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1.
J Am Acad Orthop Surg ; 30(22): e1474-e1482, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100238

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (COVID-19) pandemic has continued to generate notable disruption in elective total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is any difference in patient characteristics, revenue, and clinical outcomes in patients undergoing THA and TKA after the start of the pandemic. METHODS: We reviewed a consecutive series of 26,493 patients undergoing primary and revision THA and TKA by 48 surgeons in a single arthroplasty practice. We compared demographics, comorbidities, outcomes, and surgeon revenue from THA and TKA procedures from March 2020 to February 2021 with a prepandemic group undergoing a procedure from March 2019 to February 2020. RESULTS: There was a 20% decline in the volume of all cases in the pandemic group ( 11,688 versus 14,664 , P < 0.001). The postpandemic cohort had shorter length of stay (1.58 versus 1.70 days, P = 0.007), had higher rates of home discharge (98% versus 91%, P < 0.001), and were more likely to have their procedure done at an outpatient facility (21% versus 7%, P < 0.001). Even among patients older than 65 years, more pandemic patients underwent a procedure as an outpatient (19% versus 7%, P < 0.001), with no difference in complications or readmissions. Total surgeon charges and payments declined by 17.6% and 16.3%, respectively, during the pandemic ( P = 0.010). CONCLUSION: Although the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a notable reduction in surgical volume and revenue loss for our practice, we found a marked shift of arthroplasty patients to outpatient facilities with increased rates of home discharge without compromising patient safety.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19 , Humans , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/adverse effects , Pandemics , Patient Readmission , Length of Stay , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies
2.
Endocrine ; 2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075624

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is a hypothalamic hormone, which regulates growth hormone release from the anterior pituitary gland. GHRH antagonists (GHRHAnt) are anticancer agents, which also exert robust anti-inflammatory activities in malignancies. GHRHAnt exhibit anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects in vascular endothelial cells, indicating their potential use against disorders related to barrier dysfunction (e.g. sepsis). Herein, we aim to investigate the effects of GHRHAnt against lung endothelial hyperpermeability. METHODS: The in vitro effects of GHRHAnt in H2O2-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction were investigated in bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (BPAEC). Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) was utilized to measure transendothelial resistance, an indicator of barrier function. RESULTS: Our results demonstrate that GHRHAnt protect against H2O2-induced endothelial barrier disruption via P53 and cofilin modulation. Both proteins are crucial modulators of vascular integrity. Moreover, GHRHAnt prevent H2O2 - induced decrease in transendothelial resistance. CONCLUSIONS: GHRHAnt represent a promising therapeutic intervention towards diseases related to lung endothelial hyperpermeability, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome - related or not to COVID-19 - and sepsis. Targeted medicine for those potentially lethal disorders does not exist.

3.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):641-642, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063495

ABSTRACT

Purpose: We report the immunogenicity and safety of a third BNT162b2 vaccine in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients (pSOTRs). Method(s): Samples from pSOTRs (12-18 years) enrolled in our multicenter, observational study (COVID-19 Antibody Testing of Recipients of Solid Organ Transplants and Patients with Chronic Diseases) who received a third vaccine (V3) were analyzed for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor-binding domain, with a positive cutoff of >=0.8 and maximum titer of >2500 U/mL. Pre-V3 samples were 1-3 months after vaccine 2, and post-V3 were 1 month after vaccine 3. Result(s): Thirty-seven pSOTRs (46% heart, 24% liver, 27% kidney, 3% multi) received V3. Median (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 15 (14-16) years;42% were male and 78% white. pSOTRs were median (IQR) 9 (6-13) years from transplant. Four (11%) patients had prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Antibody titers were positive in 26/37 (70%) patients pre-V3 and 32/37 (86%) post-V3 (Figure). Median (IQR) antibody titers were higher post-V3 (2500 [1581-2500] U/mL) than pre-V3 (211 [0.8-2500] U/mL) in paired analysis (p<0.001). 6/11 (55%) pSOTRs with negative pre-V3 titers seroconverted, with a post-V3 median (IQR) titer of 418 (132-1581) U/ mL. Transplant within 3 years was associated with negative post-V3 titer (p=0.037). Main side effects after V3 were pain (71%) and fatigue (50%). No patients reported allergic reaction, myocarditis, or rejection. One patient tested positive for SARSCoV- 2 between vaccines 2 and 3, with negative pre- and post-V3 titers. At time of first vaccine, this patient was transplanted a year ago, treated for rejection recently, and taking 3 immunosuppression agents including an antimetabolite. Conclusion(s): In this limited cohort, 86% of pSOTRs had a positive antibody response after three SARS-CoV-2 vaccines with no adverse events. Importantly, 55% of pSOTRs with prior negative response seroconverted post-V3, and 100% of pSOTRs with positive response increased their antibody titer or remained at maximum titer. Our preliminary results suggest the benefit of a third vaccine for adolescent pSOTRs based on antibody response;larger studies are needed to assess vaccine effectiveness.

