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1.
Arch Iran Med ; 23(11):782-786, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-940550

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to identify gastrointestinal (GI) and liver injury presentations in children admitted with COVID-19 infection METHODS: In this retrospective study, we studied all children with suspected symptoms of COVID-19, referred to Amirkola Children's Hospital Clinical manifestations of the digestive and respiratory systems and liver function tests were evaluated for all cases RESULTS: Eighteen children were studied The most common clinical symptoms were fever, anorexia, weakness, nausea and vomiting, cough, diarrhea, and abdominal pain, respectively Also, 5/18 (27 8%) and 7/18 (38 9%) of cases had abnormally high alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), respectively Additionally, in icteric cases, direct bilirubin was raised There was no significant relationship between pulmonary lesions and abnormal excess in ALT (P = 0 59) and AST (P = 0 62) CONCLUSION: The findings showed that there were no severe clinical GI symptoms in children with COVID-19 infection Besides, children with increased liver enzymes did not have more respiratory involvement than those without a rise in liver enzymes

2.
Iranian Journal of Psychiatry ; 15(4):340-350, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-847676

ABSTRACT

Objective: The global spread of COVID-19 has caused great psychological stress in health care workers (HCWs) This study aims to assess the prevalence and associated factors of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and stigma among health care workers (HCWs) who are involved in treating COVID-19 patients This study was conducted as part of studies related to assessing the mental health status of HCWs in Iran during the COVID-19 pandemic Method: Overall, in this cross sectional study, 894 HCWs working in 9 general hospitals in Alborz province, Iran, in the field of diagnostic and treatment care of patients with COVID-19 were selected using multistage sampling method PTSS and its subscales, including intrusion, avoidance, and hyper vigilance were obtained based on the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder-8 Item validated questionnaire Information on Stigma's perception among HCWs was also obtained based on a questionnaire adopted from the HIV Stigma Scale Predictors of PTSS and Stigma's perception among HCWs were assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis Results: Overall, 71 4% of the participants were women and 46 9% were front line staff The prevalence of intrusion, avoidance, and hyper vigilance symptoms was 44 2% (95% CI: 40 8-47 6), 31 8% (95% CI: 28 8-35 0), and 37 7% (95% CI: 34 5-41 0), respectively A strong and positive significant correlation was found between stigma score with PTSD total score (coefficient: 0 83) and its components In multivariate logistic regression model, female gender was associated with intrusion (OR: 1 46, 95% CI: 1 03-2 06) and avoidance (OR: 1 66, 95% CI: 1 147-2 417) and working in frontline increased the odds of intrusion (OR: 1 45, 95% CI: 1 06-1 97) and hyper vigilance (OR: 1 41, 95% CI: 1 03-1 91) Conclusion: The prevalence of PTSS is high among HCWs during COVID-19 pandemic and it is associated with some demographic characteristics of HCWs This situation should be considered by health policymakers so that while trying to control the disease, the mental health status of this group of personnel should be given much attention

3.
Iranian Journal of Psychiatry ; 15(4):274-285, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-847575

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of the present study was to develop a self-report questionnaire to assess the level of perceived risks and safety behaviors during pandemics Method: We went through recommended phases and their corresponding steps to create a valid and reliable scale: (a) item development (including 1 domain identification and item generation, 2 content validity), (b) scale development (including 1 pretesting questions, 2 sampling and survey administration, 3 item reduction, and 4 extraction of factors), and (c) scale evaluation (including 1 tests of dimensionality, 2 tests of reliability, and 3 tests of validity) Results: We found four factors with eigenvalues greater than 1 that were accounted for 0 63 of the total variance The 4-factor solution showed all items had factor loading greater than 0 4 and each belonged to one factor The fit indices indicated the 4-factor solution model was fitted to our data Conclusion: In sum, the Pandemic Risk and Reaction Scale (PRRS) is a valid and reliable self-reported scale to assess the level of perceived risk and safety behaviors during pandemics

