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1.
Case Rep Oncol ; 16(1): 188-203, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306667

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) variants continue to spread worldwide with the development of highly transmissible strains. Several guidelines addressing management of cancer patients during the COVID-19 pandemic have been published, primarily based upon expert opinion. The COVID-19 pandemic has affected all aspects of breast cancer care including screening, diagnosis, treatment, and long-term follow-up. Recent reports indicate that mRNA COVID-19 vaccines can provoke lymphadenopathy in both cancer patients and healthy individuals. Unilateral axillary lymphadenopathy (UAL) post-COVID-19 vaccination is a challenging presentation for cancer patients because of the potential for misinterpretation as malignancy. The World Health Organization's target to vaccinate 70% of the world's population by mid-2023 is likely to increase the incidence of post-COVID-19 vaccination UAL. In this article, we review the published evidence regarding UAL post-COVID-19 vaccination and present diverse cases of breast cancer patients where false-positive UAL post-COVID-19 vaccination proved to be a therapeutic challenge. The United Arab Emirates (UAE) vaccination program is well ahead of other countries in the world, having accomplished the target of 100% vaccination of the population with at least one dose. Therefore, an increasing number of recently vaccinated patients are likely to present with UAL, detected by surveillance imaging, post-vaccination. We have therefore made recommendations regarding the management of cancer patients with UAL post-COVID-19 vaccination in order to avoid misdiagnosis and unnecessary imaging or invasive biopsy procedures.

2.
Int J Adolesc Med Health ; 35(2): 189-195, 2023 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300243

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationship between the COVID-19 anxiety and the quality of life among adolescent pregnant women in Dashtiari city, Iran. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 216 adolescent pregnant women in Dashtiari city, Iran in 2021 who met the inclusion criteria participated in a multi-stage sampling. Data collection tools included: demographic information, COVID-19 Anxiety Scale and a questionnaire of quality of life. Finally, the obtained data were analyzed in SPSS software version 21 using descriptive, Chi-square, Tukey and logistic regression tests. RESULTS: The results showed that 74 (34.3%) adolescent pregnant women had weak COVID-19 anxiety, 23 (10.6%) had moderate COVID-19 anxiety and 119 (55.1%) had severe COVID-19 anxiety. The results also showed that gestational age (OR=2.2, p=0.03), history of COVID-19 infection among adolescent pregnant women (OR=1.6, p=0.02), history of family and friends (OR=1.7) (p=0.04), quality of life (OR=4.3, p=0.001), increases the probability of COVID-19 anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the psychological consequences of the post-COVID-19 era and the psychological events that occur in this period, by identifying and predicting these issues, strategies should be considered for optimal intervention and reduction of injuries in the post-crisis era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnant Women , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Humans , Pregnant Women/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Quality of Life , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Depression/psychology
3.
J Assist Reprod Genet ; 39(7): 1555-1563, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287211

ABSTRACT

AIM: The rapid outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic posed challenges across different medical fields, especially reproductive health, and gave rise to concerns regarding the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on male infertility, owing to the fact that the male reproductive system indicated to be extremely vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Only a small number of studies have investigated the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on male reproduction, but the results are not consistent. So, we performed this meta-analysis to draw a clearer picture and evaluate the impacts of COVID-19 on male reproductive system. METHOD: We searched Embase, Web of Science, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases to identify the potentially relevant studies. Standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was applied to assess the relationship. Heterogeneity testing, sensitivity analysis, and publication bias testing were also performed. RESULTS: A total of twelve studies including 7 case control investigations and 5 retrospective cohort studies were found relevant and chosen for our research. Our result showed that different sperm parameters including semen volume [SMD = - 0.27 (- 0.46, - 1.48) (p = 0.00)], sperm concentration [SMD = - 0.41 (- 0.67, - 0.15) (p = 0.002)], sperm count [SMD = - 0.30 (- 0.44, - 0.17) (p = 0.00)], sperm motility [SMD = - 0.66 (- 0.98, - 0.33) (p = 0.00)], and progressive motility [SMD = - 0.35 (- 0.61, - 0.08) (p = 0.01)] were negatively influenced by SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, sperm concentration (p = 0.07) and progressive motility (p = 0.61) were not found to be significantly associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in case control studies. No publication bias was detected. CONCLUSION: The present study revealed the vulnerability of semen quality to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our data showed a strong association of different sperm parameters with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The results suggested that SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients may negatively influence their fertility potential in a short-term period, but more studies are needed to decide about the long-term effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Semen , Semen Analysis , Sperm Count , Sperm Motility , Spermatozoa
4.
Soc Work Public Health ; : 1-9, 2022 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2241741