4.
Multimedia Tools and Applications ; : 1-19, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2046456

ABSTRACT

The classification of medical images is significant among researchers and physicians for the early identification and clinical treatment of many disorders. Though, traditional classifiers require more time and effort for feature extraction and reduction from images. To overcome this problem, there is a need for a new deep learning method known as Convolution Neural Network (CNN), which shows the high performance and self-learning capabilities. In this paper,to classify whether a chest X-ray (CXR) image shows pneumonia (Normal) or COVID-19 illness, a test-bed analysis has been carried out between pre-trained CNN models like Visual Geometry Group (VGG-16), VGG-19, Inception version 3 (INV3), Caps Net, DenseNet121, Residual Neural Network with 50 deep layers (ResNet50), Mobile-Net and proposed CNN classifier. It has been observed that, in terms of accuracy, the proposed CNN model appears to be potentially superior to others. Additionally, in order to increase the performance of the CNN classifier, a nature-inspired optimization method known as Hill-Climbing Algorithm based CNN (CNN-HCA) model has been proposed to enhance the CNN model’s parameters. The proposed CNN-HCA model performance is tested using a simulation study and contrasted to existing hybridized classifiers like as Particle Swarm Optimization (CNN-PSO) and CNN-Jaya. The proposed CNN-HCA model is compared with peer reviewed works in the same domain. The CXR dataset, which is freely available on the Kaggle repository, was used for all experimental validations. In terms of Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC), Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, F-score, and accuracy, the simulation findings show that the CNN-HCA is possibly superior than existing hybrid approaches. Each method employs a k-fold stratified cross-validation strategy to reduce over-fitting.

5.
Frontiers in nutrition ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2045401

ABSTRACT

Food losses and waste (FLW) is considered a critical issue in the ongoing debate on the sustainability of agri-food systems. However, the scholarly literature on FLW is still geographically-biased, with more attention devoted to developed countries, even in Europe. In this context, this article analyses the state of research on FLW in the Western Balkan region (viz. Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, North Macedonia, and Serbia). A search performed in October 2021 on the Web of Science database returned 34 documents, and 21 eligible ones were included in the systematic review. The topical analysis of the literature addressed causes of FLW, stages of the food supply chain, extent and magnitude of FLW, FLW and food security, economic and environmental impacts of FLW, and food waste (FW) management strategies. A central finding was the scarcity of data on FW in the Western Balkans. Moreover, the literature focused on FW at the consumer level, while food loss at other stages of the food chain was generally overlooked. There is a lack of comprehensive analyses of the economic and environmental impacts of FLW as well as its implications in terms of food and nutrition security. The quantification of FLW is generally inaccurate and based on estimates and self-reported data. The literature focuses on FW reuse and recycling (e.g., energy, compost) while other management strategies (e.g., reduction/prevention, redistribution) are rarely addressed. However, the results indicated that consumers in the Western Balkans pay attention to the FW issue, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, which is an encouraging sign that can be exploited in awareness-raising campaigns and education activities. Meanwhile, research on FLW in the Western Balkans is highly needed to fill the identified knowledge gap and provide evidence to policies dealing with the transition to sustainable food systems in the region.

