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1.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(7)2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911151

ABSTRACT

The guidelines on ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) recommend an empiric therapy against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) according to its prevalence rate. Considering the MRSA and MSSA VAP prevalence over the last 9 years in our tertiary care hospital, we assessed the clinical value of the MRSA nasal-swab screening in either predicting or ruling out MRSA VAP. We extracted the data of 1461 patients with positive bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Regarding the MRSA nasal-swab screening, 170 patients were positive for MRSA or MSSA. Overall, MRSA had a high prevalence in our ICU. Despite the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a significant downward trend in MRSA prevalence, while MSSA remained steady over time. Having VAP due to MRSA did not have any impact on LOS and mortality. Finally, the MRSA nasal-swab testing demonstrated a very high negative predictive value for MRSA VAP. Our results suggested the potential value of a patient-centered approach to improve antibiotic stewardship.

2.
J Clin Med ; 11(11)2022 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869655

ABSTRACT

Specific lung ultrasound signs combined with clinical parameters allow for early diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia in the general ICU population. This retrospective cohort study aimed to determine the accuracy of lung ultrasound monitoring for ventilator-associated pneumonia diagnosis in COVID-19 patients. Clinical (i.e., clinical pulmonary infection score) and ultrasound (i.e., presence of consolidation and a dynamic linear-arborescent air bronchogram, lung ultrasound score, ventilator-associated lung ultrasound score) data were collected on the day of the microbiological sample (pneumonia-day) and 48 h before (baseline) on 55 bronchoalveolar lavages of 33 mechanically-ventilated COVID-19 patients who were monitored daily with lung ultrasounds. A total of 26 samples in 23 patients were positive for ventilator-associated pneumonia (pneumonia cases). The onset of a dynamic linear-arborescent air bronchogram was 100% specific for ventilator-associated pneumonia. The ventilator-associated lung ultrasound score was higher in pneumonia-cases (2.5 (IQR 1.0 to 4.0) vs. 1.0 (IQR 1.0 to 1.0); p < 0.001); the lung ultrasound score increased from baseline in pneumonia-cases only (3.5 (IQR 2.0 to 6.0) vs. -1.0 (IQR -2.0 to 1.0); p = 0.0001). The area under the curve for clinical parameters, ventilator-associated pneumonia lung ultrasound score, and lung ultrasound score variations were 0.472, 0.716, and 0.800, respectively. A newly appeared dynamic linear-arborescent air bronchogram is highly specific for ventilator-associated pneumonia in COVID-19 patients. A high ventilator-associated pneumonia lung ultrasound score (or an increase in the lung ultrasound score) orients to ventilator-associated pneumonia.

3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334280

ABSTRACT

Background: the hyperinflammation phase of severe SARS-CoV-2 is characterized by complete blood count alterations. In this context, the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) can be used as prognostic factors. We study NLR and PLR trends at different timepoints and compute optimal cutoffs to predict four outcomes: use of Continuous Positive Airways Pressure (CPAP), ICU admission, invasive ventilation and death. Methods: : we retrospectively included all adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia admitted from 23 rd January 2020 to 18 th May 2021. Data were extracted using ICD9 codes and our Covid-19 registry. Analyses included descriptive statistics and non parametric tests to study the ability of NLR and PLR to distinguish the patients’ outcomes at each timepoint. ROC curves were built for NLR and PLR at each timepoint (minus discharge) in order to identify cutoffs to distinguish severe and non severe disease and their statistical significance was assessed with the Chi-square test. NLR and PLR were compared with DeLong’s test. Results: : we included 2169 patients. NLR and PLR were higher in severe Covid-19 at all the timepoints, with a difference that gets bigger and a trend that is steeper in more severe disease. Both ratios were able to distinguish the outcomes at each timepoint. For NLR, the areas under the curve (AUROC) ranged between 0.59 and 0.81, for PLR, between 0.53 and 0.67. From each ROC curve we computed an optimal cutoff value (e.g. NLR 7 for CPAP for males at admission). NLR performed better than PLR. Conclusion: our results are in line with other studies that computed NLR and PLR trends and values in disease, especially with those that distinguished between different grades of severity. Our study is retrospective and single centre, and is limited by selection bias, but includes more than 2000 patients, thus limiting the confounding factors and outliers. Our cutoffs do not only deal with severity and mortality but allow for a more tailored approach. Future prospect include validating our cutoffs in a prospective cohort and comparing their performance against other Covid19 scores.

