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1.
Measurement: Sensors ; 25:100653, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165693

ABSTRACT

Covid Protocol Monitoring with Multiprocessor Architecture (CPMMA) is proposed in this study as an approach for implementing a Distributed Sensor System (DSS) for covid protocol monitoring utilising multiprocessor architecture. OpenMP and MPI were used to implement the distributed system's parallel programmes, with the OpenMP code working best when used with 60–100 threads in use. CPMMA distributed sensor data was efficiently processed by a multiprocessor with 16 cores. According to the results, using a multithreaded-multiprocessing architecture and optimised Support Vector Machine classifier, the proposed design greatly enhances computing efficiency. The results of our experiments suggest that our approach may significantly enhance computing performance while also delivering adequate outcomes in a short period of time.

2.
Advances in Clinical Immunology, Medical Microbiology, COVID-19, and Big Data ; : 847-855, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2073463
3.
India Migration Report 2021: Migrants and Health ; : 162-180, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2066982

ABSTRACT

This chapter documents how internal migrants, largely poor urban informal workers, were not only disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic but also by the containment measures put in place by the governments. We have tried to highlight the adverse effects of control strategies on this group by collating available evidence, predominantly from civil society organizations (CSOs) involved in the relief work. We argue that need for involvement of CSOs on a large scale reflects the gaps in systems meant to protect migrant workers. We argue that CSOs cannot be the replacement of the state and, hence, this experience should be used to design a systematic and comprehensive approach towards ensuring health as a human right for these vulnerable population. © 2022 selection and editorial matter, S. Irudaya Rajan;individual chapters, the contributors.

4.
Digital medicine ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2058107

ABSTRACT

Background and Purpose: To characterize the global physician community’s opinions on the use of digital tools for COVID-19 public health surveillance and self-surveillance Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional, random, stratified survey done on Sermo, a physician networking platform, between September 9 and 15, 2020. We aimed to sample 1000 physicians divided among the USA, EU, and rest of the world. The survey questioned physicians on the risk-benefit ratio of digital tools, as well as matters of data privacy and trust Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics examined physicians’ characteristics and opinions by age group, gender, frontline status, and geographic region. ANOVA, t-test, and Chi-square tests with P < 0.05 were viewed as qualitatively different. As this was an exploratory study, we did not adjust for small cell sizes or multiplicity. We used JMP Pro 15 (SAS), as well as Protobi Results: The survey was completed by 1004 physicians with a mean (standard deviation) age of 49.14 (12) years. Enthusiasm was highest for self-monitoring smartwatches (66%) and contact tracing apps (66%) and slightly lower (48–56%) for other tools. Trust was highest for health providers (68%) and lowest for technology companies (30%). Most respondents (69.8%) felt that loosening privacy standards to fight the pandemic would lead to misuse of privacy in the future Conclusion: The survey provides foundational insights into how physicians think of surveillance

5.
Methods of Mathematical Modelling: Infectious Diseases ; : 173-187, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2035637

ABSTRACT

Several techniques, including mathematical models, have been explored since the onset of COVID-19 transmission to evaluate the end outcome and implement drastic measures for this illness. Using the currently infected, noninfected, exposed, susceptible, and recovered cases in the Indian community, we created a mathematical model to describe the transmission of COVID-19. In particular, we used the semianalytical Adomian decomposition method without considering any discretization to perform the first-order differential equations related to COVID-19 cases. According to our early findings, rigorous initial isolation for 22-25days would reduce the number of exposed and newly infected people. As a result of the downstream effect, the number of suspected and recovered persons would remain stable, assuming that social distance is properly recognized. In a larger sense, the parameters established by our mathematical model may aid in the refinement of future pandemic tactics. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

6.
5th International Conference on Inventive Computation Technologies, ICICT 2022 ; : 824-830, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2029243

ABSTRACT

In this article, we are working on a new Pandemic Corona (COVID-19) virus. COVID-19 is an infectious disease that causes serious lung damage. COVID-19 causes a disease in humans and has killed many people around the world. However, the virus has been declared pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) and all countries are trying to control and block all locations. In particular, four standard forecasting models have been used: linear regression (LR), logistics regression (LOR) and polynomial regression. Many areas of application that require the identification and hierarchy of threats have long used automatic learning models. [1] Machine-based (ML) analysis methods have been shown to be useful in predicting preoperative outcomes and improving decision-making about future actions. Different forecasting methods are widely used to solve forecasting problems. The purpose of this study was to determine the function of COVID-19 research and machine learning applications and algorithms for various purposes [2]. © 2022 IEEE.