4.
Tehran University Medical Journal ; 78(4):260, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-844410
5.
Journal of Military Medicine ; 22(2):184-192, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-831306

ABSTRACT

From the end of December 2019, outbreak of a novel viral disease was reported in Wuhan city of China, which caused by a novel coronavirus and was officially named as COVID-19 by World Health Organization (WHO) The outbreak of COVID-19 was unique in its rapidity of transmission, which has become a global health emergency within just a few months in all countries worldwide This disease will not only raise public health concerns but also cause several psychological distress, including anxiety, fear, depression, stigmatization, avoidance behaviors, irritability, insomnia, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) In this situation, the maintenance of mental health status of individuals is very important because people in different parts of society may experience additional stressors during the COVID-19 outbreak Individuals in different parts of a society may experience the psychological symptoms to COVID-19 during the rising phase of the outbreak, including patients of COVID-19, quarantine individuals, health care workers and family members of medical staffs, children, university students, pregnant women, and families In this regard, there is the strong evidence that the mental health status of these populations is vulnerable to exhibition of the psychological disorders symptoms © 2020 Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences All rights reserved

6.
Journal of Military Medicine ; 22(6):623-631, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-828820

ABSTRACT

Anxiety plays an important protective role in people against life-threatening factors Accordingly, in the face of the emergence of life-threatening diseases such as the COVID-19 pandemic, concerns about the health of individuals may arise with anxiety Heath anxiety occurs when perceived bodily sensations or changes, including but not limited to those related to infectious diseases (e g , fever, coughing, aching muscles), are interpreted as symptoms of being ill Most people experience some degree of health anxiety, which is a protective factor against health threats Health anxiety plays an auxiliary role in recognizing the early signs of health damage and promotes health-promoting behaviors When the level of health anxiety of people in the community is out of moderation, both when the rate increases or decreases from the desired level, it can cause harm and problems to people in the community in a different way Therefore, an appropriate level of health anxiety is beneficial for individuals and it could be helpful for the prevention of the COVID-19 outbreak, which is an extremely contagious disease © 2020 Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences All rights reserved

7.
Scientific Journal of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences ; 25(4):42-55, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-828819

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: Although COVID-19 patients typically present with respiratory symptoms such as cough, dyspnea, and bilateral pulmonary infiltration, there have been numerous reports of gastrointestinal manifestations such as diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, and abdominal pain in these patients The aim of this study was to review the gastrointestinal manifestations in COVID-19 patients Materials and Methods: In this systematic review, we searched the key-words in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Google Scholar for studies published between 2019, and July 22, 2020 We selected the studies on epidemiological and clinical manifestations of COVID-19 including gastrointestinal symptoms, and excluded, duplicate publications, review articles, meta-analysis, guidelines, comment or editorials, case reports, studies with unavailable data, and studies in children Finally, 35 articles were selected for our systematic review Results: In our study, 6119 COVID-19 patients were evaluated for gastrointestinal manifestations Four studies showed COVID-19 patients can merely present with gastrointestinal symptoms (highly variable, ranging from 10 1 to 100 percent) In these patients, the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms included anorexia (91 3%), nausea or/and vomiting (79 13%), diarrhea (41 73%), and abdominal pain (18 89%), respectively Among 6119 patients, the most common gastrointestinal symptoms were nausea or/and vomiting (12 45%), diarrhea (11 47%), anorexia (9 56%), and abdominal pain (2 25%) Conclusion: This review study showed that despite the preliminary opinions, SARS-CoV-2 does not always present with respiratory symptoms Knowledge of pathophysiology, type, and prevalence of gastrointestinal manifestations can lead to early diagnosis (considering fecal viral RNA testing for diagnosis), timely treatment, and hence better prognosis for the patients On the other hand, gastrointestinal manifestations can raise the possibility of oral-fecal transmission, which requires necessary recommendations to reduce the risk of transmission © 2018 the Author (s)

