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1.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 25(1): 7-10, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726287

ABSTRACT

During the second wave of COVID-19 pandemic, there is a sudden increase in number of cases mucormycosis infection in India. This communication by the Tropical Neurology subsection expert group of the Indian Academy of Neurology (IAN) describes the clinical and diagnostic features, treatment of the disease and gives recommendations about the ways forward.

2.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 25(1): 60-67, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726286

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study impact of COVID-19 pandemic on frequency, clinical/electrophysiological profile and treatment outcomes in pediatric Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Background: GBS is the most frequent cause of pediatric acute flaccid paralysis. The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on pediatric GBS is unclear in the literature. Methods: We conducted an ambispective, multicentric, cohort study involving 12 of 27 centres in GBS Consortium, during two periods: pre-COVID-19 (March-August 2019) and during COVID-19 (March-August 2020). Children ≤12 years who satisfied National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke criteria for GBS/variants were enrolled. Details pertaining to clinical/laboratory parameters, treatment and outcomes (modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at discharge, GBS Disability score at discharge and 3 months) were analysed. Results: We enrolled 33 children in 2019 and 10 in 2020. Children in 2020 were older (median 10.4 [interquartile range 6.75-11.25] years versus 5 (2.5-8.4) years; P = 0.022) and had more sensory symptoms (50% versus 18.2%; P = 0.043). The 2020 group had relatively favourable mRS at discharge (median 1 (1-3.5) versus 3 (2-4); P = 0.042) and GBS disability score at 3 months (median 0 (0-0.75) versus 2 (0-3); P = 0.009) compared to 2019. Multivariate analysis revealed bowel involvement (P = 0.000) and ventilatory support (P = 0.001) as independent predictors of disability. No child in 2020 had preceding/concurrent SARS-CoV2 infection. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic led to a marked decline in pediatric GBS presenting to hospitals. Antecedent illnesses, clinical and electrophysiological profile of GBS remained largely unchanged from the pre-pandemic era.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319311

ABSTRACT

Importance: The first systematic review and meta-analysis to help clinician to identify early the sign and symptoms of neurological manifestation in COVID-19 positive patients which further help in early management of patients. Objective: Present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to discuss the prevalence of neurological involvement of the 2019-nCoV patients and assess the symptomatic trend of events as compared to the 2002 “SARS” and 2012 “MERS” pandemics. Methods: : The articles were systematically screened through several search engine and databases. The articles published or in preprint were included in the study till 15 th May 2020. The systematic review done as per the published literatures which included 31 cross sectional, observational studies and case reports which revealed neural sign and symptoms in SARS-COV-2 disease. For meta-analysis, we included 09 observational and cross sectional studies which included COVID-19 positive patients and assessed the predominance of various neurological sign and symptoms in COVID-19 patients relation to SARS-2002 and MERS-2012. Data were analyzed by using the “ MedCalc Statistical Software version 19.2.6 and reported as pooled prevalence. Heterogeneity was investigated (standard I 2 test). Results: : We have collected and screened about a total 2615 articles, finally we have included 31 articles for the systematic review and 09 for meta-analysis as per the inclusion/exclusion criteria. The analysis was made as per the prevalence rate of neurological symptoms during the COVID-19 positive patients. The cumulative neurological outcome of SARS-2002 and MERS-2012 was assessed to get the trends which is next tried to correlate the events with the current pandemic. During the analysis severity and outcome of neurological manifestations range from simple headache to vague non-focal complaints to severe neurologic impairment associated with seizure or meningitis. Conclusion: & Relevance: Central and peripheral nervous system (CNS/PNS) manifestations were seen during the SARS-2002, MERS-2012 and COVID-19. However, none of the publication found with the primary or secondary objective of finding the neurological manifestation in the COVID-19 patients and their mechanism which strengthen the importance to start more precise clinical trials.

4.
Neuroradiology ; 64(5): 915-924, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469684

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Vascular complications can be seen in various viral CNS infections. Variable neuro-imaging findings have been described in the literature elucidating the parenchymal changes with vascular involvement. Vessel wall imaging (VWI) can help to detect these vascular involvements. We aimed to describe the role and usefulness of VWI in the evaluation of various viral CNS infections. METHODS: In this prospective study, we included 15 cases of various diagnosed viral CNS infections (varicella, HIV encephalopathy, HSV encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, COVID-19). VWI and time-of-flight MR angiography (TOF MRA) were included in imaging protocol. All cases were evaluated for the presence of cerebral parenchymal changes, vascular enhancement, and vascular stenosis. RESULTS: We found infarctions in all 5 cases of varicella, 1 case of HIV encephalopathy, and 1 case of COVID-19 encephalopathy. All these cases also showed vascular enhancement and stenosis on VWI. The rest of the cases, including 1 case of HIV encephalopathy, 3 cases of herpes encephalitis, 2 cases of dengue, and 2 cases of Japanese encephalitis did not have any vascular complication, and also did not show vascular enhancement or stenosis. CONCLUSION: VWI can be useful in the detection of vascular involvement in various viral infections of CNS which show a relatively higher cerebrovascular complication rate like varicella, HIV encephalopathy, and COVID-19. However, VWI may not be useful in the routine evaluation of other viral infections like herpes, dengue, and Japanese encephalitis, which have a very low rate of cerebrovascular complication rate.