4.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(9): e0220, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795067

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe patients according to the maximum degree of respiratory support received and report their inpatient mortality due to coronavirus disease 2019. DESIGN: Analysis of patients in the Coracle registry from February 22, 2020, to April 1, 2020. SETTING: Hospitals in the Piedmont, Lombardy, Tuscany, and Lazio regions of Italy. PATIENTS: Nine-hundred forty-eight patients hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Among 948 patients, 122 (12.87%) received invasive ventilation, 637 (67.19%) received supplemental oxygen only, and 189 (19.94%) received no respiratory support. The median (quartile 1-quartile 3) age was 65 years (54-76.59 yr), and there was evidence of differential respiratory treatment by decade of life (p = 0.0046); patients greater than 80 years old were generally not intubated. There were 606 men (63.9%) in this study, and they were more likely to receive respiratory support than women (p < 0.0001). The rate of in-hospital death for invasive ventilation recipients was 22.95%, 12.87% for supplemental oxygen recipients, and 7.41% for those who received neither (p = 0.0004). A sensitivity analysis of the 770 patients less than 80 years old revealed a lower, but similar mortality trend (18.02%, 8.10%, 5.23%; p = 0.0008) among the 14.42%, 65.71%, and 19.87% of patients treated with mechanical ventilation, supplemental oxygen only, or neither. Overall, invasive ventilation recipients who died were significantly older than those who survived (median age: 68.5 yr [60-81.36 yr] vs 62.5 yr [55.52-71 yr]; p = 0.0145). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019, 13% received mechanical ventilation, which was associated with a mortality rate of 23%.

5.
Heliyon ; 8(2): e08895, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778151

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 tide had shattered on European countries with three distinct and tough waves, from March and April, 2020; October and November, 2020 and March and April, 2021 respectively. We observed a 50% reduction in the hazard of death during both wave II and III compared with wave I (HR 0.54, 95%CI 0.39-0.74 and HR 0.57, 95%CI 0.41-0.80, respectively). Sex and age were independent predictors of death. We compare in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients admitted at our Referral Hospital of Northern Italy during the different waves, discuss the reasons of the observed differences and suggest approaches to the challenges ahead.

6.
Front Psychol ; 12: 820074, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731829

ABSTRACT

Burnout is a well-documented entity in Care Workers population, affecting up to 50% of physicians, just as it is equally well established that managing an infectious disease outbreaks, such as confirmed in the COVID-19 pandemic, increases Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and the psychological burden. Mental health support, in the form of formal or remote sessions, has been shown to be helpful to health care staff, despite the organizational difficulties in an emergency. During the first emergence of COVID-19 in Italy, the Scientific Institute for Research, Hospitalization and Health Care Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS) Policlinico San Matteo Foundation (Pavia, Lombardy), the Italian hospital that treated "patient 1," has activated an agreement with the Soleterre Foundation, an international Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) that manages health emergency projects, to provide psychological support. A task force of psychologists was created with the aim of designing and administering a Therapeutic Mental Health Assessment for COVID-19 Care Workers (TMHA COVID-19 CWs) to evaluate and support health care workers' mental health. The assessment battery was developed to evaluate symptoms and behaviors associated with trauma and the corresponding maladaptive behaviors (the National Stressful Events Survey for PTSD-Short Scale "NSESSS" and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders "DSM-5" Self-Rated Level 1 transversal Symptom Measure-Adult). Once the TMHA COVID-19 CWs had been developed, the team of psychologists regularly visited healthcare staff in the ward to administer it. One hundred seven care workers (44 males, mean age 40 ± 15) across Intensive Care Units (ICUs), the emergency room and medical ward were administered the TMHA COVID-19 CWs. PTSD symptoms were reported as severe by 13% of the population. Depressive symptoms as severe for 7% and Anxiety symptoms as severe for 14%. Severe psychotic symptoms were experienced by 2% and severe suicidal thoughts by 1% of the population. The possibility of acting upon the results of the TMHA COVID-19 CWs allowed an early intervention through individual session beyond the cut-off level (moderate and severe symptoms) for PTSD in NSESSS. In fact, 280 individual support sessions were offered. Therefore, we considered our project a protective and support factor for healthcare workers' mental well-being and we recommend implementing a mental health screening program in ward involved in COVID-19 patients' care.