7.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2005669

ABSTRACT

Background: Bispecific antibodies (bsAb) are a promising class of therapeutics in RRMM. While hypogammaglobinemia (HGG) is anticipated due to plasma cell depletion, there is a lack of information about the degree of secondary immunodeficiency and resultant infectious complications. We investigated the kinetics of HGG in patients with RRMM on bsAb therapy. Methods: We identified and followed 42 patients treated on early clinical trials of bsAb at our institution between 2019 and 2021. Serial immunoglobulin levels and infections were obtained from the start of therapy until last follow up or 3 months after study exit. Results: 49 treatment courses were included from 42 individual patients. All patients were triple class exposed with a median of 5 prior lines of therapy. The median age was 67 (44-85) years, with 49% females. African Americans accounted for 18% of patients. 96% of patients had at least one prior ASCT. 90% of patients received bsAb targeting BCMA including 7 patients who received more than one line of BCMA targeting therapies. At a median follow up 9.5 (0.9-28.6) months, 40.8% of patients remained on bsAb therapy. At the start of therapy, the median IgG, IgA, and IgM levels were 560 (44-9436), 15 (5-3886) and 6 (5-64) mg/dL, respectively and 50% of patients had severe HGG (≤400mg/dl). Serum IgG levels reached a nadir at 3 months while, IgA and IgM at 1 month, from the start of therapy. The median nadir levels of IgG were 159 (40-2996) mg/dL, while it was < 5 mg/dL for both IgA and IgM. IgG levels were below the detectable range (< 40 mg/dl) in 28% of patients at some point during therapy. IgA and IgM were also below the detectable range (< 5 mg/dl) in 50% and 60% of patients, respectively. At last follow-up, the median IgG levels were 444 (40-1860) mg/dL and IgA 5 (5-254) mg/dL and IgM 5 (5-44) mg/dL. Additionally, 38% of patients remained severely hypogammaglobinemic. 57% (24/42) of patients received IVIG supplements in the current series. About 71% of patients had at least one infectious event and the cumulative incidence of infections progressively increased with increasing duration of therapy with risk at 3, 6, 9 12, 15 months being 41%, 57%, 64%, 67% and 70%, respectively. Among these, 54% of infection were bacterial. Viral infection accounted for 41% of infections. A third of patients had new infectious events during the first 90 days following stopping bsAb treatment. 57% (8/14) of patients did not mount a response to the primary COVID19 immunization series. Among the five patients with repeat antibody titers after the booster dose, 50% were still not able to mount an antibody response. Conclusions: bsAb therapy in RRMM can be associated with profound and prolonged HGG. The cumulative risk of infection correlated with the degree of HGG and progressively increases with treatment and persisted months after being off therapy. Additionally, an impaired antibody response to the COVID-19 immunization series was also noted.

8.
Economic and Political Weekly ; 57(30):24-27, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1970958
9.
Sustainability ; 14(11):6421, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1892953

ABSTRACT

Attention to Smart Infrastructure (SI) has risen due to its advantages, including better access, increased quality of life, and simplified maintenance management. To develop SI, Public–Private Partnerships (PPPs) are identified as potentially beneficial procurement strategies, which boost capacities to manage risks by pooling diverse resources. However, the applicability of PPP in SI developments in developed countries is scarcely researched. This may be due to underestimating the other potential benefits from PPP, although developed countries may have their own funding to develop SI. Hence, this research aims to evaluate the significant factors influencing the success of PPP in SI projects in developed countries based on public-sector satisfaction (S1), private-sector satisfaction (S2), and end-user satisfaction (S3). A comprehensive literature review was followed by expert interviews and an international survey, focusing on developed countries. The Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) technique was applied to map the connections amongst the influencing factors and S1, S2, and S3. The results reveal that legal and political-related factors significantly impact on S2 and S3, while social barriers significantly impact on S1. The effect of the constructs and factors on S1, S2, and S3 along with their rankings are unveiled in this research paper, providing a sound basis to increase success levels and minimize shortfalls in PPP to boost SI developments in developed countries.