ABSTRACT

Holding educational campaigns with the purpose of conveying message about one particular behavior in the target group, is one of the society-based educational strategies. This study aimed to investigate the efficiency of the Campaign of COVID-19 Prevention on Health Volunteers in Urmia. The present study was a semi-experimental research, in which the sampling was done in a census way with 200 people participated. In this study, which was done as pre- and posttest, the amount of knowledge, attitude and behavior of health volunteers were evaluated by the designed questionnaires. The campaign was held for 2 months, which has benefited from the five methods of pamphlet, banners, films, social networking sites, and educational classes. After the campaign, the knowledge level, attitude and behavior of Health Volunteers increased to 35.1%, 30.09%, and 29.2%, respectively, which was meaningful statistically. Holding the campaign can trigger positive changes in improving the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of health volunteers, leading to the prevention of a plethora of health problems in society.

5.
Front Public Health ; 10: 958899, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2231842

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Along with the challenges of COVID-19 vaccine supply in low-income countries, vaccine hesitancy was another problem for the health system. The aim of this study was to deeply understand the challenges of vaccine acceptance, the vaccination process, and to compare the affecting vaccine acceptance in the high and low points of the epidemic in Iran. Methods: In the qualitative part of this mixed-methods study, content analysis was used to investigate experiences and perceptions about COVID-19 vaccination in four groups. In the quantitative study, in March 2021 (low point), and on August 1, 2021 (high point), two population-based cross-sectional studies were performed in Tehran and its rural, with sample sizes of 1,200 and 1,872 people aged over 18 years, respectively. Multinomial (polytomous) logistic regression was used to determine the factors affecting hesitation and unwillingness to receive the vaccine. Results: Disbelief in vaccine safety, vaccine distrust, ignorance and confusion, and inadequate facilities were the common reasons extracted in the two qualitative studies. At the low and high points of the epidemic, vaccine acceptance was 83.6% (95% CI: 81.3-85.9) and 65.8% (95% CI: 65.8-71.0), respectively. Residence in rural areas, (Odds Ratio: 0.44, p = 0.001), being a student (Odds Ratio: 0.41, p = 0.011), housewives (Odds Ratio: 0.63, p = 0.033), illiteracy (Odds Ratio: 4.44, p = 0.001), and having an underlying disease (Odds Ratio: 4.44, p = 0.001) were factors affecting on vaccine acceptance. Discussion: Counter-intuitively, acceptance did not increase at the peak of epidemic. The presence of obstacles, such as increased distrust in the effectiveness of vaccines due to the occurrence of multiple peaks in different vaccinated countries, as well as the influence of the media, anti-vaccine campaigns, and lack of proper communication about risks caused more hesitation. More investigation to understand how people accept or reject vaccine and its long term consequences is recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Iran/epidemiology , Vaccination Hesitancy , Cross-Sectional Studies
6.
Pediatr Transplant ; : e14409, 2022 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2236652

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are not routinely used in clinical care by pediatric liver transplant (LT) teams. The Starzl Network for Excellence in Pediatric Transplantation (SNEPT) assessed feasibility of using a disease-specific Quality of Life (QoL) questionnaire in the ambulatory setting at 10 SNEPT sites. METHODS: A mixed methods feasibility project assessing administration processes, barriers, and user experiences with the Pediatric Liver Transplant Quality of Life (PeLTQL) tool. Iterative processes sought stakeholder feedback across four phases (Pilot, Extended Pilot, Development of a Mobile App PeLTQL version, and Pilot App use). RESULTS: A total of 149 patient-parent dyads completed the PeLTQL during LT clinic follow-up. Clinicians, parents, and patients evaluated and reported on feasibility of operationalization. Only two of 10 SNEPT sites continued PeLTQL administration after the initial two pilot phases. Reasons include limited clinical time and available personnel aggravated by the COVID-19 pandemic. In response, a mobile application version of the PeLTQL was initiated. Providing PeLTQL responses electronically was "very easy" or "easy" as reported by 96% (22/23) parents. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of a PROM into post-pediatric LT clinical care was feasible, but ongoing utilization stalled. Use of a mobile app towards facilitating completion of the PeLTQL outside of clinic hours may address the time and work-flow barriers identified.

