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1.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(18): 4654-4667, 2021 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1289255

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) started in Asia, and Iran was one of its first epicenters. AIM: To study the gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and comorbidities associated with this pandemic in four different regions of Iran. METHODS: We analyzed data from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 positive patients evaluated at four hospitals of Iran (n = 91), including South (Shiraz), Southeast (Dezful), Rasht (North), and Northwest (Mashhad) between April and September 2020. Demographics, comorbidities and clinical findings including GI symptoms were collected. Statistical descriptive analysis and correlation analyses of symptoms, comorbidities, and mortality were performed. RESULTS: The average age of COVID-19 patients was 51.1 years, and 56% were male. Mortality rate was 17%. Cough with 84.6%, shortness of breath with 71.4%, fever with 52.7%, and loss of appetite with 43.9% were the main symptoms. Overall cardiac disease was the most common comorbidity with an average of 28.5% followed by hypertension (28.5%) and diabetes (25.2%). The highest comorbidity in North (Rasht) was diabetes (30%) and in South (Dezful) hypertension (37%). Shiraz leads cardiac disease with 43.4%. The most reported GI symptoms included nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain, with 42.8%, 31.8%, 26.8%, and 12% prevalence, respectively. In addition, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were elevated in 26.3%. CONCLUSION: Our results show hypertension and diabetes as the most common comorbidities, but their distribution was different in COVID-19 patients in the four studied regions of Iran. Nausea, diarrhea, and elevated liver enzymes were the most common GI symptoms. There was also a high mortality rate that was associated with high infection rates in Iran at the beginning of the pandemic.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288899

ABSTRACT

Viral-associated respiratory infectious diseases are one of the most prominent subsets of respiratory failures, known as viral respiratory infections (VRI). VRIs are proceeded by an infection caused by viruses infecting the respiratory system. For the past 100 years, viral associated respiratory epidemics have been the most common cause of infectious disease worldwide. Due to several drawbacks of the current anti-viral treatments, such as drug resistance generation and non-targeting of viral proteins, the development of novel nanotherapeutic or nano-vaccine strategies can be considered essential. Due to their specific physical and biological properties, nanoparticles hold promising opportunities for both anti-viral treatments and vaccines against viral infections. Besides the specific physiological properties of the respiratory system, there is a significant demand for utilizing nano-designs in the production of vaccines or antiviral agents for airway-localized administration. SARS-CoV-2, as an immediate example of respiratory viruses, is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the coronaviridae family. COVID-19 can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome, similarly to other members of the coronaviridae. Hence, reviewing the current and past emerging nanotechnology-based medications on similar respiratory viral diseases can identify pathways towards generating novel SARS-CoV-2 nanotherapeutics and/or nano-vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Nanomedicine , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology , Viral Vaccines/chemistry , Virus Diseases/pathology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immune System/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/therapy
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259507

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is caused by the 2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2 virus. This severe acute respiratory syndrome is currently a global health emergency and needs much effort to generate an urgent practical treatment to reduce COVID-19 complications and mortality in humans. Viral infection activates various cellular responses in infected cells, including cellular stress responses such as unfolded protein response (UPR) and autophagy, following the inhibition of mTOR. Both UPR and autophagy mechanisms are involved in cellular and tissue homeostasis, apoptosis, innate immunity modulation, and clearance of pathogens such as viral particles. However, during an evolutionary arms race, viruses gain the ability to subvert autophagy and UPR for their benefit. SARS-CoV-2 can enter host cells through binding to cell surface receptors, including angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and neuropilin-1 (NRP1). ACE2 blockage increases autophagy through mTOR inhibition, leading to gastrointestinal complications during SARS-CoV-2 virus infection. NRP1 is also regulated by the mTOR pathway. An increased NRP1 can enhance the susceptibility of immune system dendritic cells (DCs) to SARS-CoV-2 and induce cytokine storm, which is related to high COVID-19 mortality. Therefore, signaling pathways such as mTOR, UPR, and autophagy may be potential therapeutic targets for COVID-19. Hence, extensive investigations are required to confirm these potentials. Since there is currently no specific treatment for COVID-19 infection, we sought to review and discuss the important roles of autophagy, UPR, and mTOR mechanisms in the regulation of cellular responses to coronavirus infection to help identify new antiviral modalities against SARS-CoV-2 virus.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , COVID-19/pathology , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Unfolded Protein Response , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Autophagy/drug effects , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Molecular Chaperones/chemistry , Molecular Chaperones/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Viral Envelope Proteins/chemistry , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism
4.
Transl Med Commun ; 6(1): 3, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045590

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has profoundly affected the lives of millions of people. To date, there is no approved vaccine or specific drug to prevent or treat COVID-19, while the infection is globally spreading at an alarming rate. Because the development of effective vaccines or novel drugs could take several months (if not years), repurposing existing drugs is considered a more efficient strategy that could save lives now. Statins constitute a class of lipid-lowering drugs with proven safety profiles and various known beneficial pleiotropic effects. Our previous investigations showed that statins have antiviral effects and are involved in the process of wound healing in the lung. This triggered us to evaluate if statin use reduces mortality in COVID-19 patients. Results: After initial recruitment of 459 patients with COVID-19 (Shiraz province, Iran) and careful consideration of the exclusion criteria, a total of 150 patients, of which 75 received statins, were included in our retrospective study. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used to estimate the association between statin use and rate of death. After propensity score matching, we found that statin use appeared to be associated with a lower risk of morbidity [HR = 0.85, 95% CI = (0.02, 3.93), P = 0.762] and lower risk of death [(HR = 0.76; 95% CI = (0.16, 3.72), P = 0.735)]; however, these associations did not reach statistical significance. Furthermore, statin use reduced the chance of being subjected to mechanical ventilation [OR = 0.96, 95% CI = (0.61-2.99), P = 0.942] and patients on statins showed a more normal computed tomography (CT) scan result [OR = 0.41, 95% CI = (0.07-2.33), P = 0.312]. Conclusions: Although we could not demonstrate a significant association between statin use and a reduction in mortality in patients with COVID19, we do feel that our results are promising and of clinical relevance and warrant the need for prospective randomized controlled trials and extensive retrospective studies to further evaluate and validate the potential beneficial effects of statin treatment on clinical symptoms and mortality rates associated with COVID-19.

5.
Shiraz E Med. J. ; 6(21): 1-3, 20200601.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-658995

ABSTRACT

Background: The rapid spreading of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide results in pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome in many patients, which can be the major cause of death in cases with COVID-19. It has been reported that chloro-quine (CQ) has improved COVID-19-induced pneumonia in clinical trials. Objectives: Since CQ and its derivatives are proved to exhibit anti-autophagy properties based on previous studies, autophagy can be introduced as a possible mechanism of respiratory complications. Methods: In the current study, we reviewed papers of Google Scholar database with no time limitation. Results: It was revealed that autophagy has an important role in the manifestation of COVID-19 respiratory complications Conclusions: Autophagy is triggered by SARS-CoV2 virus for its replication and autophagy inhibitory treatments might be consid-ered promising therapeutics.

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