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1.
Molecules ; 27(9)2022 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820345

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Natural constituents are still a preferred route for counteracting the outbreak of COVID-19. Essentially, flavonoids have been found to be among the most promising molecules identified as coronavirus inhibitors. Recently, a new SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 variant has spread in many countries, which has raised awareness of the role of natural constituents in attempts to contribute to therapeutic protocols. (2) Methods: Using various chromatographic techniques, triterpenes (1-7), phenolics (8-11), and flavonoids (12-17) were isolated from Euphorbia dendroides and computationally screened against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant. As a first step, molecular docking calculations were performed for all investigated compounds. Promising compounds were subjected to molecular dynamics simulations (MD) for 200 ns, in addition to molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area calculations (MM/PBSA) to determine binding energy. (3) Results: MM/PBSA binding energy calculations showed that compound 14 (quercetin-3-O-ß-D-glucuronopyranoside) and compound 15 (quercetin-3-O-glucuronide 6″-O-methyl ester) exhibited strong inhibition of Omicron, with ΔGbinding of -41.0 and -32.4 kcal/mol, respectively. Finally, drug likeness evaluations based on Lipinski's rule of five also showed that the discovered compounds exhibited good oral bioavailability. (4) Conclusions: It is foreseeable that these results provide a novel intellectual contribution in light of the decreasing prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 and could be a good addition to the therapeutic protocol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Euphorbia , COVID-19/drug therapy , Euphorbia/metabolism , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Glycoproteins , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
2.
J Mol Graph Model ; 105: 107904, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142056

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new pandemic characterized by quick spreading and illness of the respiratory system. To date, there is no specific therapy for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Flavonoids, especially rutin, have attracted considerable interest as a prospective SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) inhibitor. In this study, a database containing 2017 flavone analogs was prepared and screened against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro using the molecular docking technique. According to the results, 371 flavone analogs exhibited good potency towards Mpro with docking scores less than -9.0 kcal/mol. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, followed by molecular mechanics-generalized Born surface area (MM/GBSA) binding energy calculations, were performed for the top potent analogs in complex with Mpro. Compared to rutin, PubChem-129-716-607 and PubChem-885-071-27 showed better binding affinities against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro over 150 ns MD course with ΔGbinding values of -69.0 and -68.1 kcal/mol, respectively. Structural and energetic analyses demonstrated high stability of the identified analogs inside the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro active site over 150 ns MD simulations. The oral bioavailabilities of probable SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitors were underpinned using drug-likeness parameters. A comparison of the binding affinities demonstrated that the MM/GBSA binding energies of the identified flavone analogs were approximately three and two times less than those of lopinavir and baicalein, respectively. In conclusion, PubChem-129-716-607 and PubChem-885-071-27 are promising anti-COVID-19 drug candidates that warrant further clinical investigations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Flavones , Drug Discovery , Flavones/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Prospective Studies , Protease Inhibitors , Rutin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
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