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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334162

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic poses a great threat to global health, particularly in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs). Although a 3-dose mRNA vaccination protocol has been implemented for the majority of SOTRs, its effectiveness was still largely unknown. We analyzed 113 vaccinated SOTRs, and 30 healthy controls (HCs), some of whom had recovered from COVID, for their immune responses against the original vaccine strain and variants of concern (VOC), including the highly mutated-omicron variant. Here, we report that 3 doses of the mRNA vaccine had only a modest effect in eliciting anti-viral responses against all viral strains in the fully vaccinated SOTRs who did not contract the virus. Only 34.0% (16/47) of this group of patients demonstrated both detectable anti-RBD IgG and neutralization activities against alpha, beta, and delta variants, and only 8.5% (4/47) of them showed additional omicron-neutralizing capacities. In contrast, 79.5% (35/44) of the vaccinated recovered-SOTRs demonstrated both higher anti-RBD IgG levels and neutralizing activities against all VOC, including omicron. These findings illustrate a significant impact of previous infection on the development of anti-COVID immune responses in vaccinated SOTRs and highlight the need for alternative strategies to protect a subset of a lesser-vaccine responsive population.

2.
Kidney360 ; 2(7): 1087-1094, 2021 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776846

ABSTRACT

Background: Although electrolyte abnormalities are common among patients with COVID-19, very little has been reported on magnesium homeostasis in these patients. Here we report the incidence of hypermagnesemia, and its association with outcomes among patients admitted with COVID-19. Methods: We retrospectively identified all patients with a positive test result for SARS-CoV-2 who were admitted to a large quaternary care center in New York City in spring 2020. Details of the patients' demographics and hospital course were obtained retrospectively from medical records. Patients were defined as having hypermagnesemia if their median magnesium over the course of their hospitalization was >2.4 mg/dl. Results: A total of 1685 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 had their magnesium levels checked during their hospitalization, and were included in the final study cohort, among whom 355 (21%) had hypermagnesemia. Patients who were hypermagnesemic had a higher incidence of shock requiring pressors (35% vs 27%, P<0.01), respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation (28% vs 21%, P=0.01), AKI (65% vs 50%, P<0.001), and AKI severe enough to require renal replacement therapy (18% vs 5%, P<0.001). In an adjusted multivariable model, hypermagnesemia was observed more commonly with increasing age, male sex, AKI requiring RRT, hyperkalemia, and higher CPK. Survival probability at 30 days was 34% for the patients with hypermagnesemia, compared with 65% for patients without hypermagnesemia. An adjusted multivariable time to event analysis identified an increased risk of mortality with older age, need for vasopressors, higher C-reactive protein levels, and hypermagnesemia (HR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.63 to 2.54, P<0.001). Conclusions: In conclusion, we identified an association between hypermagnesemia among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and increased mortality. Although the exact mechanism of this relationship remains unclear, hypermagnesemia potentially represents increased cell turnover and higher severity of illness, which is frequently associated with more severe forms of AKI.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Magnesium , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Kidney360 ; 2(7): 1152-1155, 2021 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776829

ABSTRACT

AKI frequently occurs in patients with COVID-19, and kidney injury severe enough to require RRT is a common complication among patients who are critically ill. During the surge of the pandemic, there was a high demand for dialysate for continuous RRT, and this increase in demand, coupled with vulnerabilities in the supply chain, necessitated alternative approaches, including internal production of dialysate. Using a standard hemodialysis machine and off-the-shelf supplies, as per Food and Drug Administration guidelines, we developed a method for on-site dialysate production that is adaptable and can be used to fill multiple bags at once. The use of a central reverse osmosis unit, dedicated hemodialysis machine, sterile bags with separate ports for fill and use, and frequent testing will ensure stability, sterility, and-therefore-safety of the produced dialysate. The dialysate made in house was tested and it showed both stability and sterility for at least 30 hours. This detailed description of our process for generating dialysate can serve as a guide for other programs experiencing similar vulnerabilities in the demand versus supply of dialysate.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Dialysis Solutions , Humans , Pandemics , United States
4.
Comput Biol Med ; 144: 105354, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703412