7.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329622

ABSTRACT

The guidelines on ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) recommend an empiric therapy against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) according to its the prevalence rate. Considering the MRSA and MSSA VAP prevalence over the last 9 years in our tertiary care Hospital, we firstly compared patients with MRSA VAP to those with MSSA VAP in terms of length of stay (LOS) in intensive care unit (ICU) and mortality and secondly, we assessed the clinical value of the MRSA nasal-swab screening in either predicting or ruling out MRSA VAP. We extracted the data of 1461 patients with positive bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Regarding the MRSA nasal-swab screening, 170 patients were positive for MRSA or MSSA. Overall, MRSA had a high prevalence in our ICU. Despite the COVID pandemic, there was a significant downward trend in MRSA prevalence, while MSSA remained steady over time. Having VAP due to MRSA did not have any impact on LOS and mortality. Finally, the MRSA nasal-swab testing demonstrated a very high negative predictive value for MRSA VAP. Our results suggested the potential value of a patient-centered approach to improve antibiotic stewardship.

8.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 34, 2022 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706840

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has become an established rescue therapy for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in several etiologies including influenza A H1N1 pneumonia. The benefit of receiving ECMO in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still uncertain. The aim of this analysis was to compare the outcome of patients who received veno-venous ECMO for COVID-19 and Influenza A H1N1 associated ARDS. METHODS: This was a multicenter retrospective cohort study including adults with ARDS, receiving ECMO for COVID-19 and influenza A H1N1 pneumonia between 2009 and 2021 in seven Italian ICU. The primary outcome was any-cause mortality at 60 days after ECMO initiation. We used a multivariable Cox model to estimate the difference in mortality accounting for patients' characteristics and treatment factors before ECMO was started. Secondary outcomes were mortality at 90 days, ICU and hospital length of stay and ECMO associated complications. RESULTS: Data from 308 patients with COVID-19 (N = 146) and H1N1 (N = 162) associated ARDS who had received ECMO support were included. The estimated cumulative mortality at 60 days after initiating ECMO was higher in COVID-19 (46%) than H1N1 (27%) patients (hazard ratio 1.76, 95% CI 1.17-2.46). When adjusting for confounders, specifically age and hospital length of stay before ECMO support, the hazard ratio decreased to 1.39, 95% CI 0.78-2.47. ICU and hospital length of stay, duration of ECMO and invasive mechanical ventilation and ECMO-associated hemorrhagic complications were higher in COVID-19 than H1N1 patients. CONCLUSION: In patients with ARDS who received ECMO, the observed unadjusted 60-day mortality was higher in cases of COVID-19 than H1N1 pneumonia. This difference in mortality was not significant after multivariable adjustment; older age and longer hospital length of stay before ECMO emerged as important covariates that could explain the observed difference. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT05080933 , retrospectively registered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , Aged , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-328806

ABSTRACT

Background: the hyperinflammation phase of severe SARS-CoV-2 is characterized by complete blood count alterations. In this context, the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) can be used as prognostic factors. We study NLR and PLR trends at different timepoints and compute optimal cutoffs to predict four outcomes: use of Continuous Positive Airways Pressure (CPAP), ICU admission, invasive ventilation and death. Methods: we retrospectively included all adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia admitted from 23 rd January 2020 to 18 th May 2021. Data were extracted using ICD9 codes and our Covid-19 registry. Analyses included descriptive statistics and non parametric tests to study the ability of NLR and PLR to distinguish the patients’ outcomes at each timepoint. ROC curves were built for NLR and PLR at each timepoint (minus discharge) in order to identify cutoffs to distinguish severe and non severe disease and their statistical significance was assessed with the Chi-square test. NLR and PLR were compared with DeLong’s test. Results: we included 2169 patients. NLR and PLR were higher in severe Covid-19 at all the timepoints, with a difference that gets bigger and a trend that is steeper in more severe disease. Both ratios were able to distinguish the outcomes at each timepoint. For NLR, the areas under the curve (AUROC) ranged between 0.59 and 0.81, for PLR, between 0.53 and 0.67. From each ROC curve we computed an optimal cutoff value (e.g. NLR 7 for CPAP for males at admission). NLR performed better than PLR. Conclusion: our results are in line with other studies that computed NLR and PLR trends and values in disease, especially with those that distinguished between different grades of severity. Our study is retrospective and single centre, and is limited by selection bias, but includes more than 2000 patients, thus limiting the confounding factors and outliers. Our cutoffs do not only deal with severity and mortality but allow for a more tailored approach. Future prospect include validating our cutoffs in a prospective cohort and comparing their performance against other Covid19 scores.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320843

