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1.
AIDS Behav ; 2023 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244506

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic created disruptions in HIV testing service utilization among men who have sex with men (MSM). The present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an online health promotion program implemented by a community-based organization (CBO) in increasing the uptake of any type of HIV testing and home-based HIV self-testing (HIVST) over a six-month follow-up period. Participants of an observational prospective cohort study conducted during the same period served as the comparison group. This study was conducted between September 2020 and December 2021. Participants were Chinese-speaking adult MSM who were HIV-negative/unknown sero-status recruited through multiple sources in Hong Kong, China. Participants in the intervention group were exposed to the following health promotion components: (1) viewing an online video promoting HIVST, (2) visiting the project webpage, and (3) having access to a chargeable HIVST service implemented by the CBO. Among 400 and 412 participants in the intervention group and the comparison group, 349 (87.3%) and 298 (72.3%) completed follow-up evaluation at Month 6. Multiple imputation was used to replace missing values. At Month 6, participants in the intervention group reported significantly higher uptake of any type of HIV testing (57.0% versus 49.0%, adjusted odds ratios [AOR]: 1.43, p = .03) and HIVST (25.8% versus 14.8%, AOR: 2.04, p = .001), as compared to those in the comparison group. Process evaluation of the health promotion components for the intervention group was positive. Promoting HIVST is a potentially useful strategy to increase HIV testing service utilization among Chinese MSM during the pandemic.

2.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 9: e44051, 2023 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297301

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With COVID-19 being a newly evolving disease, its response measures largely depend on the practice of and compliance with personal protective measures (PPMs). OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aimed to examine the knowledge and practice of COVID-19 PPMs in African countries as documented in the published literature. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted on the Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science databases using appropriate keywords and predefined eligibility criteria for the selection of relevant studies. Only population-based original research studies (including qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods studies) conducted in Africa and published in the English language were included. The screening process and data extraction were performed according to a preregistered protocol in PROSPERO (CRD42022355101) and followed the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Thematic analysis was used to systematically summarize the studies into 4 predefined domains: knowledge and perception of PPMs, mask use, social and physical distancing, and handwashing and hand hygiene, including their respective levels and associated factors. RESULTS: A total of 58 studies across 12 African countries were included, published between 2019 and 2022. African communities, including various population groups, had varying levels of knowledge and practice of COVID-19 PPMs, with the lack of personal protective equipment (mainly face masks) and side effects (among health care workers) being the major reasons for poor compliance. Lower rates of handwashing and hand hygiene were particularly noted in several African countries, especially among low-income urban and slum dwellers, with the main barrier being the lack of safe and clean water. Various cognitive (knowledge and perception), sociodemographic, and economic factors were associated with the practice of COVID-19 PPMs. Moreover, there were evident research inequalities at the regional level, with East Africa contributing 36% (21/58) of the studies, West Africa contributing 21% (12/58), North Africa contributing 17% (10/58), Southern Africa contributing 7% (4/58), and no single-country study from Central Africa. Nonetheless, the overall quality of the included studies was generally good as they satisfied most of the quality assessment criteria. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need to enhance local capacity to produce and supply personal protective equipment. Consideration of various cognitive, demographic, and socioeconomic differences, with extra focus on the most vulnerable, is crucial for inclusive and more effective strategies against the pandemic. Moreover, more focus and involvement in community behavioral research are needed to fully understand and address the dynamics of the current pandemic in Africa. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews CRD42022355101; https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42022355101.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Africa/epidemiology , Personal Protective Equipment
3.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(2)2023 Feb 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2242057

ABSTRACT

Vaccination against COVID-19 remains one of the ultimate solutions to the ongoing pandemic. This study examined and compared the completion of primary COVID-19 vaccination series and associated factors in the slum and estate communities of Uganda. This was a cross-sectional survey conducted among 1025 slum and estate residents. Logistic regression models were fitted. Of the 1025 participants, 511 were slum residents and 514 were estate residents. Completion of COVID-19 vaccination was 43.8% in the slum community and 39.9% in the estate community (p = 0.03). Having more knowledge about COVID-19 was positively associated with completing COVID-19 vaccination in both communities. Perceived benefits and cues to action also had a positive association, but only among the slum residents. However, perceiving people infected with COVID-19 as having a high death rate, perceived barriers such as serious side effects and long distances, and depressive symptoms had negative associations with vaccine uptake among the slum community, but not in the estate community. Addressing barriers to vaccination, strengthening and utilizing the various cues to action, engagement of religious and cultural leaders, and continued community education and sensitization tailored to the needs of each community are potentially vital strategies in raising vaccination rates. Consideration of socioeconomic impact-alleviation strategies, especially among the urban poor, would also be beneficial.