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since January 2020, India has faced two waves of COVID-19; preparation for the upcoming waves is the primary challenge for public health sectors and governments. Therefore, it is important to forecast future cumulative confirmed cases to plan and implement control measures effectively. METHODS: This study proposed a hybrid autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and Prophet model to predict daily confirmed and cumulative confirmed cases. The built-in auto.arima function was first used to select the optimal hyperparameter values of the ARIMA model. Then, the modified ARIMA model was used to find the best fit between the test and forecast data to find the best model parameter combinations. Articles, blog posts, and news stories from virologists, scientists, and health experts related to the third wave of COVID-19 were gathered using the Python web scraping package Beautiful Soup. Their opinions (sentiments) toward the potential third wave were analyzed using natural language processing (NLP) libraries. RESULTS: A spike in daily confirmed and cumulative confirmed cases was predicted in India in the next 180 days based on past time series data. The results were validated using various analytical tools and evaluation metrics, producing a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.14 and a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of 0.06. The NLP processing results revealed negative sentiments in most articles and blogs, with few exceptions. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest that there will be more active cases in the upcoming days. The proposed models can forecast future daily confirmed and cumulative confirmed cases. This study will help the country and states plan appropriate public health measures for the upcoming waves of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Machine Learning , Models, Statistical , Time Factors
5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322082

ABSTRACT

Background: Hyperglycemic patients with or without a history of diabetes have increased morbidity and mortality from COVID-19. Published case reports describe patients with COVID-19 and simultaneous presentation of diabetic acidosis (DKA), however there is limited data on the prevalence, predictors and outcomes of DKA in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.Methods: Patients with COVID-19 were identified from the electronic medical record. DKA was defined by standardized criteria. Proportional hazard regression models were used to determine risk factors for, and mortality from DKA in COVID-19.Findings: Of 2366 patients admitted for COVID-19, 157 (6.6%) patients developed DKA. Ninety-four percent of patients with incident DKA had a history of type 2 diabetes, while 5.7% patients had no prior diagnosis of diabetes. Patients with compared to without DKA had increased hospital length of stay and in-patient mortality. Each unit of higher HbA1c predicted a 47% increased risk of incident DKA (HR 1.47, 95% CI 1.40-1.54). Risk factors for mortality included older age (HR 1.07 per 5 years, 95% CI 1.06 - 1.08) and need for pressors (HR 2.33, 95% CI 1.82-2.98). An interaction between use of glucocorticoids and older age and pressor use indicated a protective effect of glucocorticoid use with both increasing age and for patients on pressors.Interpretation: The combination of DKA and COVID-19 is associated with greater mortality, driven by older age and severity of COVID-19 disease. Improved outpatient treatment of diabetes may prevent the development of DKA in patients with COVID-19.Funding Statement: None.Declaration of Interests: JSS, MBB, DJM, JZ, PK, SM, MTY and UBP have no disclosures. TLN: AmgenEthics Approval Statement: This study protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Columbia University Irving Medical Center and the requirement for informed consent was waived.

6.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 16(11): 1695-1703, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596096

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a profound effect on transplantation activity in the United States and globally. Several single-center reports suggest higher morbidity and mortality among candidates waitlisted for a kidney transplant and recipients of a kidney transplant. We aim to describe 2020 mortality patterns during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States among kidney transplant candidates and recipients. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Using national registry data for waitlisted candidates and kidney transplant recipients collected through April 23, 2021, we report demographic and clinical factors associated with COVID-19-related mortality in 2020, other deaths in 2020, and deaths in 2019 among waitlisted candidates and transplant recipients. We quantify excess all-cause deaths among candidate and recipient populations in 2020 and deaths directly attributed to COVID-19 in relation to prepandemic mortality patterns in 2019 and 2018. RESULTS: Among deaths of patients who were waitlisted in 2020, 11% were attributed to COVID-19, and these candidates were more likely to be male, obese, and belong to a racial/ethnic minority group. Nearly one in six deaths (16%) among active transplant recipients in the United States in 2020 was attributed to COVID-19. Recipients who died of COVID-19 were younger, more likely to be obese, had lower educational attainment, and were more likely to belong to racial/ethnic minority groups than those who died of other causes in 2020 or 2019. We found higher overall mortality in 2020 among waitlisted candidates (24%) than among kidney transplant recipients (20%) compared with 2019. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis demonstrates higher rates of mortality associated with COVID-19 among waitlisted candidates and kidney transplant recipients in the United States in 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Kidney Transplantation/mortality , Transplant Recipients , Waiting Lists/mortality , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cause of Death , Female , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
7.
Kidney Int Rep ; 6(12): 2979-2992, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549766