Subject(s)
AIDS Dementia Complex , COVID-19 , Chickenpox , Dengue , Encephalitis, Japanese , Constriction, Pathologic , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Angiography/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Prospective Studies
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12888, 2021 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275957

ABSTRACT

The first systematic review and meta-analysis to help clinician to identify early signs and symptoms of neurological manifestation in COVID-19 positive patients which will further help in early management of patients. Present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to discuss the prevalence of neurological involvement of the 2019-nCoV patients and assess the symptomatic trend of events as compared to the 2002 "SARS" and 2012 "MERS" pandemics. The articles were systematically screened through several search engine and databases. The articles published or in preprint were included in the study till 15th May 2020. The systematic review done as per the published literatures which included 31 cross sectional, observational studies and case reports which revealed neurological signs and symptoms in SARS-COV-2 disease. For meta-analysis, we included 09 observational and cross-sectional studies which included COVID-19 positive patients and assessed the predominance of various neurological signs and symptoms in COVID-19 patients with relation to SARS-2002 and MERS-2012. Data was analyzed by using the "MedCalc" Statistical Software version 19.2.6 and reported as pooled prevalence. Standard I2 test was used to analyze the heterogeneity. We have collected and screened about a total 2615articles, finally we have included 31articles for the systematic review and 09 for meta-analysis as per the inclusion/exclusion criteria. The analysis was made as per the prevalence rate of neurological symptoms in COVID-19 positive patients. The cumulative neurological outcome of SARS-2002 and MERS-2012 was assessed to get the trends which was further tried to correlate the events with the current pandemic. During the analysis severity and outcome of neurological manifestations range from simple headache to vague non-focal complaints to severe neurologic impairment associated with seizure or meningitis. Central and peripheral nervous system (CNS/PNS) manifestations were seen during the SARS-2002, MERS-2012 and COVID-19. However, none of the publication had primary or secondary objectives of searching neurological manifestations in the COVID-19 patients and the pathogenic mechanism which will subsequently strengthen the importance to start more prospective clinical trials. The prevalence of neurological signs and symptoms were taken as primary objective. Thereafter, the prevalence of each CNS/PNS symptoms was categorized and their prevalence studied. The selection of Bagheri et al., 2020 may be discussed because they have done the cross-sectional study with the neurological finding and correlated the data with prevalence of the COVID-19 positive patients. The proportion of patients presenting with neurological outcome and clinical/PCR positivity were done. We had searched and followed all the possible online/web source, still the data collection process may remain a limitation of work due to addition of several publications on COVID-19 every day. Due to lack of data of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, we have included the case reports, MERS and COVID-19 in CNS/PNS manifestations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Prevalence
6.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(2): e803-e811, 2021 01 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922690

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: The effects of COVID-19 on the thyroid axis remain uncertain. Recent evidence has been conflicting, with both thyrotoxicosis and suppression of thyroid function reported. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to detail the acute effects of COVID-19 on thyroid function and determine if these effects persisted on recovery from COVID-19. DESIGN: A cohort observational study was conducted. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Adult patients admitted to Imperial College Healthcare National Health Service Trust, London, UK, with suspected COVID-19 between March 9 to April 22, 2020, were included, excluding those with preexisting thyroid disease and those missing either free thyroxine (FT4) or thyrotropin (TSH) measurements. Of 456 patients, 334 had COVID-19 and 122 did not. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: TSH and FT4 measurements were recorded at admission, and where available, in 2019 and at COVID-19 follow-up. RESULTS: Most patients (86.6%) presenting with COVID-19 were euthyroid, with none presenting with overt thyrotoxicosis. Patients with COVID-19 had a lower admission TSH and FT4 compared to those without COVID-19. In the COVID-19 patients with matching baseline thyroid function tests from 2019 (n = 185 for TSH and 104 for FT4), TSH and FT4 both were reduced at admission compared to baseline. In a complete case analysis of COVID-19 patients with TSH measurements at follow-up, admission, and baseline (n = 55), TSH was seen to recover to baseline at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Most patients with COVID-19 present with euthyroidism. We observed mild reductions in TSH and FT4 in keeping with a nonthyroidal illness syndrome. Furthermore, in survivors of COVID-19, thyroid function tests at follow-up returned to baseline.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/rehabilitation , Thyroid Gland/physiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Thyroid Diseases/blood , Thyroid Diseases/complications , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Thyroid Diseases/physiopathology , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyrotropin/blood , Thyroxine/blood , Time Factors , Triiodothyronine/blood
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