4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(4)2023 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2233367

ABSTRACT

The fifth wave of the COVID-19 pandemic has caused an unprecedented toll on Hong Kong. As more countries are starting to lift COVID-19 restrictions, it would be important to understand the public attitudes towards lifting COVID-19 restrictions and to identify its associated factors. The present study examined the level of support towards the living with the virus (LWV) policy for COVID-19 among the public in Hong Kong and to identify the associations between resilient coping, self-efficacy and emotional distress with support towards the LWV policy. A random population-based telephone survey was conducted among 500 Hong Kong Chinese adults from 7 March to 19 April 2022, i.e., during the fifth wave of COVID-19 outbreak. Of the respondents, 39.6% showed a supportive attitude towards the LWV policy. Results from the structural equational modeling showed a positive correlation between resilient coping and self-efficacy. Resilient coping was associated with support towards the LWV policy directly and indirectly through a lower level of emotional distress. Self-efficacy had a direct association with support towards the LWV policy but its indirect association through emotional distress was not significant. Interventions that foster resilient coping and self-efficacy would be effective in reducing public emotional distress and promoting their positive view towards the LWV policy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Pandemics , Attitude , Adaptation, Psychological
5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(2)2023 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2237284

ABSTRACT

Uptake of a booster dose of COVID-19 vaccine is effective in preventing infection and severe consequences caused by COVID-19. The present study examined the effects of negative attitudes towards vaccination in general and trust in government on uptake of a COVID-19 booster dose, as well as the moderating role of psychological reactance to pro-vaccination messages in Hong Kong. An observational prospective cohort study using online survey was conducted among 264 adults. Findings showed that, after adjustment for significant background characteristics, negative attitudes towards vaccination in general negatively predicted uptake of a booster dose, and trust in government positively predicted uptake of a booster dose. In addition, the association between negative attitudes towards vaccination in general and uptake of a booster dose was weaker among those who reported a higher level of psychological reactance. The present study highlighted the importance of improving attitudes towards vaccination in general especially among those who are not experiencing psychological reactance, and building trust in government. This study also suggested that interventions aimed at improving attitudes towards vaccination in general should seek to avoid psychological reactance, and special attention should be given to people who are experiencing psychological reactance to pro-vaccination messages.

6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082313

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed a profound psychological impact on healthcare workers. However, the role of positive affect in moderating the effect of perceived stress on the psychological states of healthcare workers remains unknown. This study aimed to analyze the moderating effect of positive affect on the association between stress and the mental health of healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. This cross-sectional study evaluated the relationships between perceived stress (the Perceived Stress Scale), positive affect (the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule), depression (the Patient Health Questionnaire-9), and anxiety (the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item Scale) during the COVID-19 pandemic in 644 Chinese healthcare workers who completed online self-reports. The results revealed a significant negative association between positive affect and psychological problems, including stress, depression, and anxiety. At the total group level, multiple regression analysis showed that positive affect alleviated the influence of perceived stress on depression, but no significant moderating effect was found for anxiety. In the subgroups divided by perceived stress, the moderating effect of positive affect on depression was only significant in healthcare workers with a high level of perceived stress. These results suggested that positive affect played a moderative role in alleviating the effect of stress on depression among healthcare workers, particularly those with a high level of stress, thus emphasizing the importance of positive affect as an intervention strategy for promoting the mental health of healthcare workers in the context of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
7.
J Psychol ; 156(8): 535-551, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050746

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to examine the association between mindfulness and COVID-19 vaccination intention, and the mediating role of presence of meaning in life and moral elevation in such association. METHOD: In a cross-sectional study design, a total of 1733 health care workers (81.1% females, Mage = 34.16 ± 9.03) from four cities in China were recruited and completed an online survey that measured mindfulness, moral elevation, presence of meaning in life and COVID-19 vaccination intention. RESULTS: It has been found that 73.1% of the participants reported an intention to receive COVID-19 vaccination. Mindfulness was positively associated with COVID-19 vaccination intention; Mediation analyses using structural equation modeling showed a significant indirect effect of mindfulness on COVID-19 vaccination intention, accounting for 42.4% of the total effect. Mindfulness was positively associated with COVID-19 vaccination intention directly via presence of meaning in life, and indirectly via moral elevation and presence of meaning in life. CONCLUSIONS: The findings add knowledge of how mindfulness may increase COVID-19 vaccination intention, and underscore the potential need for mindfulness training, positive emotion promotion, presence of meaning in life interventions to improve acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination among health care workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mindfulness , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Intention , Male , Psychology, Positive , Vaccination/psychology
8.
Internet Interv ; 28: 100541, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796618