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Loss of kidney function is a common feature of COVID-19 infection, but serum creatinine (SCr) is not a sensitive or specific marker of kidney injury. We tested whether molecular biomarkers of tubular injury measured at hospital admission were associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) in those with COVID-19 infection. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort observational study consisting of 444 consecutive patients with SARS-CoV-2 enrolled in the Columbia University emergency department (ED) at the peak of the pandemic in New York (March 2020-April 2020). Urine and blood were collected simultaneously at hospital admission (median time: day 0, interquartile range: 0-2 days), and urine biomarkers were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a novel dipstick. Kidney biopsies were probed for biomarker RNA and for histopathologic acute tubular injury (ATI) scores. RESULTS: Admission urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) level was associated with AKI diagnosis (267 ± 301 vs. 96 ± 139 ng/ml, P < 0.0001) and staging; uNGAL levels >150 ng/ml had 80% specificity and 75% sensitivity to diagnose AKI stages 2 to 3. Admission uNGAL level quantitatively associated with prolonged AKI, dialysis, shock, prolonged hospitalization, and in-hospital death, even when admission SCr level was not elevated. The risk of dialysis increased almost 4-fold per SD of uNGAL independently of baseline SCr, comorbidities, and proteinuria (odds ratio [OR] [95% CI]: 3.59 [1.83-7.45], P < 0.001). In the kidneys of those with COVID-19, NGAL mRNA expression broadened in parallel with severe histopathologic injury (ATI). Conversely, low uNGAL levels at admission ruled out stages 2 to 3 AKI (negative predictive value: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.92-0.97) and the need for dialysis (negative predictive value: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.96-0.99). Although proteinuria and urinary (u)KIM-1 were implicated in tubular injury, neither was diagnostic of AKI stages. CONCLUSION: In the patients with COVID-19, uNGAL level was quantitatively associated with histopathologic injury (ATI), loss of kidney function (AKI), and severity of patient outcomes.

8.
Nat Med ; 27(4): 601-615, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517636

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the pathogen responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which has resulted in global healthcare crises and strained health resources. As the population of patients recovering from COVID-19 grows, it is paramount to establish an understanding of the healthcare issues surrounding them. COVID-19 is now recognized as a multi-organ disease with a broad spectrum of manifestations. Similarly to post-acute viral syndromes described in survivors of other virulent coronavirus epidemics, there are increasing reports of persistent and prolonged effects after acute COVID-19. Patient advocacy groups, many members of which identify themselves as long haulers, have helped contribute to the recognition of post-acute COVID-19, a syndrome characterized by persistent symptoms and/or delayed or long-term complications beyond 4 weeks from the onset of symptoms. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the current literature on post-acute COVID-19, its pathophysiology and its organ-specific sequelae. Finally, we discuss relevant considerations for the multidisciplinary care of COVID-19 survivors and propose a framework for the identification of those at high risk for post-acute COVID-19 and their coordinated management through dedicated COVID-19 clinics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Disease , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Humans , Patient Advocacy , Syndrome , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
9.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 16(11): 1695-1703, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a profound effect on transplantation activity in the United States and globally. Several single-center reports suggest higher morbidity and mortality among candidates waitlisted for a kidney transplant and recipients of a kidney transplant. We aim to describe 2020 mortality patterns during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States among kidney transplant candidates and recipients. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Using national registry data for waitlisted candidates and kidney transplant recipients collected through April 23, 2021, we report demographic and clinical factors associated with COVID-19-related mortality in 2020, other deaths in 2020, and deaths in 2019 among waitlisted candidates and transplant recipients. We quantify excess all-cause deaths among candidate and recipient populations in 2020 and deaths directly attributed to COVID-19 in relation to prepandemic mortality patterns in 2019 and 2018. RESULTS: Among deaths of patients who were waitlisted in 2020, 11% were attributed to COVID-19, and these candidates were more likely to be male, obese, and belong to a racial/ethnic minority group. Nearly one in six deaths (16%) among active transplant recipients in the United States in 2020 was attributed to COVID-19. Recipients who died of COVID-19 were younger, more likely to be obese, had lower educational attainment, and were more likely to belong to racial/ethnic minority groups than those who died of other causes in 2020 or 2019. We found higher overall mortality in 2020 among waitlisted candidates (24%) than among kidney transplant recipients (20%) compared with 2019. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis demonstrates higher rates of mortality associated with COVID-19 among waitlisted candidates and kidney transplant recipients in the United States in 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Kidney Transplantation/mortality , Transplant Recipients , Waiting Lists/mortality , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cause of Death , Female , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
10.
ASAIO J ; 67(10): 1087-1096, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443140