10.
The American Journal of Managed Care ; 28(6):1, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1887917

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Strategies to maintain hospital capacity during the COVID-19 pandemic included reducing hospital length of stay (LOS) for infected patients. We sought to evaluate the association between LOS and enrollment in the COVID Accelerated Care Pathway, which consisted of a hospital observation protocol and postdischarge automated text message–based monitoring. Study Design: Retrospective matched cohort study of patients hospitalized from December 14, 2020, to January 31, 2021. Methods: Participants were patients who presented to the emergency department with acute infection due to COVID-19, required hospitalization, and met pathway inclusion criteria. Participants were compared with a propensity score–matched cohort of patients with COVID-19 admitted to the same hospital during the 7 weeks preceding and following pathway implementation. Results: There were 44 patients in the intervention group and 83 patients in the propensity score–matched cohort. The mean (SD) hospital LOS for patients in the intervention group was 1.7 (2.6) days compared with 3.9 (2.3) days for patients in the matched cohort (difference, –2.2 days;95% CI, –3.3 to –1.1). In the intervention group, 2 patients (5%;95% CI, 0%-15%) were rehospitalized within 14 days compared with 8 (10%;95% CI, 4%-17%) in the matched cohort. Conclusions: Patients with COVID-19 who were managed through an accelerated hospital observation protocol and postdischarge monitoring service had reduced hospital LOS compared with patients receiving standard care. Hospital preparedness for future public health emergencies may involve the design of pathways that reduce the time that patients spend in the hospital, lower cost, and ensure continued recovery upon discharge.

11.
Annual conference of the Computational Social Science Society of the Americas, CSSSA 2021 ; : 98-111, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1826200

ABSTRACT

This research uses the COVID-19 Trends and Impact Survey provided by Carnegie Mellon University in partnership with Facebook to study predictors and drivers of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in Virginia’s adult population. It estimates vaccine hesitancy rates at a zip code level in Virginia by applying multilevel statistical models. Our analysis identifies the demographic features of zip codes that are associated with vaccine hesitancy. It also examines the drivers of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy across Virginia. Results show the presence of a larger percentage of Black and White population and a lower percentage of Hispanic population are predictors of higher vaccine hesitancy within a zip code in Virginia. Among these drivers, the biggest is system distrust, where individuals either do not trust the government or believe that the vaccine is not efficacious. Finally, it provides policy insights and tailored outreach programs for improving COVID-19 vaccination acceptability in different regions in Virginia. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

12.
medrxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.04.15.22273859

ABSTRACT

Background: India experienced the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2021, driven by the delta variant. Apprehensions around the usefulness of vaccines against delta variant posed a risk to the vaccination program. Therefore, we estimated the effectiveness of two doses of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Covishield) vaccine against COVID-19 infection among individuals [≥]45 years in Chennai, India. Methods: A community-based cohort study was conducted from May to September 2021 in a selected geographic area in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. The estimated sample size was 10,232. We enumerated individuals from all eligible households and periodically updated vaccination and COVID-19 infection data. We computed vaccine effectiveness with its 95% confidence interval for two doses of the Covishield vaccine against any COVID-19 infection. Results: We enrolled 69,435 individuals, of which 21,793 were above 45 years. Two dose coverage of Covishield in the 18+ and 45+ age group was 18% and 31%, respectively. The overall incidence of COVID-19 infection was 1099 per 100,000 population. The vaccine effectiveness against COVID-19 disease in the [≥]45 age group was 61.3% (95% CI: 43.6 - 73.4) at least two weeks after receiving the second dose of Covishield. Genomic analysis of 74 (28 with two doses, 15 with one dose, and 31 with zero dose) out of the 90 aliquots collected from the 303 COVID-19 positive individuals in the 45+ age group showed delta variants and their sub-lineages. Conclusion: We demonstrated the effectiveness of two doses of the ChAdOx1 vaccine against the delta variant in the general population of Chennai. We recommend similar future studies considering emerging variants and newer vaccines. Two-dose vaccine coverage could be ensured to protect against COVID-19 infection.

