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Trends Analyt Chem ; 155: 116686, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895467


Viral infections are responsible for the deaths of millions of people throughout the world. Since outbreak of highly contagious and mutant viruses such as contemporary sars-cov-2 pandemic, has challenged the conventional diagnostic methods, the entity of a thoroughly sensitive, specific, rapid and inexpensive detecting technique with minimum level of false-positivity or -negativity, is desperately needed more than any time in the past decades. Biosensors as minimized devices could detect viruses in simple formats. So far, various nucleic acid, immune- and protein-based biosensors were designed and tested for recognizing the genome, antigen, or protein level of viruses, respectively; however, nucleic acid-based sensing techniques, which is the foundation of constructing genosensors, are preferred not only because of their ultra-sensitivity and applicability in the early stages of infections but also for their ability to differentiate various strains of the same virus. To date, the review articles related to genosensors are just confined to particular pathogenic diseases; In this regard, the present review covers comprehensive information of the research progress of the electrochemical, optical, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) genosensors that applied for human viruses' diseases detection and also provides a well description of viruses' clinical importance, the conventional diagnosis approaches of viruses and their disadvantages. This review would address the limitations in the current developments as well as the future challenges involved in the successful construction of sensing approaches with the functionalized nanomaterials and also allow exploring into core-research works regarding this area.

Trends Analyt Chem ; 145: 116460, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475093


Viruses are responsible for multiple infections in humans that impose huge health burdens on individuals and populations worldwide. Therefore, numerous diagnostic methods and strategies have been developed for prevention, management, and decreasing the burden of viral diseases, each having its advantages and limitations. Viral infections are commonly detected using serological and nucleic acid-based methods. However, these conventional and clinical approaches have some limitations that can be resolved by implementing other detector devices. Therefore, the search for sensitive, selective, portable, and costless approaches as efficient alternative clinical methods for point of care testing (POCT) analysis has gained much attention in recent years. POCT is one of the ultimate goals in virus detection, and thus, the tests need to be rapid, specific, sensitive, accessible, and user-friendly. In this review, after a brief overview of viruses and their characteristics, the conventional viral detection methods, the clinical approaches, and their advantages and shortcomings are firstly explained. Then, LFA systems working principles, benefits, classification are discussed. Furthermore, the studies regarding designing and employing LFAs in diagnosing different types of viruses, especially SARS-CoV-2 as a main concern worldwide and innovations in the LFAs' approaches and designs, are comprehensively discussed here. Furthermore, several strategies addressed in some studies for overcoming LFA limitations like low sensitivity are reviewed. Numerous techniques are adopted to increase sensitivity and perform quantitative detection. Employing several visualization methods, using different labeling reporters, integrating LFAs with other detection methods to benefit from both LFA and the integrated detection device advantages, and designing unique membranes to increase reagent reactivity, are some of the approaches that are highlighted.

Int J Biol Macromol ; 165(Pt A): 18-43, 2020 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023591


The emergence of the global pandemic caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus has motivated scientists to find a definitive treatment or a vaccine against it in the shortest possible time. Current efforts towards this goal remain fruitless without a full understanding of the behavior of the virus and its adaptor proteins. This review provides an overview of the biological properties, functional mechanisms, and molecular components of SARS-CoV-2, along with investigational therapeutic and preventive approaches for this virus. Since the proteolytic cleavage of the S protein is critical for virus penetration into cells, a set of drugs, such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, camostat mesylate have been tested in clinical trials to suppress this event. In addition to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, the role of CD147 in the viral entrance has also been proposed. Mepolizumab has shown to be effective in blocking the virus's cellular entrance. Antiviral drugs, such as remdesivir, ritonavir, oseltamivir, darunavir, lopinavir, zanamivir, peramivir, and oseltamivir, have also been tested as treatments for COVID-19. Regarding preventive vaccines, the whole virus, vectors, nucleic acids, and structural subunits have been suggested for vaccine development. Mesenchymal stem cells and natural killer cells could also be used against SARS-CoV-2. All the above-mentioned strategies, as well as the role of nanomedicine for the diagnosis and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection, have been discussed in this review.

COVID-19/therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Vaccines/immunology
Nanomicro Lett ; 13(1): 18, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-911984


A novel coronavirus of zoonotic origin (SARS-CoV-2) has recently been recognized in patients with acute respiratory disease. COVID-19 causative agent is structurally and genetically similar to SARS and bat SARS-like coronaviruses. The drastic increase in the number of coronavirus and its genome sequence have given us an unprecedented opportunity to perform bioinformatics and genomics analysis on this class of viruses. Clinical tests like PCR and ELISA for rapid detection of this virus are urgently needed for early identification of infected patients. However, these techniques are expensive and not readily available for point-of-care (POC) applications. Currently, lack of any rapid, available, and reliable POC detection method gives rise to the progression of COVID-19 as a horrible global problem. To solve the negative features of clinical investigation, we provide a brief introduction of the general features of coronaviruses and describe various amplification assays, sensing, biosensing, immunosensing, and aptasensing for the determination of various groups of coronaviruses applied as a template for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. All sensing and biosensing techniques developed for the determination of various classes of coronaviruses are useful to recognize the newly immerged coronavirus, i.e., SARS-CoV-2. Also, the introduction of sensing and biosensing methods sheds light on the way of designing a proper screening system to detect the virus at the early stage of infection to tranquilize the speed and vastity of spreading. Among other approaches investigated among molecular approaches and PCR or recognition of viral diseases, LAMP-based methods and LFAs are of great importance for their numerous benefits, which can be helpful to design a universal platform for detection of future emerging pathogenic viruses.

Immunol Invest ; 51(2): 246-265, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-799529


The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a serious threat to public health. There is an urgent need for discovery methods for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 infection. Understanding immunogenicity together with immune responses are expected to provide further information about this virus. We hope that this narrative review article may create new insights for researchers to take great strides toward designing vaccines and novel therapies in the near future. The functional properties of the immune system in COVID-19 infection is not exactly clarified yet. This is compounded by the many gaps in our understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 immunogenicity properties. Possible immune responses according to current literature are discussed as the first line of defense and acquired immunity. Here, we focus on proposed modern preventive immunotherapy methods in COVID-19 infection.

COVID-19 , Adaptive Immunity , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2