ABSTRACT

Objective: to analyze the most frequent radiographic features of COVID-19 pneumonia and assess the effectiveness of CXR in detecting pulmonary alterations. Materials: and Methods : CXR of 240 symptomatic patients (70% male, mean age 65±16 years), with SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by RT-PCR were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were clustered in four groups based on the number of days between symptom onset and CXR: A (0-2 days) 49 patients, B (3-5) 75 patients, C (6- 9) 85 patients and D (>9) 31 patients. Alteration’s type (reticular/opacification/consolidation) and distribution (bilateral/unilateral, upper/middle/lower fields, peripheral/central) were noted. Statistical significance was tested using chi-squared test. Results: among 240 CXR, 60 (25%) were negative (A 36.7%, B 28%, C 18.8%, D 16.1%). Opacification was observed in 124/180 (68.8%), reticular alteration in 113/180 (62.7%), consolidation in 71/180 (39.4%). Consolidation was significantly less frequent (p<0.01). Distribution among groups was: reticular alteration (A 70.9%, B 72.2%, C 57.9%, D 46.1%), opacification (A 67.7%, B 62.9%, C 71%, D 76.9%), consolidation (A 35.5%, B 31.4%, C 47.8%, D 38.5%). Alterations were bilateral in 73.3%. Upper, middle and lower fields were involved in 36.7%, 79.4%, 87.8%. Lesions were peripheral in 49.4%, central in 11.1% or both in 39.4%. Upper fields and central zones were significantly less involved (p<0.01). Conclusions: the most frequent lesions in COVID-19 patients were opacification (intermediate/late phase) and reticular alteration (early phase) while consolidation gradually increased over time. The most frequent distribution was bilateral, peripheral, with middle/lower predominance. Overall rate of negative CXR is 25%, progressively decreased over time.

12.
Ultraschall Med ; 2021 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500782

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The goal of this survey was to describe the use and diffusion of lung ultrasound (LUS), the level of training received before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the clinical impact LUS has had on COVID-19 cases in intensive care units (ICU) from February 2020 to May 2020. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Italian Lung Ultrasound Survey (ITALUS) was a nationwide online survey proposed to Italian anesthesiologists and intensive care physicians carried out after the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. It consisted of 27 questions, both quantitative and qualitative. RESULTS: 807 responded to the survey. The median previous LUS experience was 3 years (IQR 1.0-6.0). 473 (60.9 %) reported having attended at least one training course on LUS before the COVID-19 pandemic. 519 (73.9 %) reported knowing how to use the LUS score. 404 (52 %) reported being able to use LUS without any supervision. 479 (68.2 %) said that LUS influenced their clinical decision-making, mostly with respect to patient monitoring. During the pandemic, the median of patients daily evaluated with LUS increased 3-fold (p < 0.001), daily use of general LUS increased from 10.4 % to 28.9 % (p < 0.001), and the daily use of LUS score in particular increased from 1.6 % to 9.0 % (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This survey showed that LUS was already extensively used during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic by anesthesiologists and intensive care physicians in Italy, and then its adoption increased further. Residency programs are already progressively implementing LUS teaching. However, 76.7 % of the sample did not undertake any LUS certification.

14.
Respir Med ; 189: 106644, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458699

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of 3 novel lung ultrasound (LUS)-based parameters: Pneumonia Score and Lung Staging for pneumonia staging and COVID Index, indicating the probability of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Adult patients admitted to the emergency department with symptoms potentially related to pneumonia, healthy volunteers and clinical cases from online accessible databases were evaluated. The patients underwent a clinical-epidemiological questionnaire and a LUS acquisition, following a 14-zone protocol. For each zone, a Pneumonia score from 0 to 4 was assigned by the algorithm and by an expert operator (kept blind with respect to the algorithm results) on the basis of the identified imaging signs and the patient Lung Staging was derived as the highest observed score. The output of the operator was considered as the ground truth. The algorithm calculated also the COVID Index by combining the automatically identified LUS markers with the questionnaire answers and compared with the nasopharyngeal swab results. RESULTS: Overall, 556 patients were analysed. A high agreement between the algorithm assignments and the expert operator evaluations was observed, both for Pneumonia Score and Lung Staging, with the latter having sensitivity and specificity over 92% both in the discrimination between healthy/sick patients and between sick patients with mild/severe pneumonia. Regarding the COVID Index, an area under the curve of 0.826 was observed for the classification of patients with/without SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSION: The proposed methodology allowed the identification and staging of patients suffering from pneumonia with high accuracy. Moreover, it provided the probability of being infected by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Research Design/standards , Ultrasonography/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/classification , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Sensitivity and Specificity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
15.
Phlebology ; 36(10): 835-840, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295343