6.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270504, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021838

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 vaccination effectively reduces severe disease and death from COVID-19. However, both vaccine uptake and intention to vaccinate differ amongst population groups. Vaccine hesitancy is highest amongst specific ethnic minority groups. There is very limited understanding of the barriers and facilitators to COVID-19 vaccine uptake in Black and South Asian ethnicities. Therefore, we aimed to explore COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy in primary care patients from South Asian (Bangladeshi/Pakistani) and Black or Black British/African/Caribbean/Mixed ethnicities. METHODS: Patients from the above ethnicities were recruited using convenience sampling in four London general practices. Telephone interviews were conducted, using an interpreter if necessary, covering questions on the degree of vaccine hesitancy, barriers and potential facilitators, and decision-making. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Data collection and analysis occurred concurrently with the iterative development of the topic guide and coding framework. Key themes were conceptualised through discussion with the wider team. RESULTS: Of thirty-eight interviews, 55% (21) of these were in Black or Black British/African/Caribbean/Mixed ethnicities, 32% (12) in Asian / British Asian and 13% (5) in mixed Black and White ethnicities. Key themes included concerns about the speed of vaccine roll-out and potential impacts on health, mistrust of official information, and exposure to misinformation. In addition, exposure to negative messages linked to vaccination appears to outweigh positive messages received. Facilitators included the opportunity to discuss concerns with a healthcare professional, utilising social influences via communities and highlighting incentives. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 has disproportionately impacted ethnic minority groups. Vaccination is an effective strategy for mitigating risk. We have demonstrated factors contributing to vaccine reluctance, hesitancy and refusal and highlighted levers for change.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Ethnicity , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Minority Groups , Primary Health Care , Vaccination
7.
Infect Chemother ; 54(3): 542-544, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974992
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(15)2022 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969431

ABSTRACT

The Internet of Things (IoT) is an innovative technology with billions of sensors in various IoT applications. Important elements used in the IoT are sensors that collect data for desired analyses. The IoT and sensors are very important in smart cities, smart agriculture, smart education, healthcare systems, and other applications. The healthcare system uses the IoT to meet global health challenges, and the newest example is COVID-19. Demand has increased during COVID-19 for healthcare to reach patients remotely and digitally at their homes. The IoT properly monitors patients using an interconnected network to overcome the issues of healthcare services. The aim of this paper is to discuss different applications, technologies, and challenges related to the healthcare system. Different databases were searched using keywords in Google Scholar, Elsevier, PubMed, ACM, ResearchGate, Scopus, Springer, etc. This paper discusses, highlights, and identifies the applications of IoT healthcare systems to provide research directions to healthcare, academia, and researchers to overcome healthcare system challenges. Hence, the IoT can be beneficial by providing better treatments using the healthcare system efficiently. In this paper, the integration of the IoT with smart technologies not only improves computation, but will also allow the IoT to be pervasive, profitable, and available anytime and anywhere. Finally, some future directions and challenges are discussed, along with useful suggestions that can assist the IoT healthcare system during COVID-19 and in a severe pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internet of Things , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Internet , Monitoring, Physiologic , Pandemics
10.
Webology ; 19(2):2663-2685, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1957752

