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1.
SN Bus Econ ; 1(12): 168, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1827691

ABSTRACT

The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic has been severely detrimental to most firms. Preliminary estimates from Italy, which experienced the worst devastation from the virus during the early days of the pandemic, predicted that the country could lose at least $8.3 bn in the service and manufacturing sectors due to the coronavirus pandemic. Although there has been a series of ongoing government policies to mitigate the economic effect of the pandemic, we do not know to what extent these policies have been effective. Using two-period panel data (before and during the pandemic) on 419 Italian firms, this study examines the impact of government policies on firms using first difference estimation. The results show that firms that received a government grant in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic saw on average an 11% increase in sales revenue by the end of June 2020 compared to those yet to receive grants. A sectoral decomposition of the analysis indicates government policy to be effective in the services sector if performance is measured by sales revenue. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s43546-021-00170-6.

2.
Afr J Emerg Med ; 12(2): 117-120, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706220

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, millions have suffered globally and as a result, attention and resources for other diseases, such as Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF), has declined. Despite a significantly lower incidence rate compared to COVID-19, CCHF has a considerably higher mortality rate at approximately 30%. Both diseases share symptoms such as headache, fever, nausea and vomiting, fatigue, sore throat, however they have different modes of transmission, mortality rates, and incubation periods. Public health professionals have faced several challenges when attempting to prevent and control the spread of both diseases and despite their differences, many of the prevention methods remain the same. These include increasing public awareness regarding avoiding contact with infected individuals and animals, training healthcare professionals in emergency and preparedness for disease outbreaks and increasing the investment in medical supplies and treatment to control the spread of both diseases.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260672, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542194

ABSTRACT

Students of the health sciences are the future frontliners to fight pandemics. The students' participation in COVID-19 response varies across countries and are mostly for educational purposes. Understanding the determinants of COVID-19 vaccine acceptability is necessary for a successful vaccination program. This study aimed to investigate the factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among health sciences students in Northwest Nigeria. The study was an online self-administered cross-sectional study involving a survey among students of health sciences in some selected universities in Northwest Nigeria. The survey collected pertinent data from the students, including socio-demographic characteristics, risk perception for COVID-19, and willingness to accept the COVID-19 vaccine. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the predictors of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. A total of 440 responses with a median (interquartile range) age of 23 (4.0) years were included in the study. The prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance was 40.0%. Factors that independently predict acceptance of the vaccine were age of 25 years and above (adjusted odds ratio, aOR, 2.72; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.44-5.16; p = 0.002), instructions from heads of institutions (aOR, 11.71; 95% CI, 5.91-23.20; p<0.001), trust in the government (aOR, 20.52; 95% CI, 8.18-51.51; p<0.001) and willingness to pay for the vaccine (aOR, 7.92; 95% CI, 2.63-23.85; p<0.001). The prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among students of health sciences was low. Older age, mandate by heads of the institution, trust in the government and readiness to pay for the vaccine were associated with acceptance of the vaccine. Therefore, stakeholders should prioritize strategies that would maximize the vaccination uptake.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Students , Universities , Adult , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Nigeria/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Young Adult
4.
SN Bus Econ ; 1(12): 168, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530525

ABSTRACT

The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic has been severely detrimental to most firms. Preliminary estimates from Italy, which experienced the worst devastation from the virus during the early days of the pandemic, predicted that the country could lose at least $8.3 bn in the service and manufacturing sectors due to the coronavirus pandemic. Although there has been a series of ongoing government policies to mitigate the economic effect of the pandemic, we do not know to what extent these policies have been effective. Using two-period panel data (before and during the pandemic) on 419 Italian firms, this study examines the impact of government policies on firms using first difference estimation. The results show that firms that received a government grant in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic saw on average an 11% increase in sales revenue by the end of June 2020 compared to those yet to receive grants. A sectoral decomposition of the analysis indicates government policy to be effective in the services sector if performance is measured by sales revenue. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s43546-021-00170-6.