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to analyze the specificity, accuracy and sensitivity of a simple, easy to calculate, prognostic score for hospitalized COVID19 patients developing deep vein thrombosis. METHODS: From March 1st to April 28th, 942 COVID-19 patients with severe symptoms were admitted to the hospital San Matteo of Pavia-Italy. Thirty two patients (3.4%) developed deep vein thrombosis during hospitalization. In all patients hemostatic and inflammatory parameters were abnormal. A simple prognostic score was developed based on the presence of specific co morbidities and D-dimers levels (quick San Matthew Score-quick SMS). RESULTS: Nine patients died in a condition of multiple organ failure, 23 patients (71.9%) survived and left the hospital in good general conditions. The developed score was based simply on two parameters: 1) presence of four specific co morbidities and 2)systemic levels of D-Dimers. The quick San Matthew Score resulted in a sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy of more than 90% (94%, 92%,93% respectively) and compared favorably with other scores. The score was prospectively validated in 100 COVID19 patients who developed deep vein thrombosis collected from the literature and prospectively confirmed in our hospital. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of our study underline the importance of an immediate aggressive therapeutic approach for moderate and high-risk patients with COVID19 infection. The quick SMS score may help to identify patients at high risk for mortality and to follow the clinical outcome of the patient. A simple, easy to calculate prognostic score may also facilitate communication among health workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thrombosis , Hospitalization , Humans , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/therapy
18.
Clin Nutr ; 2021 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116486

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional support management in mechanically ventilated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and explore the association between early caloric deficit and mortality, taking possible confounders (i.e. obesity) into consideration. METHODS: This was a prospective study carried out during the first pandemic wave in the intensive care units (ICUs) of two referral University Hospitals in Lombardy, Italy. Two hundred twenty-two consecutive mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients were evaluated during the ICU stay. In addition to major demographic and clinical data, we recorded information on the route and amount of nutritional support provided on a daily basis. RESULTS: Among patients still in the ICUs and alive on day 4 (N = 198), 129 (65.2%) and 72 (36.4%) reached a satisfactory caloric and protein intake, respectively, mainly by enteral route. In multivariable analysis, a satisfactory caloric intake on day 4 was associated with lower mortality (HR = 0.46 [95%CI, 0.42-0.50], P < 0.001). Mild obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 and < 35 kg/m2) was associated with higher mortality (HR = 1.99 [95%CI, 1.07-3.68], P = 0.029), while patients with moderate-severe obesity (BMI≥35 kg/m2) were less likely to be weaned from invasive mechanical ventilation (HR = 0.71 [95%CI, 0.62-0.82], P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed the negative prognostic and clinical role of obesity in mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients and suggested that early caloric deficit may independently contribute to worsen survival in this patients' population. Therefore, any effort should be made to implement an adequate timely nutritional support in all COVID-19 patients during the ICU stay.

19.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(5): 1317-1327, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1107866

ABSTRACT

Bedside lung ultrasound (LUS) can play a role in the setting of the SarsCoV2 pneumonia pandemic. To evaluate the clinical and LUS features of COVID-19 in the ED and their potential prognostic role, a cohort of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients underwent LUS upon admission in the ED. LUS score was derived from 12 fields. A prevalent LUS pattern was assigned depending on the presence of interstitial syndrome only (Interstitial Pattern), or evidence of subpleural consolidations in at least two fields (Consolidation Pattern). The endpoint was 30-day mortality. The relationship between hemogasanalysis parameters and LUS score was also evaluated. Out of 312 patients, only 36 (11.5%) did not present lung involvment, as defined by LUS score < 1. The majority of patients were admitted either in a general ward (53.8%) or in intensive care unit (9.6%), whereas 106 patients (33.9%) were discharged from the ED. In-hospital mortality was 25.3%, and 30-day survival was 67.6%. A LUS score > 13 had a 77.2% sensitivity and a 71.5% specificity (AUC 0.814; p < 0.001) in predicting mortality. LUS alterations were more frequent (64%) in the posterior lower fields. LUS score was related with P/F (R2 0.68; p < 0.0001) and P/F at FiO2 = 21% (R2 0.59; p < 0.0001). The correlation between LUS score and P/F was not influenced by the prevalent ultrasound pattern. LUS represents an effective tool in both defining diagnosis and stratifying prognosis of COVID-19 pneumonia. The correlation between LUS and hemogasanalysis parameters underscores its role in evaluating lung structure and function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Phenotype , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography
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