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged into a worldwide pandemic of epic proportion. Beyond pulmonary involvement in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a significant subset of patients experiences acute kidney injury. Patients who die from severe disease most notably show diffuse acute tubular injury on postmortem examination with a possible contribution of focal macro- and microvascular thrombi. Renal biopsies in patients with proteinuria and hematuria have demonstrated a glomerular dominant pattern of injury, most notably a collapsing glomerulopathy reminiscent of findings seen in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in individuals with apolipoprotein L-1 (APOL1) risk allele variants. Although various mechanisms have been proposed for the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury in SARS-CoV-2 infection, direct renal cell infection has not been definitively demonstrated and our understanding of the spectrum of renal involvement remains incomplete. Herein we discuss the biology, pathology, and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated renal involvement. We discuss the molecular biology, risk factors, and pathophysiology of renal injury associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. We highlight the characteristics of specific renal pathologies based on native kidney biopsy and autopsy. Additionally, a brief discussion on ancillary studies and challenges in the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 is presented.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19/complications , Kidney/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Kidney Tubular Necrosis, Acute/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Narrat Inq Bioeth ; 11(1): 101-105, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337556

ABSTRACT

In early 2020, clinicians and researchers rushed to understand the SARS-CoV-2 virus and how to go about treating and preventing it. Caring for patients while simultaneously learning about a disease not seen before created challenges on several levels. Much of the spotlight was on the researchers doing this critical work; however, these narratives remind us of the enormous effort and commitment shown by IRB members and research administrators responsible for research infrastructure. Despite the sense of urgency and obligation to plan and conduct clinical research during the pandemic, IRBs guaranteed that researchers still adhered to the core ethical principles that protect the rights and welfare of human subjects so that critical research could continue. Many themes emerge in these stories, including the need for flexibility in processes for both staff and research participants and the perception that IRB members serve as "research gatekeepers." With approaches to clinical research evolving, the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic may be the catalyst needed to make sustainable improvements to our research processes, roles, and goals.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/ethics , COVID-19 , Ethics Committees, Research , Pandemics , Ethics, Research , Gatekeeping , Humans , Narration , Research Personnel , Research Subjects , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 78(22): 2040-2045, 2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286552

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Solid organ transplant recipients are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but limited vaccine access and vaccine hesitancy can complicate efforts for expanded vaccination. We report patient perspectives and outcomes from a vaccine outreach initiative for a vulnerable population of transplant recipients living in New York City. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of qualitative perspectives from a COVID-19 vaccine outreach initiative. In the outreach effort, kidney and pancreas transplant recipients under care at the transplant center at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital were initially contacted electronically with educational material about vaccination followed by telephone outreach to eligible unvaccinated patients. Calls were used to schedule vaccine appointments for patients who agreed, answer questions, and assess attitudes and concerns for patients not yet ready to be vaccinated, with conversational themes recorded. RESULTS: Of the 1,078 patients living in the 5 New York City boroughs who had not reported receiving COVID-19 vaccination, 320 eligible patients were contacted by telephone. Of these, 210 patients were scheduled for vaccination at our vaccine site (including 13 who agreed to vaccination after initially declining), while 110 patients were either not ready or not interested in being vaccinated. The total number of patients willing to be vaccinated was 554 when also including those already vaccinated. Unwillingness to be vaccinated was associated with younger age (median age of 47 vs 60 years, P < 0.001), Black race (P = 0.004), and residence in Bronx or Brooklyn counties (P = 0.018) or a zip code with a medium level of poverty (P = 0.044). The most common issues raised by patients who were ambivalent or not interested in vaccination were regarding unknown safety of the vaccines in general, a belief that there was a lack of data about the vaccines in transplant recipients, and a lack of trust in the scientific process underlying vaccine development, with 34% of the patients contacted expressing vaccine hesitancy overall. CONCLUSION: Our qualitative summary identifies determinants of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in a diverse transplant patient population, supporting the need for transplant centers to implement tailored interventions to increase vaccine acceptance in this vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Kidney , Middle Aged , New York City , Pancreas , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , Vaccination
17.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 23(4): e13637, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228844

