extremities and contrast-enhanced computed tomography examinations, respectively, and 55 (1.9%) developed thrombosis, mostly venous thromboembolism (71%). The incidence of thrombosis increased according to the severity of the COVID-19 in 0.2% with mild COVID-19, 1.4% with moderate COVID-19, and 9.5% with severe COVID-19. Major bleeding occurred in 57 patients (2.0%) and 158 (5.5%) died, and 81% of them were due to respiratory failure from COVID-19 pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: In the present large-scale observational study, pharmacological thromboprophylaxis for hospitalized patients with COVID-19 was common especially in patients with severe COVID-19, and management strategies varied widely across the participating centers. The overall incidence of thrombosis was substantially low with an increased incidence according to the severity of the COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy
12.
Thromb Res ; 213: 173-178, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768565

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There has been limited data on the influence of sex on development of thrombosis in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CLOT-COVID Study was a retrospective, multicenter cohort study enrolling 2894 consecutive hospitalized patients with COVID-19 among 16 centers in Japan from April 2021 to September 2021. We divided the entire cohort into the men (N = 1885) and women (N = 1009) groups. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in D-dimer levels at admission between men and women. Men had more severe status of the COVID-19 at admission compared with women (Mild: 57% versus 66%, Moderate: 34% versus 29%, and Severe: 9.1% versus 5.7%, P < 0.001). Men more often received pharmacological thromboprophylaxis than women (47% versus 35%, P < 0.001). During the hospitalization, men more often developed thrombosis than women (2.5% [95%CI, 1.9-3.3%] versus 0.8% [95%CI, 0.4-1.6%], P = 0.001). Men had numerically higher incidences of thrombosis than women in all subgroups of the worst severity of COVID-19 during the hospitalization (Mild: 0.3% versus 0.0%, Moderate: 1.6% versus 1.0%, and Severe: 11.1% versus 4.3%). Even after adjusting confounders in the multivariable logistic regression model, the excess risk of men relative to women remained significant for thrombosis (adjusted OR, 2.51; 95%CI, 1.16-5.43, P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: In the current large observational study of patients with COVID-19, men had more severe status of the COVID-19 than women, and the risk of development of thrombosis was higher in men compared with women, which could be helpful in determining the patient-specific optimal management strategies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy
13.
Circ J ; 85(12): 2208-2214, 2021 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533392

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) reportedly causes venous thromboembolism (VTE), but the status of this complication in Japan was unclear.Methods and Results:The VTE and COVID-19 in Japan Study is a retrospective, multicenter cohort study enrolling hospitalized patients with COVID-19 who were evaluated with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) examination at 22 centers in Japan between March 2020 and October 2020. Among 1,236 patients with COVID-19, 45 (3.6%) were evaluated with contrast-enhanced CT examination. VTE events occurred in 10 patients (22.2%), and the incidence of VTE in mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19 was 0%, 11.8%, and 40.0%, respectively. COVID-19 patients with VTE showed a higher body weight (81.6 vs. 64.0 kg, P=0.005) and body mass index (26.9 vs. 23.2 kg/m2, P=0.04), and a higher proportion had a severe status for COVID-19 compared with those without. There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients alive at discharge between patients with and without VTE (80.0% vs. 88.6%, P=0.48). Among 8 pulmonary embolism (PE) patients, all were low-risk PE. CONCLUSIONS: Among a relatively small number of patients undergoing contrast-enhanced CT examination in Japanese real-world clinical practice, there were no VTE patients among those with mild COVID-19, but the incidence of VTE seemed to be relatively high among severe COVID-19 patients, although all PE events were low-risk without significant effect on mortality risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Incidence , Japan/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/virology
14.
The Japanese Journal of Phlebology ; 32(1):21-10, 2021.
Article in English | J-STAGE | ID: covidwho-1323418
15.
The Japanese Journal of Phlebology ; 32(1):99-103, 2021.
Article in English | J-STAGE | ID: covidwho-1287000
16.
Circ J ; 85(3): 309-313, 2021 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110061

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Suspicion that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused venous thromboembolism (VTE).Methods and Results:We conducted a case series study of 5 VTE patients with COVID-19 in Japan. The median body mass index was 27.7 kg/m2, and all patients required mechanical ventilation during hospitalization. Patients were diagnosed as VTE in the intensive care unit (ICU), general ward, and outpatient ward. CONCLUSIONS: The current case series study revealed some clinical features of VTE patients with COVID-19 in Japan, including obese patients and those requiring mechanical ventilation during hospitalization, who should be followed closely for VTE, even after leaving the ICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Oxygen/blood , Patients' Rooms , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
17.
Ann Vasc Dis ; 14(1): 1-4, 2021 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-976371

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a huge threat worldwide as a pandemic, which could also cause venous thromboembolism (VTE), including pulmonary embolism (PE). On the basis of the concept of the high risk for VTE in patients with COVID-19, some studies reported the potential benefit of anticoagulation for the primary prevention of VTE. However, optimal strategies for the prevention of VTE in COVID-19 still remain unknown. Additionally, ethnic differences may have notable implications in the presentation of VTE. Very recently, in the Japanese Society of Phlebology and Japanese Society of Pulmonary Embolism Research, a questionnaire surveillance for COVID-19 and VTE was conducted, which revealed that the vast majority of the institutions did not have specific recommendations for the prevention of VTE with anticoagulation, the incidence rate of VTE was 0.6% (7/1243), and that of PE was 0.4% (5/1243). The current questionnaire surveillance has suggested that the management strategies for the prevention of VTE by anticoagulation in COVID-19 could widely vary according to institutions, and the number of patients diagnosed as VTE in COVID-19 in Japan was quite small compared with reports from other countries. Further studies, including cohort/registry-based studies, are warranted to confirm these results.

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