5.
Oncol Lett ; 21(6): 458, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225869

ABSTRACT

Cryoablation is an emerging type of treatment for cancer. The sensitization of tumors using cryosensitizing agents prior to treatment enhances ablation efficiency and may improve clinical outcomes. Water efflux, which is regulated by aquaporin channels, contributes to cancer cell damage achieved through cryoablation. An increase in aquaporin (AQP) 3 is cryoprotective, whereas its inhibition augments cryodamage. The present study aimed to investigate aquaporin (AQP1, AQP3 and AQP5) gene expression and cellular localization in response to cryoinjury. Cultured breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) were exposed to freezing to induce cryoinjury. RNA and protein extracts were then analyzed using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR and western blotting, respectively. Localization of aquaporins was studied using immunocytochemistry. Additionally, cells were transfected with small interfering RNA to silence aquaporin gene expression and cell viability was assessed using the Sulforhodamine B assay. Cryoinjury did not influence gene expression of AQPs, except for a 4-fold increase of AQP1 expression in MDA-MD-231 cells. There were no clear differences in AQP protein expression for either cell lines upon exposure to frozen and non-frozen temperatures, with the exception of fainter AQP5 bands for non-frozen MCF-7 cells. The exposure of cancer cells to freezing temperatures altered the localization of AQP1 and AQP3 proteins in both MCF-7 and MDA-MD-231 cells. The silencing of AQP1, AQP3 and AQP5 exacerbated MDA-MD-231 cell damage associated with freezing compared with control siRNA. This was also observed with AQP3 and AQP5 silencing in MCF-7 cells. Inhibition of aquaporins may potentially enhance cryoinjury. This cryosensitizing process may be used as an adjunct to breast cancer cryotherapy, especially in the border area targeted by cryoablation where freezing temperatures are not cold enough to induce cellular damage.

6.
Front Psychol ; 12: 605279, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140659

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to provide an overview of the psychological status and behavioral consequences of the lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic in Libya. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the Libyan population through May and June 2020 in more than 20 cities. The survey comprised basic demographic data of the participants and anxiety symptoms measured using the seven-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7) with ≥15 as the cut-off score for clinically significant anxiety symptoms. Additionally, a survey regarding the lockdown effect was administered, which consisted of several parts, to measure the lockdown status. RESULTS: A total of 8084 responses were recorded, of which, 5090 (63%) were women and 2994 (37%) were men. The mean age (SD) for study participants was 27.2 (8.9) years. Among the participants, 1145 (14.2%) reached the cut-off score to detect anxiety symptoms; however, of the study variables, only five were predictors of clinically significant anxiety: age, gender, marital status, work status, being a financial supporter for the family, and being infected with COVID-19. Women had 1.19 times higher odds to exhibit anxiety symptoms than men. Increasing age was significantly associated with reduced likelihood of exhibiting anxiety symptoms, whereas being married was significantly associated with higher likelihood of anxiety symptoms, compared to not being married. Being suspended from work was associated with an increase in the likelihood of anxiety symptoms. However, we found that being infected with COVID-19 was associated with a 9.59 times higher risk of exhibiting severe anxiety symptoms. Among the study participants, 1451 (17.9%) reported a physical and/or verbal abuse episode from family members, 958 (11.9%) reported abuse outside the family, and 641 (7.9%) reported abuse from enforcers, during the lockdown. CONCLUSION: Our study provided an overview of the psychological and behavioral status, among those who resided in Libya during the civil war and COVID-19 pandemic. The study demonstrates a concerningly high level of clinically significant anxiety during lockdown among the Libyan population during Libya's lockdown period.

7.
J Racial Ethn Health Disparities ; 8(5): 1267-1272, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-866294

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first reported in China and later spread rapidly to other parts of the world, including Africa. Africa was projected to be devastated by COVID-19. There is currently limited data regarding regional predictors of mortality among patients with COVID-19. This study aimed to evaluate the independent risk factors associated with mortality among patients with COVID-19 in Africa. METHODS: A total of 1028 confirmed cases of COVID-19 from Africa with definite survival outcomes were identified retrospectively from an open-access individual-level worldwide COVID-19 database. The live version of the dataset is available at https://github.com/beoutbreakprepared/nCoV2019 . Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to determine the risk factors that independently predict mortality among patients with COVID-19 in Africa. RESULTS: Of the 1028 cases included in study, 432 (42.0%) were females with a median (interquartile range, IQR) age of 50 (24) years. Older age (adjusted odds ratio {aOR} 1.06; [95% confidence intervals {95% CI}, 1.04-1.08]), presence of chronic disease (aOR 9.63; [95% CI, 3.84-24.15]), travel history (aOR 2.44; [95% CI, 1.26-4.72]), as well as locations of Central Africa (aOR 0.14; [95% CI, 0.03-0.72]) and West Africa (aOR 0.12; [95% CI, 0.04-0.32]) were identified as the independent risk factors significantly associated with increased mortality among the patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic is evolving gradually in Africa. Among patients with COVID-19 in Africa, older age, presence of chronic disease, travel history, and the locations of Central Africa and West Africa were associated with increased mortality. A regional response should prioritize strategies that will protect these populations. Also, conducting a further in-depth study could provide more insights into additional factors predictive of mortality in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Health Status Disparities , Hospital Mortality , Adult , Africa/epidemiology , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
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