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Molecules ; 28(5)2023 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2250183


Tubulin isotypes are known to regulate microtubule stability and dynamics, as well as to play a role in the development of resistance to microtubule-targeted cancer drugs. Griseofulvin is known to disrupt cell microtubule dynamics and cause cell death in cancer cells through binding to tubulin protein at the taxol site. However, the detailed binding mode involved molecular interactions, and binding affinities with different human ß-tubulin isotypes are not well understood. Here, the binding affinities of human ß-tubulin isotypes with griseofulvin and its derivatives were investigated using molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation, and binding energy calculations. Multiple sequence analysis shows that the amino acid sequences are different in the griseofulvin binding pocket of ßI isotypes. However, no differences were observed at the griseofulvin binding pocket of other ß-tubulin isotypes. Our molecular docking results show the favorable interaction and significant affinity of griseofulvin and its derivatives toward human ß-tubulin isotypes. Further, molecular dynamics simulation results show the structural stability of most ß-tubulin isotypes upon binding to the G1 derivative. Taxol is an effective drug in breast cancer, but resistance to it is known. Modern anticancer treatments use a combination of multiple drugs to alleviate the problem of cancer cells resistance to chemotherapy. Our study provides a significant understanding of the involved molecular interactions of griseofulvin and its derivatives with ß-tubulin isotypes, which may help to design potent griseofulvin analogues for specific tubulin isotypes in multidrug-resistance cancer cells in future.

Griseofulvin , Tubulin , Humans , Tubulin/metabolism , Griseofulvin/analysis , Molecular Docking Simulation , Binding Sites , Microtubules , Paclitaxel/pharmacology
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2022 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2241050


One of the main obstacles in prevention and treatment of COVID-19 is the rapid evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein. Given that Spike is the main target of common treatments of COVID-19, mutations occurring at this virulent factor can affect the effectiveness of treatments. The B.1.617.2 lineage of SARS-CoV-2, being characterized by many Spike mutations inside and outside of its receptor-binding domain (RBD), shows high infectivity and relative resistance to existing cures. Here, utilizing a wide range of computational biology approaches, such as immunoinformatics, molecular dynamics (MD), analysis of intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs), protein-protein interaction analyses, residue scanning, and free energy calculations, we examine the structural and biological attributes of the B.1.617.2 Spike protein. Furthermore, the antibody design protocol of Rosetta was implemented for evaluation the stability and affinity improvement of the Bamlanivimab (LY-CoV55) antibody, which is not capable of interactions with the B.1.617.2 Spike. We observed that the detected mutations in the Spike of the B1.617.2 variant of concern can cause extensive structural changes compatible with the described variation in immunogenicity, secondary and tertiary structure, oligomerization potency, Furin cleavability, and drug targetability. Compared to the Spike of Wuhan lineage, the B.1.617.2 Spike is more stable and binds to the Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) with higher affinity.

Molecules ; 27(20)2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081847


Griseofulvin is an antifungal polyketide metabolite produced mainly by ascomycetes. Since it was commercially introduced in 1959, griseofulvin has been used in treating dermatophyte infections. This fungistatic has gained increasing interest for multifunctional applications in the last decades due to its potential to disrupt mitosis and cell division in human cancer cells and arrest hepatitis C virus replication. In addition to these inhibitory effects, we and others found griseofulvin may enhance ACE2 function, contribute to vascular vasodilation, and improve capillary blood flow. Furthermore, molecular docking analysis revealed that griseofulvin and its derivatives have good binding potential with SARS-CoV-2 main protease, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD), suggesting its inhibitory effects on SARS-CoV-2 entry and viral replication. These findings imply the repurposing potentials of the FDA-approved drug griseofulvin in designing and developing novel therapeutic interventions. In this review, we have summarized the available information from its discovery to recent progress in this growing field. Additionally, explored is the possible mechanism leading to rare hepatitis induced by griseofulvin. We found that griseofulvin and its metabolites, including 6-desmethylgriseofulvin (6-DMG) and 4- desmethylgriseofulvin (4-DMG), have favorable interactions with cytokeratin intermediate filament proteins (K8 and K18), ranging from -3.34 to -5.61 kcal mol-1. Therefore, they could be responsible for liver injury and Mallory body (MB) formation in hepatocytes of human, mouse, and rat treated with griseofulvin. Moreover, the stronger binding of griseofulvin to K18 in rodents than in human may explain the observed difference in the severity of hepatitis between rodents and human.

COVID-19 , Polyketides , Mice , Humans , Rats , Animals , Griseofulvin/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Molecular Docking Simulation , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Keratins/metabolism , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jun 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963997


Treatment options for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) remain limited, and the option of repurposing approved drugs with promising medicinal properties is of increasing interest in therapeutic approaches to COVID-19. Using computational approaches, we examined griseofulvin and its derivatives against four key anti-SARS-CoV-2 targets: main protease, RdRp, spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD), and human host angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Molecular docking analysis revealed that griseofulvin (CID 441140) has the highest docking score (-6.8 kcal/mol) with main protease of SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, griseofulvin derivative M9 (CID 144564153) proved the most potent inhibitor with -9.49 kcal/mol, followed by A3 (CID 46844082) with -8.44 kcal/mol against M protease and ACE2, respectively. Additionally, H bond analysis revealed that compound A3 formed the highest number of hydrogen bonds, indicating the strongest inhibitory efficacy against ACE2. Further, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation analysis revealed that griseofulvin and these derivatives are structurally stable. These findings suggest that griseofulvin and its derivatives may be considered when designing future therapeutic options for SARS-CoV-2 infection.

COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Griseofulvin/pharmacology , Griseofulvin/therapeutic use , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism