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Exp Clin Transplant ; 19(4): 304-309, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090202


OBJECTIVES: There are limited clinical data on feasibility and safety of convalescent plasma therapy in kidney transplant recipients with severe COVID-19. The present study was conducted to explore the feasibility of convalescent plasma treatment in 10 kidney transplant recipients with severe COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The prospective observational cohort study was conducted at the Institute of Kidney Disease and Research Centre, Ahmedabad, India. All patients were admitted to the intensive care unit and received antiviral therapy, glucocorticoids, and other supportive care. Two doses of 200 mL each of convalescent plasma with neutralization activity of >1:640 were transfused into patients 24 hours apart following the World Health Organization blood transfusion protocol. The endpoints were the improvement of clinical symptoms and laboratory parameters within 1 day and 7 days after convalescent plasma transfusion. RESULTS: The patients showed resolution of clinical symptoms, and there was a significant decrease in inflammatory markers (P < .05) within 7 days of convalescent plasma transfusion. Of the 10 patients, 9 patients had full recovery and 1 patient died. CONCLUSIONS: Convalescent plasma therapy is highly safe and clinically feasible and reduces mortality in kidney transplant recipients with severe COVID-19. Larger clinical registries and randomized clinical trials should be conducted to further explore the clinical outcomes associated with convalescent plasma use in kidney transplant recipients with severe COVID-19.

COVID-19/therapy , Kidney Transplantation , Transplant Recipients , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects , Immunization, Passive/mortality , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , India , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , COVID-19 Serotherapy
Transplantation ; 105(4): 851-860, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-991012


BACKGROUND: There is a scarcity of data on the consequences of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) infections in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) from emerging countries. METHODS: Here, we present a cohort study of 13 transplant centers in India including 250 KTR (226 living and 24 deceased donors) with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19 positivity from March 23, 2020, until September 15, 2020. We detailed demographics, immunosuppression regimen, clinical profile, treatment, and outcomes. RESULTS: Median age of transplant recipients was 43 years, and recipients presented at a median of 3.5 years after transplant. Most common comorbidities (94%) included arterial hypertension (84%) and diabetes (32%); presenting symptoms at the time of COVID-19 included fever (88%), cough (72%), and sputum production (52%). Clinical severity ranged from asymptomatic (6%), mild (60%), and moderate (20%) to severe (14%). Strategies to modify immunosuppressants included discontinuation of antimetabolites without changes in calcineurin inhibitors and steroids (60%). Risk factors for mortality included older age; dyspnea; severe disease; obesity; allograft dysfunction before COVID-19 infection; acute kidney injury; higher levels of inflammatory markers including C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 level, and procalcitonin; chest X-ray abnormality, and intensive care unit/ventilator requirements. Overall patient mortality was 11.6% (29 of 250), 14.5% (29 of 200) in hospitalized patients, 47% (25 of 53) in intensive care unit patients, and 96.7% (29 of 30) in patients requiring ventilation. KTRs with mild COVID-19 symptoms (n = 50) were managed as outpatients to optimize the utilization of scarce resources during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality rates in COVID-19-positive KTR appear to be higher than those in nonimmunosuppressed patients, and high mortality was noted among those requiring intensive care and those on ventilator.

COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunosuppression Therapy/adverse effects , Immunosuppression Therapy/methods , India/epidemiology , Kidney Transplantation/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Transplant Recipients , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
Exp Clin Transplant ; 19(1): 1-7, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-708659


The tools in our armamentarium to prevent the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019, known as COVID-19, are social distancing; frequent handwashing; use of facial masks; preventing nonessential contacts/travel; nationwide lockdown; and testing, isolation, and contact tracing. However, the World Health Organization's suggestions to isolate, test, treat, and trace contacts are difficult to implement in the resourcelimited developing world. The points to weigh before performing deceased-donor organ transplant in developing countries are as follows: limitations in standard personal protective equipment (as approved by the World Health Organization), testing kits, asymptomatic infections, negative-pressure isolation rooms, intensive care unit beds, ventilator support, telehealth, availability of trained health care workers, hospital beds, the changing dynamic of this pandemic, the unwillingness of recipients, education updates, and additional burdens on the existing health care system. This pandemic has created ethical dilemmas on how to prioritize the use of our facilities, equipment, and supplies in the cash-strapped developing world. We believe that, at the present time, we should aim to resolve the COVID-19 pandemic that is affecting a large sector of the population by diverting efforts from deceased-donor organ transplant. Transplant units should conduct case-bycase evaluations when assessing the convenience of carrying out lifesaving deceased-donor organ transplant, appropriately balanced with the resources needed to address the current pandemic.

COVID-19 , Health Resources , Organ Transplantation , Tissue and Organ Procurement/ethics , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Cadaver , Developing Countries , Humans , Risk Factors