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HIV Nursing ; 22(2):3366-3369, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2156153


Background: Respiratory failure, heart failure, and sepsis/multiorgan failure are some of the factors that contribute to COVID-19 death. In particular, CD4+ T cells perform a crucial antiviral role by balancing the fight against infections with the risk of developing autoimmunity or extreme inflammation. CD4+ T cells have a variety of helper and effector capabilities. The ability of CD4+ T cells to differentiate into a variety of helper and effector cell types allows them to direct B cells, assist CD8+ T cells, attract innate cells, directly engage in virus defense, and aid in tissue repair. Virus-specific CD4+ T cells frequently develop into T follicular helper cells and Th 1 cells (Tfh). Objective: Study relationship between CD4 gene expression and disease severity in SARS-CoV-2 patients. Materials and methods: At the Al Hussain Teaching Hospital in Samawah, Southern Iraq, 130 blood samples were taken from patients, the COVID-19 infections of the hospitalized patients. In addition to the interim WHO recommendations, all COVID-19 patients included in this study had their diagnoses made in accordance with the Iraqi National Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19. qRT-PCR experiments were carried out using Trans Script!® Green one-Step qRT-PCR Super Mix, which targeted gene expression CD4by forward and reverse primers in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Total RNA was isolated from whole blood using EasyPure® Blood RNA Kit Cat.No.ER401. Results: Our results showed that expression levels of CD4 was (0.09) comparing to genes Fold of control samples, the mean age of gene expression for CD4 to the age group (20-29 years) are 29.086 followed by the age group (30-49 years) 30.24, (50-60 years) are 33.45 and the age group > 70 the mean are 34.31, and proportion of gene expression for CD4 was higher in males than the females (31.55 vs. 32.21). Conclusion: Gene expression of CD4 is down-regulated in each of the severe moderate and recovery phases with a significant difference from the control group and the amount of gene expression obtained through this study depends on the proteins(gene fold), which in turn depends on mRNA which the more the amount of protein increases and the latter decreases in COVID patients because they have chronic diseases. © 2022, ResearchTrentz Academy Publishing Education Services. All rights reserved.

Biochemical and Cellular Archives ; 22(1):2123-2131, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1980344


This study was conducted in the College of Medicine, Wasit University Cooperation with the Al Zahraa Teaching Hospital, Al Kut Hospital laboratory in Wasit, Al-Karama hospital and private clinics of internal from the period of November 2020 to April 2021. It has been carried out on 150 samples of nasal and throat swabs from post COVID-19 patients who suffered from nasal and throat infection from both sex (male &female). The infections were in age group between (4-88) years. The results of throat swabs showed that 84(56%) were infected with bacteria and 66(44%) non-infected and the results of nasal swabs showed that 67(44.66%) were infected with bacteria and 83(55.33%) non-infected. The results of culture appeared that from 150 throat swab sample found that 66(44%) samples were no growth and 84(56%) were infected with bacteria. The results were Pseudomonas aeruginosa 12/150(8%), E. coli 9/150(6%), Enterobacter spp. 2/150(1.33), Pseudomonas spp. 2/ 150(1.33%), Klebsiella spp. 2/150(1.33%), Staphylococcus spp. 4/150(2.66%), Staphylococcus aureus 4/150(2.66%), Streptococcus viridans 43/150(28.66%) and mix of Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus viridans 6/150(4%). Out of 150 nasal swab sample found that 83/150(55.33%) sample were no growth and 67/150(44.67%) were infected with bacteria. The result were Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7/150(4.66%), E.coli 3/150(2%), Enterobacter spp. 2/150(1.33), Pseudomonas spp. 5/ 150(3.33%), Klebsiella spp. 6/150(4%), Staphylococcus spp. 12/150(8%), Staphylococcus aureus 3/150(2%), Streptococcus viridans 24/150(16%) and mix of Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus viridans 3/150(5.33%) and mix of E. coli and Pseudomonas spp. 2/150(1.33%). Antimicrobial sensitivity for Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed sensitivity to Amikacin (100%), levofloxacin (90%), Meropenem (90%), Cefipime (70%), Imipenem (60%), Aztreonam (30%), Chloramphenicol (5%), and don’t show sensitive to Tetracycline, Pipracillin, Ampicillin, Trimethoprim-Sulphamethoxazole and Clarithromycin. To facilitate species identification, used molecular methods (PCR analysis) by 16s rRNA primers gene for more predominant bacteria isolates (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) isolates studied were detected by 16S rRNA gene and there virulence factors based on multiplex polymerase chain reaction technique amplifying five virulence factors primer for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (aprA, filC, toxA, pilA, pslA). In this study, we concluded that the production of virulence factors genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is important to human infection especially (ToxA) gene and the PCR technique was very specific and fast method in detection virulence factor genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Biochemical and Cellular Archives ; 21(2):3487-3492, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1589394


The major objective of this work is to identify the cytokines and lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood from patients that have already recovered from COVID-19 for exploring the such patients' immune status and examining the immune status related to individuals who previously had COVID-19. This study recruited four-weeks post-symptoms recovered COVID-19 patients and analyzed circulating cytokine and lymphocyte subsets. This work has been conducted as cross-sectional study which consists of forty specimens of blood samples which have been collected from patients that recovered from COVID-19 and from un-exposed group that was apparently healthy individual (about forty subjects) who neither been ever diagnosed as infected with COVID-19 or been in contact with another individual who has COVID-19 infection. We measured the levels of CD8+ T cells by flow cytometry and serum concentrations of interleukin- (IL-2) by ELISA technique. The result including that the mean level of CD8+ T cell immune-phenotyping study was 24.16±2.31 cells/µl in control group in compare to 30.28±7.39 cells/µl in convalescent patients and the mean level of IL-2 was 70.46±22.76 pg/mL in control group and 213.92±74.27 pg/mL in convalescent patient. We conclude that the level of IL-2 has been considerably higher in the convalescent Covid-19 patients in comparison to the healthy group and the level of CD8+T cell in convalescent COVID-19 patients has been considerably higher compared to healthy group. Also, there was positive correlation between IL-2 and CD8+T cell in convalescent group.