ABSTRACT

Background: Public health emergencies may lead to severe psychological stress, especially for healthcare workers, including frontline healthcare workers and public health workers. However, few stress management interventions have been implemented for healthcare workers even though they require more comprehensive interventions than the general public. Self-Help Plus (SH+) is a novel psychological self-help intervention developed by the World Health Organization. It is accessible, scalable, and cost-effective and has the potential to be quickly applied to help people cope with stress and adversity. The major objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of SH+ interventions on the alleviation of stress levels and mental health problems among healthcare workers. Methods: A randomized controlled trial of SH+ will be conducted to investigate the stress level and mental health status of Chinese healthcare workers and control subjects in Guangzhou. Assessments will be performed before (baseline), at the end of (1 month), and 2 months after (3 months) the intervention. After completing the baseline screening questionnaire, eligible participants will be randomly assigned to one of the two groups in a 1:1 ratio by block randomization. During the 1-month intervention period, the intervention group will receive the SH+ intervention and the control group will receive information about mental health promotion. The intervention will be delivered by the research assistant via social media platforms. The primary outcome is the level of stress, which will be measured by a 10-item Perceived Stress Scale. Secondary outcomes including mental health symptoms will also be collected. Discussion: Given the potential for multiple COVID-19 waves and other infectious disease pandemics in the future, we expect that SH+ will be an effective stress management intervention for healthcare workers. The findings from this study will facilitate the application of SH+, and the trial is expected to be extended to a larger population in the future.

9.
J Adv Nurs ; 78(8): 2327-2338, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703444

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The present study investigated the association between resilience, stigma, life satisfaction and the intention to receive a COVID-19 vaccination among Chinese HCWs. It also explored the mediating role of stigma and life satisfaction on the association between resilience and intention to receive a COVID-19 vaccination. DESIGN: An anonymous cross-sectional survey. METHODS: 1733 HCWs from five hospitals in four provinces of mainland China completed a cross-sectional online survey in October and November 2020. RESULTS: Among the HCWs, the rate of intention to receive a COVID-19 vaccination was 73.1%. Results from structural equation modelling showed that resilience was associated both directly, and indirectly with greater intent to receive a COVID-19 vaccination through two pathways: first by increasing life satisfaction, and second by reducing stigma and increasing life satisfaction. CONCLUSION: Promoting the resilience of HCWs has the potential to increase the COVID-19 vaccination uptake rate among HCWs in China. IMPACT: This study tested the relationship between several psychological factors and the COVID-19 vaccination intention of HCWs in China, finding that resilience played a significant role in improving COVID-19 vaccination intention rates by reducing stigma and increasing life satisfaction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intention , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Personal Satisfaction , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/psychology
10.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(11)2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524209

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is one of the most effective ways of controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. However, vaccine hesitancy is prevalent, and relatively few studies have explored how variables related to personal and external motives have affected the intention to vaccinate. The present study investigated the association between perceived personal benefits, variables reflecting external motives (i.e., perceived social benefits, collectivism, and national pride) and intention to receive COVID-19 vaccination among university students in China. The interaction between perceived personal benefits and the three factors reflecting external motives on intention to receive COVID-19 vaccination was also examined. A total of 6922 university students from five provinces of China completed a cross-sectional survey. Results showed that adjusting for significant background variables, perceived personal benefits, perceived social benefits, collectivism, and national pride were all significant factors of intention to receive COVID-19 vaccination. Results from interaction analyses also showed that the association between perceived personal benefits and COVID-19 vaccination intention was stronger among those with lower levels of national pride. Findings highlighted the important role of self-directed interest and external motives in promoting uptake of COVID-19 vaccination.