13.
Blood ; 138(SUPPL 1):1626, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1770264

ABSTRACT

Introduction: B cell maturation antigen (BCMA) is a novel target for T cell immunotherapy in MM including bispecific antibody (bsAb) and chimeric antigen receptor therapy (CAR-T). BCMA is critical for survival of the long-lived plasma cell, responsible for generation of protective antibodies. Impaired immune reconstitution, cytopenias, B cell aplasia and hypogammaglobinemia can compound preexisting MM-induced immunosuppression. In the case of bsAb, potential redirection/activation of T regulatory cells can create an immunosuppressive milieu. Herein, we describe the clinically relevant infectious complications observed across different BCMA-directed therapies used across multiple clinical trials at our center. Methods: Infections confirmed by microbiologic or histopathologic evidence were captured from the D1 C1 of bsAb and D 1 of lymphodepleting chemotherapy of autologous BCMA CAR-T therapies. The NCI CTCAE v5 was used to describe the site and grade of infections. Hypogammaglobinemia and severe hypogammaglobinemia were defined as ≤700 mg/dl and ≤400 mg /dl, respectively. Standard antimicrobial prophylaxis included herpes zoster prophylaxis for all MM patients with antibacterial (levofloxacin) / antifungal (fluconazole) during periods of neutropenia and IVIG supplementation as per the treating physician's discretion. PCP prophylaxis was prescribed to CAR T recipient per institutional guidelines. Descriptive statistics and comparisons were performed using two-sample t-test for continuous variables and chi-square goodness of fit test for categorical variables. Results: We identified 62 patients who received BCMA-directed bsAb (n=36) or CAR-T (n=26) between 2019-2021(table 1). The median age was 66 (range 48-84) years with % females and 14.8% of patients belonging to Black race. The median time to bsAb and CAR-T use from diagnosis were 6.6 (range 0.83-15.5) and 2.6 (range 0.35-14.4) years, respectively. The median lines of prior therapy were 6 (range 1-11) with BCMA CAR-T recipients receiving fewer prior lines of therapy (4 vs 6, p=<0.001). The baseline lymphocyte count was higher in the CAR-T (14.71 vs 0.84;p=<0.001). Baseline severe hypogammaglobulinemia and lymphopenia were present in 30% and 26.7% of all patients, respectively. Tocilizumab was used in 40.9% (bsAb -30.8% versus CAR-T 55.6%) patients for CRS. IVIG was used in 25% of patients. The median study duration for bsAb was 4 (range 0.03- 24) months across multiple dose levels. Median follow up among CAR-T recipients was 3.9 (range 0.3 - 22.3) months. Among recipients of bsAb, 41.2% of patients experienced at least one episode of infection vs. 23.1% with CAR-T (p=0.141). The cumulative incidence of infection with bsAb and CAR-T were 22 and 8, respectively. The spectrum of infections with bsAb was predominantly bacterial (64.3% While gram negative infection (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia, Proteus mirabilus and Psuedomonas aeroginosa urinary tract infections) were seen in 6 patients, skin infection including cellulitis occurred in 4 patients, with 1 case of necrotizing cellulitis. Bacteremia with rare opportunistic pathogens - Rhizobium radiobacter and recurrent Ochrobacterium anthropi were also observed . Viral infections included rhinovirus, cytomegalovirus, and parvovirus B19 reactivation, and COVID-19. About 50% of infections were ≥ grade 3 with 2 grade 5 events (Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia and COVID-19). In the CAR-T group, we observed more viral infections (66.7% vs 35.7%;p=0.028) and fewer bacterial infections (33.3% vs 64.3%;p=0.028) . Common viral infections included rhinovirus, RSV, and herpes simplex virus reactivation. In this group 25% of infections were ≥grade 3. Conclusion: BCMA-targeted therapies seem to be associated with clinically significant bacterial and viral infections. Repetitive dosing with bsAb therapies could be the reason for the propensity to serious bacterial infections compared to CAR-T recipients and may need novel prophylaxis strategies. (Figure Presented).

14.
Clin Nutr Open Sci ; 42: 62-72, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654981

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronaviruses are globally emerging viruses that threaten our health care systems and have become a popular pandemic around the world. This causes a sudden rise in positive coronavirus cases and related deaths to occur worldwide, representing a significant health hazard to humans and the economy. METHODS: We examined predominantly catechins of green tea include epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), and drugs of chloroquine (CQ), and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) appearing to reveal anti-viral activities. Data were collected from PubMed, Google Scholar, and Science Direct databases. To investigate the role of antiviral effects (CQ and HCQ), green tea catechins, beneficial use of convalescent plasma; covaxin in COVID-19 patients faced a dangerous healthiness issue. Computational docking analysis has been used for this purpose. RESULTS: The lead compounds are EGCG and ECG act as potential inhibitors bind to the active site region of the HKU4-CoV 3CL protease and M-Pro protease enzymes of coronavirus. Conclusions: SARS-COV-2 is a pathogen of substantial vigour concern and the review unveils the role of catechins associated with many viral diseases. We suggested that the function of green tea catechins, novel drugs of CQ, and HCQ exhibit antiviral activities against positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses (CoVs).