ABSTRACT

Whether solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are at increased risk of poor outcomes due to COVID-19 in comparison to the general population remains uncertain. In this study, we compared outcomes of SOT recipients and non-SOT patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in a propensity score matched analysis based on age, race, ethnicity, BMI, diabetes, and hypertension. After propensity matching, 117 SOT recipients and 350 non-SOT patients were evaluated. The median age of SOT recipients was 61 years, with a median time from transplant of 5.68 years. The most common transplanted organs were kidney (48%), followed by lung (21%), heart (19%), and liver (10%). Overall, SOT recipients were more likely to receive COVID-19 specific therapies and to require ICU admission. However, mortality (23.08% in SOT recipients vs. 23.14% in controls, P = .21) and highest level of supplemental oxygen (P = .32) required during hospitalization did not significantly differ between groups. In this propensity matched cohort study, SOT recipients hospitalized with COVID-19 had similar overall outcomes as non-SOT recipients, suggesting that chronic immunosuppression may not be an independent risk factor for poor outcomes in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Cohort Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
19.
Nat Med ; 27(4): 601-615, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147038

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the pathogen responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which has resulted in global healthcare crises and strained health resources. As the population of patients recovering from COVID-19 grows, it is paramount to establish an understanding of the healthcare issues surrounding them. COVID-19 is now recognized as a multi-organ disease with a broad spectrum of manifestations. Similarly to post-acute viral syndromes described in survivors of other virulent coronavirus epidemics, there are increasing reports of persistent and prolonged effects after acute COVID-19. Patient advocacy groups, many members of which identify themselves as long haulers, have helped contribute to the recognition of post-acute COVID-19, a syndrome characterized by persistent symptoms and/or delayed or long-term complications beyond 4 weeks from the onset of symptoms. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the current literature on post-acute COVID-19, its pathophysiology and its organ-specific sequelae. Finally, we discuss relevant considerations for the multidisciplinary care of COVID-19 survivors and propose a framework for the identification of those at high risk for post-acute COVID-19 and their coordinated management through dedicated COVID-19 clinics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Disease , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Humans , Patient Advocacy , Syndrome , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
20.
Am J Transplant ; 21(7): 2563-2572, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146333

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected all portions of the global population. However, many factors have been shown to be particularly associated with COVID-19 mortality including demographic characteristics, behavior, comorbidities, and social conditions. Kidney transplant candidates may be particularly vulnerable to COVID-19 as many are dialysis-dependent and have comorbid conditions. We examined factors associated with COVID-19 mortality among kidney transplant candidates from the National Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients from March 1 to December 1, 2020. We evaluated crude rates and multivariable incident rate ratios (IRR) of COVID-19 mortality. There were 131 659 candidates during the study period with 3534 all-cause deaths and 384 denoted a COVID-19 cause (5.00/1000 person years). Factors associated with increased COVID-19 mortality included increased age, males, higher body mass index, and diabetes. In addition, Blacks (IRR = 1.96, 95% C.I.: 1.43-2.69) and Hispanics (IRR = 3.38, 95% C.I.: 2.46-4.66) had higher COVID-19 mortality relative to Whites. Patients with lower educational attainment, high school or less (IRR = 1.93, 95% C.I.: 1.19-3.12, relative to post-graduate), Medicaid insurance (IRR = 1.73, 95% C.I.: 1.26-2.39, relative to private), residence in most distressed neighborhoods (fifth quintile IRR = 1.93, 95% C.I.: 1.28-2.90, relative to first quintile), and most urban and most rural had higher adjusted rates of COVID-19 mortality. Among kidney transplant candidates in the United States, social determinants of health in addition to demographic and clinical factors are significantly associated with COVID-19 mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Determinants of Health , United States/epidemiology
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