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1.
Acta Medica Iranica ; 60(6):329-337, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033504

ABSTRACT

Solid-organ transplantation recipients were assumed highly vulnerable to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the results of previous studies in patients with orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) under immunosuppressive therapy are contradictory. Therefore, we aimed to assess the prevalence of COVID-19 infection and associated risk factors, along with the six-month outcomes in COVID-19 positive OHT patients. This single-center telephone-based survey was conducted on OHT patients. Using a detailed questionnaire, exposure to COVID-19, related symptoms, and preventive self-care measures were collected. Outcomes of COVID-19-positive patients were reassessed using another survey six months later. 118 OHT patients (male: n=87, 73.7%) were included with a mean age of 45.3±13.1 years. Sixteen patients (13.5%) reported one or more symptoms compatible with COVID-19, of whom 12 (10.2%) tested positive. Our results indicated no statistically significant association between COVID-19 and comorbidities. Poor adherence to self-care measures and contact with positive index cases were both significantly associated with COVID-19 infection (P<0.001). A later six months follow-up showed that two out of 12 (16.6%) COVID-19 positive OHT patients died. There was no statistically significant difference between the prevalence of COVID-19 in our patients compared to Iran’s general population (P=251.0). Non-compliance with personal protective protocols and a history of contact with COVID-19 cases were the most risk factors for COVID-19 infection in OHT patients.

2.
Physiology and Pharmacology (Iran) ; 25(1):7-20, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1273795

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 2020, which has a substantial structural similarity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) that caused the outbreak in 2003, is currently a threat to global health. Lung involvement is the principal clinical feature in infected patients but extra-pulmonary clinical presentations are also common. The reasons for the extensive involvement of other organs are not yet clear. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the key peptide of renin–angiotensin system (RAS), has recently identified as a major receptor for the both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 that might be a main target of coronavirus infection. ACE2 is mainly expressed in the pulmonary pneumocytes, the small intestine enterocytes as well as the proximal tubule epithelial cells of the kidneys. In addition to the respiratory tract infection symptoms, the noticeable prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms as well as kidney impairment in hospitalized infected patients highlights other routes of infection/transmission. In present review, we discussed the role of RAS with emphasis on ACE2 in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, particularly in gastrointestinal and kidney manifestations of the diseases.

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