ABSTRACT

Chest X-rays of COVID-19 patients helped detect and diagnose the virus early and assess the severity of the infection. Therefore, assessing the severity of Covid-19 infection plays an important role in determining the patient's condition and distinguishing cases that need intensive clinical care. But there are challenges facing doctors and radiologists because of vital signs, different areas of infection, and the wide differences between many cases. Therefore, deep learning techniques play an important role in solving these challenges for early detection of Covid-19 disease in X-ray images and distinguishing it from other pneumonias. In this study, three CNN models, AlexNet, ResNet-18 and GoogleNet, are proposed to diagnose a data set collected from multiple sources. Each model diagnosed a multi-class data set (four classes) and a two-class data set. All dataset images were processed and removed from the data before they were entered into CNN networks. Because the data set is unbalanced, a data augmentation technique was applied to balance the data set between collecting classes. Characteristics were extracted in a hybrid way between CNN models and Gray-level Cooccurrence Matrix (GLCM), Local Binary Pattern (LBP) and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) algorithms and combined all the algorithms into a single vector for each image. All networks achieved superior performance in diagnosing COVID-19 and distinguishing it from other pneumonias. GoogleNet reached an accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and AUC of 94.10%,95%, 97.75% and 96.13%, respectively with the dataset of multiple classes. while ResNet-18 achieved an accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and AUC of 98.60%, 98%, 98%, and 97.10%, respectively with two-class (COVID-19 and normal).

11.
INTERNATIONAL ARAB JOURNAL OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ; 19(3A):544-565, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1939727

ABSTRACT

University educational institutions in Jordan, in general, have quickly dealt with emergency situations facing education, such as the Corona pandemic, in which they needed to move from traditional learning to online learning (in its fully and blended forms) during the previous period. This led the public and private educational institutions in Jordan to implement the executive action plan that was prepared by the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research (MoHESR) for integrating online learning into the higher education system and reflect it on their programs in order to keep pace with developments at the local, regional and international levels. This study includes a specification of the components relevant to online learning management system, and aims to determine the percentages of achievement at the level of fully online learning and blended learning for all components of the online learning management system in public and private Jordanian universities and also determine the percentages of achievement for each one of these components at the university level, and the most important actions that should be taken by universities to achieve them. The study also aims to benefit the integration of online learning within the Jordanian higher education system in an effective manner that achieves high levels of educational quality for online learning in its both forms and ensure the desired shift in the performance of Jordanian higher education institutions and the quality of its output, keeping pace with global developments in this field. The study concludes with a set of results that will benefit decision-makers in the Accreditation and Quality Assurance Commission for Higher Education Institutions (AQACHEI), MoHESR, and Jordanian higher education institutions.

12.
Cureus ; 14(6): e26016, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1918097

ABSTRACT

Background The western region of Saudi Arabia is the most populous and diverse. This study aimed to identify the types and distribution of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants causing cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in this region in June 2021. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study. All genetically tested COVID-19 patients were included. We investigated the types, distribution, and magnitude of SARS-CoV-2 variants among cases of COVID-19 in June 2021. We gathered patient demographic data, clinical profiles, and epidemiology data. Results Of 115 COVID-19 confirmed patients (mean age, 40 years), 56.5% were males and 43.5% were females. Of those vaccinated, 47.1% had received a one-dose vaccination; 52.9% had received two-dose vaccinations, and 23.6% were unvaccinated. Of those vaccinated, 72.1% had received the Pfizer BioNTech vaccine, and 16.5% had received the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine. The Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 was prevalent in most (87.8%) patients. Among those infected, 28.8% reported contact with another COVID-19 case, and 19.8% reported a travel history. Most cases (68.6%) were moderate, 99.4% of patients recovered, and one patient died from COVID-19. Conclusion Most of the cases were primary infections, and the Delta variant was predominant and highly transmissible. Most COVID-19 patients were mild to moderately ill. A better understanding of the transmission and diagnosis of these variants will help in early detection and reduction of infection by application of the best preventive measures.

