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1.
JAMA ; 326(6): 499-518, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413703

ABSTRACT

Importance: Clinical trials assessing the efficacy of IL-6 antagonists in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 have variously reported benefit, no effect, and harm. Objective: To estimate the association between administration of IL-6 antagonists compared with usual care or placebo and 28-day all-cause mortality and other outcomes. Data Sources: Trials were identified through systematic searches of electronic databases between October 2020 and January 2021. Searches were not restricted by trial status or language. Additional trials were identified through contact with experts. Study Selection: Eligible trials randomly assigned patients hospitalized for COVID-19 to a group in whom IL-6 antagonists were administered and to a group in whom neither IL-6 antagonists nor any other immunomodulators except corticosteroids were administered. Among 72 potentially eligible trials, 27 (37.5%) met study selection criteria. Data Extraction and Synthesis: In this prospective meta-analysis, risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool. Inconsistency among trial results was assessed using the I2 statistic. The primary analysis was an inverse variance-weighted fixed-effects meta-analysis of odds ratios (ORs) for 28-day all-cause mortality. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality at 28 days after randomization. There were 9 secondary outcomes including progression to invasive mechanical ventilation or death and risk of secondary infection by 28 days. Results: A total of 10 930 patients (median age, 61 years [range of medians, 52-68 years]; 3560 [33%] were women) participating in 27 trials were included. By 28 days, there were 1407 deaths among 6449 patients randomized to IL-6 antagonists and 1158 deaths among 4481 patients randomized to usual care or placebo (summary OR, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.79-0.95]; P = .003 based on a fixed-effects meta-analysis). This corresponds to an absolute mortality risk of 22% for IL-6 antagonists compared with an assumed mortality risk of 25% for usual care or placebo. The corresponding summary ORs were 0.83 (95% CI, 0.74-0.92; P < .001) for tocilizumab and 1.08 (95% CI, 0.86-1.36; P = .52) for sarilumab. The summary ORs for the association with mortality compared with usual care or placebo in those receiving corticosteroids were 0.77 (95% CI, 0.68-0.87) for tocilizumab and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.61-1.38) for sarilumab. The ORs for the association with progression to invasive mechanical ventilation or death, compared with usual care or placebo, were 0.77 (95% CI, 0.70-0.85) for all IL-6 antagonists, 0.74 (95% CI, 0.66-0.82) for tocilizumab, and 1.00 (95% CI, 0.74-1.34) for sarilumab. Secondary infections by 28 days occurred in 21.9% of patients treated with IL-6 antagonists vs 17.6% of patients treated with usual care or placebo (OR accounting for trial sample sizes, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.85-1.16). Conclusions and Relevance: In this prospective meta-analysis of clinical trials of patients hospitalized for COVID-19, administration of IL-6 antagonists, compared with usual care or placebo, was associated with lower 28-day all-cause mortality. Trial Registration: PROSPERO Identifier: CRD42021230155.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cause of Death , Coinfection , Disease Progression , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial
2.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5367-5375, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206841