15.
International Journal of Cardiology ; 345:34-34, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1593346
16.
Blood ; 138:3804, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582201

ABSTRACT

Background Patients (Pts) with multiple myeloma (MM) experience prolonged immunosuppression due to the incurable nature of the disease and corresponding treatment modalities. Due to this many MM pts with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) require hospitalization, with an increased mortality rate over healthy adults. Two mRNA vaccines against (SARS-CoV-2): BNT162b2 & mRNA-1273 were approved under an emergency use authorization (EUA) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) due to the high efficacy in preventing SARS-CoV-2. The aim of this study was to analyze the antibody (Abs) response in all pts with plasma cell disorders (PCD) including MM, AL-Amyloidosis, and smoldering myeloma (SMM) who are on active treatment. Patients & Methods All pts (MM, AL-Amyloidosis, and SMM) on active treatment who received SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine were identified at the University of Kansas Health System between January 2021 to July 2021and reviewed retrospectively. Descriptive analyses were performed on available data for patient characteristics. Abs against SARS-CoV-2 were measured using methodology approved by the FDA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay;cPass SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing Antibody Detection Kit;GenScript, Piscataway, NJ). We stratified pts into clinically relevant responders (>250 IU/mL), partial responders (50-250 IU/mL), and non-responders (<50 IU/mL) Results A total of 118 pts were identified in our analysis and are described in Table 1. Of the total pts, 102 (86%) had MM, 13 (11%) pts had AL-Amyloidosis, and 3 (3%) pts had SMM. Median age was 69 years (45-95), 96 pts (81%) were Caucasian, and 57 (48%) were male. Median lines of prior treatment was 2 (1-13). Active PCD patients were treated with single-agent therapy in 60 pts (51%), doublet-based therapy in 5 pts (4%), and triplet-based therapy in 51 pts (43%). Daratumumab based therapy was utilized in 59 pts (50%). All pts included received two doses of either BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273. At the time of abs testing 82 patients (69%) were in a very good partial response (VGPR) or better, 29 pts (25%) were in partial response, while 7 pts (6%) had stable disease. Five pts (4%) had COVID-19 infection prior to the vaccine. The median time between thesecond dose of the vaccine and testing for Abs was 100 days (34-190). Only 46 pts (39%) developed an adequate response, 36 pts (30.5%) had a partial response, while 36 (30.5%) did not respond to the vaccine. Low Ab levels were seen in all PCD subtypes with the following mean levels: SMM :25.4 (5.4- 36.9) IU/mL, MM 148 (0- >250) IU/mL, and AL- Amyloidosis 92.35 (range 0- >250) IU/mL. Among the 5 pts with COVID-19 infection prior to the vaccination, full Abs response was observed in 4 pts, and 1 patient had no Abs response. Type of treatment did not affect the response to treatment in any clinically meaningful way. The odds ratio of achieving a clinically relevant Abs response was higher in pts with absolute lymphocyte counts>0.5 K/uL (p=0.01) and IgG levels> 400 mg/dL (p=0.04) and lower in pts receiving treatments with daratumumab combinations or anti-BCMA therapy (p<0.0001). Higher levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 Abs were observed in pts with ≥ VGPR (mean≈147 IU/mL) compared to <VGPR (mean≈ 119 IU/mL). However, in this dataset, this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.17). Conclusion mRNA vaccine Ab response is lower in PCD pts getting active treatment compared with the general population. For PCD patients on active treatment, mRNA vaccine produced full antibody responses and partial responses in 39% and 30.5% of pts, respectively. anti-SARS-CoV-2 abs are especially low for patients on daratumumab combinations or anti-BCMA therapy, low lymphocytes, and low IgG levels at the time of vaccination. Some PCD may not develop anti-SARS-CoV-2 abs despite vaccination and/or previous COVID-19 infection. Therefore, checking anti-SARS-CoV-2 abs may be clinically useful in identifying patient's response. Further prospective studies should ascertain the value of a 3 rd vaccine dose in this population. [Fo mula presented] Disclosures: Mahmoudjafari: Omeros: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;GSK: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Incyte: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. McGuirk: Astelllas Pharma: Research Funding;Juno Therapeutics: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding;EcoR1 Capital: Consultancy;Gamida Cell: Research Funding;Magenta Therapeutics: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding;Fresenius Biotech: Research Funding;Bellicum Pharmaceuticals: Research Funding;Novartis: Research Funding;Pluristem Therapeutics: Research Funding;Allovir: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding;Kite/ Gilead: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: travel accommodations, expense, Kite a Gilead company, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau;Novartis: Research Funding. Atrash: Jansen: Research Funding, Speakers Bureau;AMGEN: Research Funding;GSK: Research Funding.