7.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2207722

ABSTRACT

Introduction Along with the challenges of COVID-19 vaccine supply in low-income countries, vaccine hesitancy was another problem for the health system. The aim of this study was to deeply understand the challenges of vaccine acceptance, the vaccination process, and to compare the affecting vaccine acceptance in the high and low points of the epidemic in Iran. Methods In the qualitative part of this mixed-methods study, content analysis was used to investigate experiences and perceptions about COVID-19 vaccination in four groups. In the quantitative study, in March 2021 (low point), and on August 1, 2021 (high point), two population-based cross-sectional studies were performed in Tehran and its rural, with sample sizes of 1,200 and 1,872 people aged over 18 years, respectively. Multinomial (polytomous) logistic regression was used to determine the factors affecting hesitation and unwillingness to receive the vaccine. Results Disbelief in vaccine safety, vaccine distrust, ignorance and confusion, and inadequate facilities were the common reasons extracted in the two qualitative studies. At the low and high points of the epidemic, vaccine acceptance was 83.6% (95% CI: 81.3–85.9) and 65.8% (95% CI: 65.8–71.0), respectively. Residence in rural areas, (Odds Ratio: 0.44, p = 0.001), being a student (Odds Ratio: 0.41, p = 0.011), housewives (Odds Ratio: 0.63, p = 0.033), illiteracy (Odds Ratio: 4.44, p = 0.001), and having an underlying disease (Odds Ratio: 4.44, p = 0.001) were factors affecting on vaccine acceptance. Discussion Counter-intuitively, acceptance did not increase at the peak of epidemic. The presence of obstacles, such as increased distrust in the effectiveness of vaccines due to the occurrence of multiple peaks in different vaccinated countries, as well as the influence of the media, anti-vaccine campaigns, and lack of proper communication about risks caused more hesitation. More investigation to understand how people accept or reject vaccine and its long term consequences is recommended.

8.
Infect Disord Drug Targets ; 23(4): e240123213106, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2215035

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The accurate number of COVID-19 cases is essential knowledge to control an epidemic. Currently, one of the most important obstacles in estimating the exact number of COVID-19 patients is the absence of typical clinical symptoms in a large number of people, called asymptomatic infections. In this systematic review, we included and evaluated the studies mainly focusing on the prediction of undetected COVID-19 incidence and mortality rates as well as the reproduction numbers, utilizing various mathematical models. METHODS: This systematic review aims to investigate the estimating methods of undetected infections in the COVID-19 outbreak. Databases of PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane, and Embase, were searched for a combination of keywords. Applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria, all retrieved English literature by April 7, 2022, were reviewed for data extraction through a two-step screening process; first, titles/abstracts, and then full-text. This study is consistent with the PRISMA checklist. RESULTS: In this study, 61 documents were retrieved using a systematic search strategy. After an initial review of retrieved articles, 6 articles were excluded and the remaining 55 articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in the final review. Most of the studies used mathematical models to estimate the number of underreported asymptomatic infected cases, assessing incidence and prevalence rates more precisely. The spread of COVID-19 has been investigated using various mathematical models. The output statistics were compared with official statistics obtained from different countries. Although the number of reported patients was lower than the estimated numbers, it appeared that the mathematical calculations could be a useful measure to predict pandemics and proper planning. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our study demonstrates the effectiveness of mathematical models in unraveling the true burden of the COVID-19 pandemic in terms of more precise, and accurate infection and mortality rates, and reproduction numbers, thus, statistical mathematical modeling could be an effective tool for measuring the detrimental global burden of pandemic infections. Additionally, they could be a really useful method for future pandemics and would assist the healthcare and public health systems with more accurate and valid information.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099501