11.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 37, 2021 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150428

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 has caused significant toll over the globe. Pregnant women are at risk of infection. The present study examined the frequency of washing hands with soap and wearing face mask when going out, prevalence of depression and anxiety, and identified their associated factors among pregnant women during the early phase of COVID-19 outbreak in China. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted between 24 February and 3 March 2020. A total of 15 428 pregnant women who were using maternal health care services in China completed a questionnaire which assessed their socio-demographic and pregnancy-related characteristics, contextual, cognitive and social factors related to COVID-19, frequency of washing hands and wearing face masks, and depression and anxiety. Logistics regression analyses were performed to identify the associated factors of preventive behaviours and mental health. RESULTS: The prevalence of probable anxiety and depression was 28.2% and 43.6% respectively. 19.8% reported always wearing face mask when going out, and 19.1% reported washing hands with soap for more than 10 times per day. Results from logistic regression analyses showed that older age was associated with lower levels of depression and anxiety (OR = 0.42-0.67) and higher frequency of washing hands (OR = 1.57-3.40). Higher level of education level was associated with probable depression (OR = 1.31-1.45) and higher frequency of wearing face mask (OR = 1.50-1.57). After adjusting for significant socio-demographic and pregnancy-related factors, place of residence being locked down (aOR = 1.10-1.11), being quarantined (aOR = 1.42-1.57), personally knowing someone being infected with COVID-19 (aOR = 1.80-1.92), perception that COVID-19 would pose long term physical harm to human (aOR = 1.25-1.28) were associated with higher levels of depression and anxiety, while the perception that the disease will be under control in the coming month was associated with lower levels of depression and anxiety (aOR = 0.59-0.63) and lower tendency of always wearing face mask (aOR = 0.85). Social support was associated with lower levels of depression and anxiety (aOR = 0.86-0,87) and higher frequency of washing hands (aOR = 1.06). CONCLUSIONS: The mental health and preventive behaviours of pregnant women during COVID-19 outbreak was associated with a range of socio-demographic, pregnancy-related, contextual, cognitive and social factors. Interventions to mitigate their mental health problems and to promote preventive behaviours are highly warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Health Behavior , Mental Health , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Age Factors , China , Depression/epidemiology , Educational Status , Female , Hand Disinfection/trends , Humans , Logistic Models , Maternal Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Odds Ratio , Personal Protective Equipment , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/psychology , Prenatal Care , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Social Support , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
12.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(1): e24495, 2021 01 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044788

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although lockdown and mandatory quarantine measures have played crucial roles in the sharp decrease of the number of newly confirmed/suspected COVID-19 cases, concerns have been raised over the threat that these measures pose to mental health, especially the mental health of vulnerable groups, including pregnant women. Few empirical studies have assessed whether and how these control measures may affect mental health, and no study has investigated the prevalence and impacts of the use of eHealth resources among pregnant women during the COVID-19 outbreak. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated (1) the effects of lockdown and mandatory quarantine on mental health problems (ie, anxiety and depressive symptoms), (2) the potential mediation effects of perceived social support and maladaptive cognition, and (3) the moderation effects of eHealth-related factors (ie, using social media to obtain health information and using prenatal care services during the COVID-19 pandemic) on pregnant women in China. METHODS: An online cross-sectional survey was conducted among 19,515 pregnant women from all 34 Chinese provincial-level administrative regions from February 25 to March 10, 2020. RESULTS: Of the 19,515 participants, 12,209 (62.6%) were subjected to lockdown in their areas of residence, 737 (3.8%) were subjected to mandatory quarantine, 8712 (44.6%) had probable mild to severe depression, 5696 (29.2%) had probable mild to severe anxiety, and 1442 (7.4%) had suicidal ideations. Only 640 (3.3%) participants reported that they used online prenatal care services during the outbreak. Significant sociodemographic/maternal factors of anxiety/depressive symptoms included age, education, occupation, the area of residence, gestational duration, the number of children born, complication during pregnancy, the means of using prenatal care services, and social media use for obtaining health information. Multiple indicators multiple causes modeling (χ214=495.21; P<.05; comparative fit index=.99; nonnormed fit index=.98; root mean square error of approximation=.04, 90% CI 0.038-0.045) showed that quarantine was directly and indirectly strongly associated with poor mental health through decreased perceived social support and increased maladaptive cognition (B=.04; ß=.02, 95% CI 0.01-0.02; P=.001), while lockdown was indirectly associated with mental health through increased social support and maladaptive cognition among pregnant women (B=.03; ß=.03, 95% CI 0.02-0.03; P=.001). Multigroup analyses revealed that the use of social media for obtaining health information and the means of using prenatal care services were significant moderators of the model paths. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide epidemiological evidence for the importance of integrating mental health care and eHealth into the planning and implementation of control measure policies. The observed social and cognitive mechanisms and moderators in this study are modifiable, and they can inform the design of evidence-based mental health promotion among pregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cognition , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pregnant Women/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Telemedicine , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Suicidal Ideation , Surveys and Questionnaires
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