13.
Exp Ther Med ; 23(6): 418, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862973

ABSTRACT

The recent coronavirus outbreak from Wuhan China in late 2019 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) resulted in a global pandemic of coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19). Understating the underlying mechanism of the pathogenesis of coronavirus infection is important not only because it will help in accurate diagnosis and treatment of the infection but also in the production of effective vaccines. The infection begins when SARS-CoV-2 enters the cells through binding of its envelope glycoprotein to angiotensin-converting enzyme2 (ACE2). Gene variations of ACE2 and microRNA (miR)-196 are associated with viral infection and other diseases. The present study investigated the association of the ACE2 rs4343 G>A and miR-196a2 rs11614913 C>T gene polymorphisms with severity and mortality of COVID-19 using amplification refractory mutation system PCR in 117 COVID-19 patients and 103 healthy controls from three regions of Saudi Arabia. The results showed that ACE2 rs4343 GA genotype was associated with severity of COVID-19 (OR=2.10, P-value 0.0028) and ACE2 rs4343 GA was associated with increased mortality with OR=3.44, P-value 0.0028. A strong correlation between the ACE2 rs4343 G>A genotype distribution among COVID-19 patients was reported with respect to their comorbid conditions including sex (P<0.023), coronary artery disease (P<0.0001), oxygen saturation <60 mm Hg (P<0.0009) and antiviral therapy (0.003). The results also showed that the CT genotype and T allele of the miR-196a2 rs11614913 C>T were associated with decreased risk to COVID-19 with OR=0.76, P=0.006 and OR=0.54, P=0.005, respectively. These results need to be validated with future molecular genetic studies in a larger sample size and different populations.

14.
Infect Drug Resist ; 15: 2359-2368, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833913

ABSTRACT

Background: The hypercoagulability and thrombotic tendency in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is multifactorial, driven mainly by inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Elevated levels of procoagulant microvesicles (MVs) and tissue factor-bearing microvesicles (TF-bearing MVs) have been observed in many diseases with thrombotic tendency. The current study aimed to measure the levels of procoagulant MVs and TF-bearing MVs in patients with COVID-19 and healthy controls and to correlate their levels with platelet counts, D-Dimer levels, and other proposed calculated inflammatory markers. Materials and Methods: Forty ICU-admitted patients with COVID-19 and 37 healthy controls were recruited in the study. Levels of procoagulant MVs and TF-bearing MVs in the plasma of the study population were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results: COVID-19 patients had significantly elevated levels of procoagulant MVs and TF-bearing MVs as compared with healthy controls (P<0.001). Procoagulant MVs significantly correlated with TF-bearing MVs, D-dimer levels, and platelet count, but not with calculated inflammatory markers (neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, platelet/lymphocyte ratio, and platelet/neutrophil ratio). Conclusion: Elevated levels of procoagulant MVs and TF-bearing MVs in patients with COVID-19 are suggested to be (i) early potential markers to predict the severity of COVID-19 (ii) a novel circulatory biomarker to evaluate the procoagulant activity and severity of COVID-19.

15.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 893, 2022 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833299

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Public acceptance of governmental measures are key to controlling the spread of infectious diseases. The COVID-19 pandemic has placed a significant burden on healthcare systems for high-income countries as well as low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The ability of LMICs to respond to the challenge of the COVID-19 pandemic has been limited and may have affected the impact of governmental strategies to control the spread of COVID-19. This study aimed to evaluate and compare public opinion on the governmental COVID-19 response of high and LMICs in the Middle East and benchmark it to international countries. METHODS: An online, self-administered questionnaire was distributed among different Middle Eastern Arab countries. Participants' demographics and level of satisfaction with governmental responses to COVID-19 were analyzed and reported. Scores were benchmarked against 19 international values. RESULTS: A total of 7395 responses were included. Bahrain scored highest for satisfaction with the governmental response with 38.29 ± 2.93 on a scale of 40, followed by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (37.13 ± 3.27), United Arab Emirates (36.56 ± 3.44), Kuwait (35.74 ± 4.85), Jordan (23.08 ± 6.41), and Lebanon (15.39 ± 5.28). Participants' country of residence was a significant predictor of the satisfaction score (P < 0.001), and participants who suffered income reduction due to the pandemic, had a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and held higher educational degrees had significantly lower satisfaction scores (P < 0.001). When benchmarked with other international publics, countries from the Gulf Cooperation Council had the highest satisfaction level, Jordan had an average score, and Lebanon had one of the lowest satisfaction scores. CONCLUSION: The political crisis in Lebanon merged with the existing corruption were associated with the lowest public satisfaction score whereas the economical instability of Jordan placed the country just before the lowest position. On the other hand, the solid economy plus good planning and public trust in the government placed the other countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council on top of the scale. Further investigation is necessary to find out how the governments of other low-income countries may have handled the situation wisely and gained the trust of their publics. This may help convey a clearer picture to Arab governments that have suffered during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Arabs , COVID-19/epidemiology , Government , Humans , Lebanon/epidemiology , Pandemics , Personal Satisfaction , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Ann Med ; 54(1): 1081-1088, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805936