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and associated restrictive measures have substantially affected educational processes around the globe, resulting in psychological distress among students. The mental health of students in higher education is of paramount importance, and the COVID-19 pandemic has brought this vulnerable population into renewed focus. In this context, the evaluation of students' mental health at educational institutes has gained invaluable popularity during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to ascertain the psychological health and coping strategies among students from a higher education institute in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: An online study instrument was used to assess anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, GAD-7), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9, PHQ-9), post-traumatic stress disorder-PTSD (Impact of Event Scale-Revised, IES-R) and coping strategies (Brief-COPE). The severity of the psychological distress was classified as per the scoring criteria and correlated with demographics using appropriate statistical methods. RESULTS: Of 1074 students (age 21.1 ± 2.1 years), 12.9% and 9.7% had severe anxiety and depression, respectively. The mean anxiety and depression scores were 7.50 ± 5.51 and 9.31 ± 6.72, respectively. About one-third (32%) of students reported suicidal ideation, with 8.4% students having such thoughts nearly every day. The average PTSD score was 21.64 ± 17.63, where avoidance scored higher (8.10 ± 6.94) than intrusion and hyperarousal. There was no association of anxiety, depression and PTSD score with the demographics of the study participants. Religious/spiritual coping (5.43 ± 2.15) was the most adoptive coping mechanism, followed by acceptance (5.15 ± 2.10). Male students were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with active copings, instrumental support, planning, humor, acceptance and religious coping. Substance use was the least adopted coping strategy but practiced by a considerable number of students. CONCLUSIONS: The long-lasting pandemic situation, onerous protective measures and uncertainties in educational procedures have resulted in a high prevalence of psychological ailments among university students, as indicated in this study. These findings accentuate the urgent need for telepsychiatry and appropriate population-specific mental health services to assess the extent of psychological impairment and to leverage positive coping behaviors among students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychiatry , Telemedicine , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Universities , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Students/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
10.
The British journal of surgery ; 108(Suppl 9), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1999013

ABSTRACT

Background Percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC) is performed occasionally in a highly selected group of patients with variable outcomes. The World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) updated guidelines(2020) has recommended PC as a treatment modality in patients admitted with ‘acute calculous cholecystitis’(ACC) with  who are not fit for surgery, including septic patients and those who show no improvement on conservative management within 48 hours. An audit was organised to review our patient selection for PC in the last 5 years in comparison to the latest WSES recommendations. Methods A retrospective observational study was conducted using a prospectively collected hospital database on patients who underwent PC between March 2016 and March 2021 in a teaching hospital. The patient cohort who underwent PC were compared and analysed against the set WSES guidelines. Results Some 23 patients were included. The median age was 82 years (range-61-90), with 13 females (56.5%) and 10 males (43.5%).19/23(82.6%) patients were at risk of sepsis on presentation, with two or more amber flag symptoms, whereas 4/23(17.4%) patients presented with confirmed sepsis. 19/23 (82.6%) were deemed unfit for surgery against 4/23 who were deemed fit based on the surgeons assessment. Patients unfit for surgery were treated with antibiotics following a diagnosis of ACC. The median time for patients to undergo PC from admission was 4 days. The 30-day mortality rate was 13 % (n = 3/23). Conclusions The study has demonstrated that our current practice for managing patients admitted with ACC and performing PC are mostly in line with the WSES guidelines. Considering individuals presentation and the surgeons clinical judgement into account, the practice was also likely impacted by COVID-19 the global pandemic. Further clinical studies may be required to determine specific patient groups who would benefit from PC.

11.
Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets ; 22(2): 83-86, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892463

ABSTRACT

A turbulent coagulation system is a prominent feature of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), with venous thromboembolism (VTE) a leading cause of death. Our hypothesis is that patients with inherited hypocoagulability, like congenital bleeding disorders (CBD), enjoy a protective effect against COVID-19-induced hypercoagulability and related fatal consequences. Our primary and follow-up observations revealed this effect, at least among patients with moderate to severe congenital bleeding disorders, particularly coagulation factor deficiencies. Theoretically, patients with inherited hypocoagulobility have only a potential protective effect against COVID-19-related hypercoagulability. Yet the lower rate of morbidity and mortality in patients with CBDs suggests that hypercoagulability and thrombotic events are the main cause of death in COVID-19. Therefore, appropriate and timely administration of anticoagulants could significantly decrease the rate of morbidity and mortality in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders, Inherited , Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Thrombophilia , Thrombosis , Venous Thromboembolism , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Blood Coagulation Disorders/complications , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders, Inherited/complications , Thrombophilia/chemically induced , Thrombophilia/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/complications , Morbidity
13.
researchsquare; 2022.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-1541180.v1

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: In late 2019, incidence of respiratory diseases increased due to the outbreak of Corona virus. A1AT is a serine protease which its deficiency causes lung disease. In this study, it was hypothesized that different variants of SERPINA1 gene affect the severity of COVID-19 disease.Materials and methods: 42 Swab samples containing purified DNA along with RNA virus, patients with COVID-19 from the age of 25-60 years were classified into three study groups contain of 14 patients each; outpatients, inpatients and the patients that admitted in intensive care units. The PCR method were used to amplification, of SERPINA1 gene, then the PCR product were sequenced by Sanger sequencing and the results were analyzed. Results: The result of this study depicted that in the 3 outpatient, inpatient, and ICU study groups, the non-synonymous SNP, polymorphism in locus 5895 C> G (exon 2) with a frequency of 33.3% in which the amino acid alanine was changed to glycine was observed in the ICU group ,while in outpatient, inpatient groups two non-synonymous polymorphisms in locus 5646 and 5892 (exon 2) were reported , due to the high frequency of polymorphisms at position 5895 in the ICU group compared to other study groups may be related to the severity of symptoms of COVID-19 disease with this polymorphism Also, among the synonymous polymorphisms of SNP, in locus 11295 (exon 5) with a frequency of 21.4% in the outpatient group, probably showed the highest resistance against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
14.
Int J Prev Med ; 13: 17, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753755
15.
Hepatology ; 76(2): 429-444, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669417