17.
Journal of Microbiology Biotechnology and Food Sciences ; : 20, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1543025

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly contagious strain of coronavirus that causes Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, which has distressed the world's health and wealth. This Global Pandemic outbreak has affected public health enormously at various customs. The investigation of SARS-CoV-2 is still at infancy;however, based on the available reports, this review gives an overview of the epidemiology, genomic landscape, diversity of SARS-CoV-2, viral genome pathogenic interactions, associating factors for COVID-19 infections, post-COVID-19, disease manifestations with their comorbidities, the major obstacles and the preventive measures along with current vaccine strategies of SARS-CoV-2. This review also summarizes all the relevant evidence of COVID-19 illness, which can provide valuable information on the SARS-CoV-2 genome and its mode of action strategies, thus delivering additional knowledge about COVID-19.

18.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512695

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a global challenge that impacted 200+ countries. India ranks in the second and third positions in terms of number of reported cases and deaths. Being a populous country with densely packed cities, SARS-CoV-2 spread exponentially. India sequenced ≈0.14% isolates from confirmed cases for pandemic surveillance and contributed ≈1.58% of complete genomes sequenced globally. This study was designed to map the circulating lineage diversity and to understand the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 in India using comparative genomics and population genetics approaches. Despite varied sequencing coverage across Indian States and Union Territories, isolates belonging to variants of concern (VoC) and variants of interest (VoI) circulated, persisted, and diversified during the first seventeen months of the pandemic. Delta and Kappa lineages emerged in India and spread globally. The phylogenetic tree shows lineage-wise monophyletic clusters of VoCs/VoIs and diversified tree topologies for non-VoC/VoI lineages designated as 'Others' in this study. Evolutionary dynamics analyses substantiate a lack of spatio-temporal clustering, which is indicative of multiple global and local introductions. Sites under positive selection and significant variations in spike protein corroborate with the constellation of mutations to be monitored for VoC/VoI as well as substitutions that are characteristic of functions with implications in virus-host interactions, differential glycosylation, immune evasion, and escape from neutralization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral , Humans , India/epidemiology , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Phylogeny , Protein Conformation , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Selection, Genetic , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Whole Genome Sequencing
19.
Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology ; 15(4):1930-1938, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1449609

ABSTRACT

Chest CT scanning is significant in verifying COVID-19 infection in patients with clinical symptoms, although CT scanning uses ionizing radiation. So we aim to investigate the demonstration of relevance and accuracy of chest tomography using a low-dose protocol compared to the standard auto-modulation protocol of 50 – 210 mAs. Moreover, to assess whether any distinguishing signs in patients might help determine the severity of the respiratory infection from COVID-19. A standard auto-modulation protocol of 50 – 210 mAs was performed for all patients (120 patients), Rotation time 0.5 second. Of the 120 patients whose CT scan showed signs of COVID-19 infection, 47 patients aged over 50 years were selected. Low dose CT scanning (30 mAs) was performed on these patients immediately. Of the 120 patients over the age of 50 with COVID-19 according to a PCR underwent a CT chest, only 47 showed signs of COVID-19.When compared to standard-dose, low-dose demonstrated excellent sensitivity in detecting typical findings of COVID-19 (coefficient of significance (C.S) = 0.98–0.99, P-values <0.05 one reader and P-values < 0.01 two readers). The mean effective dose values were 6.32±2.82 and 1.45±0.29mSvin the stander and low-dose, respectively.A low dose protocol can be used with high reliability and accuracy to reduce the ionizing radiation risks in the state of reproducible assessment. On the other hand, we emphasize there are indicators with high reliability of a relationship between infection with COVID-19 and its severity and the work nature, environment, age, body mass index (BMI) and Patient Health Status.

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