8.
Journal of Military Medicine ; 22(2):193-202, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-826970

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: The most important clinical symptoms in patients with COVID-19 on admission at the hospital are fever and cough The results of the studies show different levels of prevalence of these two symptoms in patients, the aim of this study was to coordinate the prevalence of fever and cough in patients with COVID-19 Methods: In this meta-analysis study, searching was performed on the international databases of Embase, ScienceDirect, Scopus, PubMed and Web of Science (ISI) between October 2019 to March 2020 with Keywords, 2019-nCoV, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Fever and Cough Random effects model was used for analysis and heterogeneity of studies with I2 index was investigated Data were analyzed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (Version 2) Results: In a meta-analysis of 13 articles and 2131 cases, the overall prevalence of fever in patients with COVID-19 on admission at the hospital was 78 2% (95% CI: 65 4-87 2%) and the overall prevalence of cough in these patients was 54 9% (95% CI: 45 1-64 3%) The meta-regression showed that fever and cough increased with age and this difference was statistically significant (P 0 05) Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the prevalence of fever and cough is high in identifying patients with COVID-19 Therefore, appropriate solutions should be put in place to improve the aforementioned situation, and to provide feedback to hospitals at all levels © 2020 Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences All rights reserved

10.
Iranian Journal of Psychiatry ; 15(3):189-204, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-734693

ABSTRACT

Objective: We investigated the level of psychological problems, perceived risk, safety behaviors, and the potential roles of demographic variables, public trust, media, and prior anxiety to illness during the COVID-19pandemic among Iranians Method: In this cross sectional study, using a convenient and snowball sampling method, we distributed an online questionnaire to participants and collected data on their demographic variables, mental health status, the consumption of and level of trust to various media, the level of public trust, and perceived risk and safety behaviors regards COVID-19 Our final sample consisted of 1881 Iranian residents We used descriptive analysis, bivariate correlation, univariable and multivariable linear regression analysis, and univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis for data analysis Results: The mental health problems have increased in comparison to past national survey;24 1% vs 10 39% for depression, 37 93% vs 16 7% for social dysfunction, and 41 33% vs 29 5% for anxiety, and 31 12% vs 29 08% for somatization We also found high percent of acute stress 52 71% (95% CI: 50 45-54 96) Being female, married, and having a higher educational level increased the odds of safety behaviors Public trust and national media can regulate the negative effect of the pandemic, while increasing perceived risk and appropriate safety behaviors can decrease psychological problems and disorders However, social media increases perceived risk, safety behaviors, and psychological problems, especially severe acute stress Conclusion: We are in the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic and its negative effects will increase Many people have lost their relatives, their jobs, their social contacts, and are faced with a surge of negative news Authorities should consider these critical issues and adopt appropriate communicative and supportive approaches to prevent their negative effects at both individual and societal levels

11.
Iranian Journal of Psychiatry ; 15(3):236-242, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-734686

ABSTRACT

Objective: Health care systems and professionals worldwide are relying on technology as an essential partner to manage the COVID-19 epidemic This paper explains how digital technologies can benefit the public, medical workers, and health care systems Method: This nonsystematic literature review was conducted on different technologies and their impact and applications in the COVID-19 epidemic using proper search keywords on the PubMed, Google Scholar, and Science Direct databases Results: We found various helpful technologies, which can help us to appropriately contain and manage the COVID-19 pandemic through broad areas of clinical care, logistics, maintenance of socioeconomic activities, and inspection However, main challenges still need to be addressed for obtaining the full capacities of the technologies to support health care systems Conclusion: Technologies can offer many innovative ideas and solutions against global and local emergencies In this time of great vagueness and danger, we require all the resources we can collect to rescue ourselves and our patients Barriers and challenges, such as lack of technology proficiency, confidentiality requirements, and reimbursement matters, need to be recognized and resolved rapidly, accurately, and compassionately

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