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Alongside the emergence of COVID-19 in the United States, several reports highlighted increasing rates of opioid overdose from preliminary data. Yet, little is known about how state-level opioid overdose death trends and decedent characteristics have evolved using official death records. METHODS: We requested vital statistics data from 2018-2020 from all 50 states and the District of Columbia, receiving data from 14 states. Accounting for COVID-19, we excluded states without data past March 2020, leaving 11 states for analysis. We defined state-specific analysis periods from March 13 until the latest reliable date in each state's data, then conducted retrospective year-over-year analyses comparing opioid-related overdose death rates, the presence of specific opioids and other psychoactive substances, and decedents' sex, race, and age from 2020 to 2019 and 2019 to 2018 within each state's analysis period. We assessed whether significant changes in 2020 vs. 2019 in opioid overdose deaths were new or continuing trends using joinpoint regression. RESULTS: We found significant increases in opioid-related overdose death rates in Alaska (55.3%), Colorado (80.2%), Indiana (40.1%), Nevada (50.0%), North Carolina (30.5%), Rhode Island (29.6%), and Virginia (66.4%) - all continuing previous trends. Increases in synthetic opioid-involved overdose deaths were new in Alaska (136.5%), Indiana (27.6%), and Virginia (16.5%), whilst continuing in Colorado (44.4%), Connecticut (3.6%), Nevada (75.0%), and North Carolina (14.6%). We found new increases in male decedents in Indiana (12.0%), and continuing increases in Colorado (15.2%). We also found continuing increases in Black non-Hispanic decedents in Massachusetts (43.9%) and Virginia (33.7%). CONCLUSION: This research analyzes vital statistics data from 11 states, highlighting new trends in opioid overdose deaths and decedent characteristics across 10 of these states. These findings can inform state-specific public health interventions and highlight the need for timely and comprehensive fatal opioid overdose data, especially amidst concurrent crises such as COVID-19. Key messages:Our results highlight shifts in opioid overdose trends during the COVID-19 pandemic that cannot otherwise be extracted from aggregated or provisional opioid overdose death data such as those published by the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention.Fentanyl and other synthetic opioids continue to drive increases in fatal overdoses, making it difficult to separate these trends from any possible COVID-19-related factors.Black non-Hispanic people are making up an increasing proportion of opioid overdose deaths in some states.State-specific limitations and variations in data-reporting for vital statistics make it challenging to acquire and analyse up-to-date data on opioid-related overdose deaths. More timely and comprehensive data are needed to generate broader insights on the nature of the intersecting opioid and COVID-19 crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Overdose , Opiate Overdose , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Overdose/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Opiate Overdose/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785692

ABSTRACT

Genetic variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) have been globally surging and devastating many countries around the world. There are at least eleven reported variants dedicated with inevitably catastrophic consequences. In 2021, the most dominant Delta and Omicron variants were estimated to lead to more severity and deaths than other variants. Furthermore, these variants have some contagious characteristics involving high transmissibility, more severe illness, and an increased mortality rate. All outbreaks caused by the Delta variant have been rapidly skyrocketing in infection cases in communities despite tough restrictions in 2021. Apart from it, the United States, the United Kingdom and other high-rate vaccination rollout countries are still wrestling with this trend because the Delta variant can result in a significant number of breakthrough infections. However, the pandemic has changed since the latest SARS-CoV-2 variant in late 2021 in South Africa, Omicron. The preliminary data suggest that the Omicron variant possesses 100-fold greater than the Delta variant in transmissibility. Therefore, this paper aims to review these characteristics based on the available meta-data and information from the first emergence to recent days. Australia and the five most affected countries, including the United States, India, Brazil, France, as well as the United Kingdom, are selected in order to review the transmissibility, severity and fatality due to Delta and Omicron variants. Finally, the vaccination programs for each country are also reviewed as the main factor in prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United States/epidemiology
19.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research ; 14(2):249-256, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1777158