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To date, no pharmacotherapy exists for pediatric NAFLD. Losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, has been proposed as a treatment due to its antifibrotic effects. APPROACH AND RESULTS: The Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network conducted a multicenter, double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial in children with histologically confirmed NAFLD at 10 sites (September 2018 to April 2020). Inclusion criteria were age 8-17 years, histologic NAFLD activity score ≥ 3, and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ≥ 50 U/l. Children received 100 mg of losartan or placebo orally once daily for 24 weeks. The primary outcome was change in ALT levels from baseline to 24 weeks, and the preset sample size was n = 110. Treatment effects were assessed using linear regression of change in treatment group adjusted for baseline value. Eighty-three participants (81% male, 80% Hispanic) were randomized to losartan (n = 43) or placebo (n = 40). During an enrollment pause, necessitated by the 2019 coronavirus pandemic, an unplanned interim analysis showed low probability (7%) of significant group difference. The Data and Safety Monitoring Board recommended early study termination. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. The 24-week change in ALT did not differ significantly between losartan versus placebo groups (adjusted mean difference: 1.1 U/l; 95% CI = -30.6, 32.7; p = 0.95), although alkaline phosphatase decreased significantly in the losartan group (adjusted mean difference: -23.4 U/l; 95% CI = -41.5, -5.3; p = 0.01). Systolic blood pressure decreased in the losartan group but increased in placebo (adjusted mean difference: -7.5 mm Hg; 95% CI = -12.2, -2.8; p = 0.002). Compliance by pill counts and numbers and types of adverse events did not differ by group. CONCLUSIONS: Losartan did not significantly reduce ALT in children with NAFLD when compared with placebo.


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Adolescent , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Blood Pressure , Child , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Losartan/adverse effects , Losartan/therapeutic use , Male , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/chemically induced , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
16.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1919, 2021 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561006

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the unprecedented expansion of COVID-19 in the world since December 2019, Iran's health system, like other countries, faced various challenges in managing the disease, which led to numerous experiences and lessons learned. This study was conducted to identify these challenges regarding unique political, economic, and cultural issues, which could help other countries with similar situations. METHODS: The present study was performed using a qualitative multi-method approach with a content analysis method. The data were collected through in-depth and semi-structured interviews and focused group discussions with 60 key persons who were selected purposefully, including policymakers, health care workers, and affected people by the disease, and the review of all available national reports between February 21, 2020, and March 22, 2021. The data collection and analysis were done simultaneously. RESULTS: Identified critical challenges for the management of COVID-19 in the health system were limited evidence and scientific controversies, poor social prevention and social inequalities, burnout and sustained workload among healthcare workers, improper management of resources and equipment, the lack of a guideline for contact tracing, and patient flow management, and mental health problems in the community. CONCLUSIONS: According to our results, measures should be taken to conduct a continuous comprehensive risk assessment and develop a national response plan with an emphasis on precise contact tracing, active screening, patient flow, paying attention to the psychological and social dimensions of the disease, and also transparency of social inequalities in the face of risk factors of the COVID-19. Also, the social protection programs should become a vital tool for policymakers and supporting the vulnerable groups using the capacity of the community and international cooperation to develop a vaccine, which is difficult to procure due to the sanctions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(11)2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488801