ABSTRACT

This study describes the baseline characteristics and treatment patterns of US patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and pulmonary involvement. Patients hospitalized with pulmonary involvement due to COVID-19 (first hospitalization) were identified in the IBM Explorys® electronic health records database. Demographics, baseline clinical characteristics, and in-hospital medications were assessed. For evaluation of in-hospital medications, results were stratified by race, geographic region, age, and month of admission. Of 6564 hospitalized patients with COVID-19-related pulmonary involvement, 50.4% were male, and mean (SD) age was 62.6 (16.4) years; 75.2% and 23.6% of patients were from the South and Midwest, respectively, and 50.2% of patients were African American. Compared with African American patients, a numerically higher proportion of White patients received dexamethasone (19.7% vs. 31.8%, respectively), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs; 27.1% vs. 34.9%), bronchodilators (19.8% vs. 29.5%), and remdesivir (9.3% vs. 21.0%). Numerically higher proportions of White patients than African American patients received select medications in the South but not in the Midwest. Compared with patients in the South, a numerically higher proportion of patients in the Midwest received dexamethasone (20.1% vs. 34.5%, respectively), NSAIDs (19.6% vs. 55.7%), bronchodilators (15.9% vs. 41.3%), and remdesivir (10.6% vs. 23.1%). Inpatient use of hydroxychloroquine decreased over time, whereas the use of dexamethasone and remdesivir increased over time. Among US patients predominantly from the South and Midwest hospitalized with COVID-19 and pulmonary involvement, differences were seen in medication use between different races, geographic regions, and months of hospitalization.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Bronchodilator Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pneumonia/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alanine/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/ethnology , Pneumonia/pathology , Pneumonia/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , United States
3.
N Engl J Med ; 384(1): 20-30, 2021 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pneumonia is often associated with hyperinflammation. Despite the disproportionate incidence of Covid-19 among underserved and racial and ethnic minority populations, the safety and efficacy of the anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody tocilizumab in patients from these populations who are hospitalized with Covid-19 pneumonia are unclear. METHODS: We randomly assigned (in a 2:1 ratio) patients hospitalized with Covid-19 pneumonia who were not receiving mechanical ventilation to receive standard care plus one or two doses of either tocilizumab (8 mg per kilogram of body weight intravenously) or placebo. Site selection was focused on the inclusion of sites enrolling high-risk and minority populations. The primary outcome was mechanical ventilation or death by day 28. RESULTS: A total of 389 patients underwent randomization, and the modified intention-to-treat population included 249 patients in the tocilizumab group and 128 patients in the placebo group; 56.0% were Hispanic or Latino, 14.9% were Black, 12.7% were American Indian or Alaska Native, 12.7% were non-Hispanic White, and 3.7% were of other or unknown race or ethnic group. The cumulative percentage of patients who had received mechanical ventilation or who had died by day 28 was 12.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.5 to 16.9) in the tocilizumab group and 19.3% (95% CI, 13.3 to 27.4) in the placebo group (hazard ratio for mechanical ventilation or death, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.33 to 0.97; P = 0.04 by the log-rank test). Clinical failure as assessed in a time-to-event analysis favored tocilizumab over placebo (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.33 to 0.93). Death from any cause by day 28 occurred in 10.4% of the patients in the tocilizumab group and 8.6% of those in the placebo group (weighted difference, 2.0 percentage points; 95% CI, -5.2 to 7.8). In the safety population, serious adverse events occurred in 38 of 250 patients (15.2%) in the tocilizumab group and 25 of 127 patients (19.7%) in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalized patients with Covid-19 pneumonia who were not receiving mechanical ventilation, tocilizumab reduced the likelihood of progression to the composite outcome of mechanical ventilation or death, but it did not improve survival. No new safety signals were identified. (Funded by Genentech; EMPACTA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04372186.).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Disease Progression , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intention to Treat Analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Survival Rate
4.
Adv Ther ; 37(12): 4981-4995, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-843146

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can present as a range of symptoms, from mild to critical; lower pulmonary involvement, including pneumonia, is often associated with severe and critical cases. Understanding the baseline characteristics of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 illness is essential for effectively targeting clinical care and allocating resources. This study aimed to describe baseline demographics and clinical characteristics of US patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and pulmonary involvement. METHODS: US patients with COVID-19 and pulmonary involvement during an inpatient admission from December 1, 2019, to May 20, 2020, were identified using the IBM Explorys® electronic health records database. Baseline (up to 12 months prior to first COVID-19 hospitalization) demographics and clinical characteristics and preadmission (14 days to 1 day prior to admission) pulmonary diagnoses were assessed. Patients were stratified by sex, age, race, and geographic region. RESULTS: Overall, 3471 US patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and pulmonary involvement were included. The mean (SD) age was 63.5 (16.3) years; 51.2% of patients were female, 55.0% African American, 81.6% from the South, and 16.8% from the Midwest. The most common comorbidities included hypertension (27.7%), diabetes (17.3%), hyperlipidemia (16.3%), and obesity (9.7%). Cough (27.3%) and dyspnea (15.2%) were the most common preadmission pulmonary symptoms. African American patients were younger (mean [SD], 62.5 [15.4] vs. 67.8 [6.2]) with higher mean (SD) body mass index (33.66 [9.46] vs. 30.42 [7.86]) and prevalence of diabetes (19.8% vs. 16.7%) and lower prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (5.6% vs. 8.2%) and smoking/tobacco use (28.1% vs. 37.2%) than White patients. CONCLUSIONS: Among US patients primarily from the South and Midwest hospitalized with COVID-19 and pulmonary involvement, the most common comorbidities were hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. Differences observed between African American and White patients should be considered in the context of the complex factors underlying racial disparities in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections , Lung Diseases , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , /statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Demography , Female , Health Status Disparities , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Lung Diseases/ethnology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Smoking/ethnology , United States/epidemiology
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