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-also known as 2019 novel coronavirus or COVID-19-first emerged on December 31, 2019 in China, and has since rapidly spread to become a world-wide pandemic. Orthopaedic trauma services, have maintained a significant portion of their previous volume throughout the pandemic, specifically, hip fractures in the elderly population.Intertrochanteric fracture is one of the most common injuries among the elderly and is associated with a high mortality rate within 30 days after the injury event.Treatment of Intertrochanteric fractures during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed unique challenges for the management of COVID-19infected patients and the maintenance of standards of care. PFNA2 provide stability, compression as well as rotational control of the fracture and allows early post operative mobilization, weight bearing and thereby early fracture union. This study aims to assess the functional outcome of intertrochanteric fracture treated by PFNA2 in COVID-19-positive patients. Objectives: To evaluate the functional outcome of intertrochanteric fracture treated by PFNA2 in COVID-19-positive patients: a retrospective study Methodology: This was a retrospective study of 30 patients,18 females and 12 males ≥55 years of age with intertrochanteric fracture and COVID-19 who underwent operative management with PFNA2. Clinical characteristics and early postoperative outcomes were reported. Results: A total of 30 patients, 21 patients (70%) had fever, cough, and fatigue at the time of presentation. 9 patients (30%) had sore throat and dyspnea, headache and dizziness (23%) (7 patients), abdominal pain and vomiting (16%) (5 patient), chest pain and nasal congestion (10%) (3 patient).18 patients (60%) had comorbidities. Postoperatively all 30 patients (100%) required non-invasive mechanical ventilation. All patients (100%) were given antibiotic therapy,18 patients underwent anti thromboembolic prophylaxis. 20 patients were treated with corticosteroids. Blood transfusion was done in 14 patients. Average HARRIS HIP SCORE was 83.6 at the end of six months graded as good outcome. The length of hospital stay in our study was 10 days (7-14 days). The complications in our study included bed sores, superficial and (which settled subsequently with Intravenous antibiotics and debridement respectively). Conclusions: Our study shows that intertrochanteric fracture patients who present with a mild to moderate COVID-19 symptoms who underwent Intertrochanteric fracture surgeries with PFNA2 had a good functional outcome with few post op complications.

20.
J Med Virol ; 94(5): 2067-2078, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777581

ABSTRACT

Rapid detection of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 is critical for COVID-19 diagnostics, epidemiological research, and studies related to vaccine evaluation. It is known that the nucleocapsid (N) is the most abundant protein of SARS-CoV-2 and can serve as an excellent biomarker due to its strong immunogenicity. This paper reports a rapid and ultrasensitive 3D biosensor for quantification of COVID-19 antibodies in seconds via electrochemical transduction. This sensor consists of an array of three-dimensional micro-length-scale electrode architecture that is fabricated by aerosol jet 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technique. The micropillar array is coated with N proteins via an intermediate layer of nano-graphene and is integrated into a microfluidic channel to complete an electrochemical cell that uses antibody-antigen interaction to detect the antibodies to the N protein. Due to the structural innovation in the electrode geometry, the sensing is achieved in seconds, and the sensor shows an excellent limit of detection of 13 fm and an optimal detection range of 100 fm to 1 nm. Furthermore, the sensor can be regenerated at least 10 times, which reduces the cost per test. This work provides a powerful platform for rapid screening of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 after infection or vaccination.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Electrodes , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
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