ABSTRACT

Acceptance and willingness to receive the vaccine are among the main factors in the success or failure of a health system in implementing the vaccination program. The present study was conducted in Tehran, the political and economic capital of Iran, to determine the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine and identify its associated factors, and explain the most important barriers and acceptance strategies for vaccination. This research was a concurrent quantitative and qualitative mixed-method study. In the quantitative part, 1200 individuals aged more than 18 years were selected from the households in 22 districts of Tehran City, with a multistage stratified cluster sampling method. Two questionnaires were used to evaluate the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine and vaccine acceptance determinants. The qualitative content analysis method addressed the influencing factors, as well as challenges and strategies related to the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine in four groups of Tehran inhabitants: the elderly, people with underlying diseases, healthcare workers, and the general population. The related data were simultaneously collected by applying in-depth semi-structural interviews and a data analysis process. Furthermore, we used the Graneheim and Lundman method for data analysis. We analyzed the data of 1200 people with a mean (SD) age of 46.4 (11.1) years, and approximately 58% of them were men. The vaccine acceptance was 83.6% (95% CI: 81.3-85.9). Among those who welcomed vaccination, 58% preferred the imported vaccines, 25% the Iranian ones, and 17% both. There was a significant association between the variables of age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.01-2.93), being single (AOR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.41-0.91), moderate pharmacotherapy adherence (AOR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.4-0.85), and the willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccine. Qualitative study after interviewing 45 people from four study groups showed an insufficient social trust in healthcare system officials, pharmaceutical and vaccine production companies; distrust in the effectiveness of the vaccines, concerns about the vaccine adverse effects, being tracked by microchips after vaccination, traditional anti-vaccination movements, the feeling the inessentiality of vaccination, and uncertainty about the fair distribution of the vaccine. These concerns were the main challenges addressed by the study groups. A good proportion of Tehran residents reported their willingness to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. Additionally, they expressed their critical concerns, such as insufficient trust in the healthcare system, vaccine safeties, and adverse effects that were the significant barriers to vaccine acceptance. It seems that conflicts raised by the shortage of vaccines and their import due to the sanctions have led to intense desire and demand in the general population, and especially the elderly, for vaccination. Besides, vaccination phobia in some individuals requires further investigations.

18.
Med J Islam Repub Iran ; 35: 131, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449744

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has become a global pandemic and has inevitably affected the whole world. This effect is greater on people with ASD (ASD) and their families. Depression, attempts to cope with change, and having difficulty interacting with others are some of the challenges people with ASD often face. The aim of this study was to review the psycho-social consequences of COVID-19 in people with ASD and their families. Methods: This study is a Literature Review. Extensive electronic search results for the keywords ASD, COVID-19, Coronavirus, psychological, psychosocial, and consequence in Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, Science Direct, SID and Magiran in 2020, eventually provided a total of 130 articles. After reviewing the titles of the articles, we excluded 85 articles as they were duplicated and/or irrelevant. Finally, based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 17 articles remained. Results: In general, the change in routine and uncertainty caused by COVID-19 have caused distress for people with ASD and will worsen their symptoms and mental health. Excessive stress worsens the mental health of caregivers, and as this burden increases, they report higher rates of social harm, depression, and anxiety that affect their daily functioning. Conclusion: The COVID-19 epidemic affects all strata of society. People with ASD are particularly vulnerable to the psychosocial effects of this epidemic. COVID-19 increases anxiety, distress, depression, financial problems, loss of a job, and even marital conflict. Access to necessary services and transmission problems are also the result of rapid social and environmental changes.

19.
American Journal of Transplantation ; n/a(n/a), 2021.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1408329

ABSTRACT

Abstract While many adult solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) have impaired antibody response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination, pediatric SOTRs? response has not been assessed.1-2 We report the immunogenicity and safety of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination in pediatric SOTRs.

20.
BMJ Support Palliat Care ; 2021 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288440

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to many challenges such as increased number of patients and the risk of the disease progress in the world's healthcare systems, especially nursing. The capacity of technology can help nursing in such conditions. The aim of this study was to explore the lived experiences of patients with COVID-19 with home care by using telenursing. METHODS: The present study is a qualitative research conducted using the descriptive phenomenological method. The participants were selected using purposive sampling method and considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria. After obtaining ethical approval, data were collected through semistructured interviews. Open-ended questions and follow-up were used in the interviews. The interviews were conducted using Skype application and telephone. All data were recorded, and MAXQDA software was used to manage the data. Data analysis was performed using Colaizzi's seven-step method. Lincoln and Guba's criteria were used to evaluate the trustworthiness of the data. RESULTS: The main themes and their subthemes included 'facilitators' (improvement of relationships, adequate education and counselling, adequate care and support, improvement and promotion of health) and 'barriers' (lack of previous knowledge and experience, infrastructure problems, confusion in hospital programmes and the pressure caused by the COVID-19 pandemic). CONCLUSION: Given the potential capacity of telenursing, strong field studies are recommended to be conducted in this area. The results of such studies can contribute to the rapid and serious use of telenursing in the area of care, education, support, follow-up and counselling of patients.

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