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Infect Disord Drug Targets ; 21(6): e170721187995, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-926410


BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious viral infection that was initiated in Wuhan, China, and has spread around the world. The high prevalence and rapid transmission between individuals of COVID-19 have become an international challenge that requires careful consideration. We aimed to review the current evidence of COVID-19 transmission modes. METHODS: This study was a systematic review performed to identify current evidence of COVID-19 transmission modes. We searched selected keywords in six key databases to discover sources relevant to the main objective of the study. To identify studies meeting the inclusion criteria, the authors screened the titles and abstracts of the retrieved documents. The appropriate articles were then selected and their results were discussed to make the final inclusion. RESULTS: We identified five potential transmission modes of COVID-19, including airborne, droplet, contact with contaminated surfaces, oral and fecal secretions. Furthermore, some studies have pointed out other modes of virus transmission, such as person to person, and direct contact with animals. CONCLUSION: Droplet and contact with contaminated surfaces are the most frequent transmission modes of COVID-19. However, fecal excretion, environmental contamination, and fluid pollution may also contribute to viral transmission. The possibility of fecal transmission in COVID-19 has implications, especially in areas that are poorly hygienic. Environmental pollution can be caused by patients with SARS-CoV-2 through respiratory droplets and feces. Consequently, the human environment will become a potential medium of virus transmission.

COVID-19 , Feces , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1636, 2020 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-901859


BACKGROUND: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on the workload and mental health of Iranian medical staff using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and NASA -Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) Questionnaire between March and April 2020, respectively. METHODS: The present cross-sectional study was conducted from March 5th to April 5th, 2020. To evaluate the workload and mental health of participants NASA-TLX and GHQ-12 online questionnaires were distributed. Data were entered into software SPSS (Version 23) and T-test, ANOVA, Regression methods were used for data analysis. RESULTS: Health workers who encountered COVID- 19 patients, were subjected to more task load compared to those who had no contact with COVID- 19 patients at the workplace (p <  0.001). In terms of the subscale score of NASA-TLX, nurses had more scores in mental pressure, physical pressure, time pressure (temporal), and frustration compared to the other jobs (p <  0.05). Moreover, nurses had significantly more workload compared to the other jobs. CONCLUSIONS: Type of job, the shift of work, educational level, and facing COVID-19 affected the score of NASA-TLX. NASA-TLX scores were higher in nursing compared to the scores of other health staff groups. The results of this study indicate that the scores of NASA-TLX and GHQ-12 among staff who had contact with COVID-19 patients were significantly higher than those who did not face COVID-19 patients. We suggested that a comprehensive assistance should be provided to support the well-being of healthcare workers especially nurses and healthcare workers who treated COVID-19 patients.

Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Epidemics , Health Personnel/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Workload/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult