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1.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(7): ofac188, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1922308

ABSTRACT

The potential preventive efficacy of tenofovir/emtricitabine on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was assessed in human immunodeficiency virus preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) users. Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G between May and October 2020 was similar in PrEP users and in a matched population-based cohort, suggesting that tenofovir/emtricitabine has no role in reducing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 acquisition.

3.
N Engl J Med ; 386(19): 1793-1803, 2022 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895621

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with multidrug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection have limited treatment options. Lenacapavir is a first-in-class capsid inhibitor that showed substantial antiviral activity in a phase 1b study. METHODS: In this phase 3 trial, we enrolled patients with multidrug-resistant HIV-1 infection in two cohorts, according to the change in the plasma HIV-1 RNA level between the screening and cohort-selection visits. In cohort 1, patients were first randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive oral lenacapavir or placebo in addition to their failing therapy for 14 days; during the maintenance period, starting on day 15, patients in the lenacapavir group received subcutaneous lenacapavir once every 6 months, and those in the placebo group received oral lenacapavir, followed by subcutaneous lenacapavir; both groups also received optimized background therapy. In cohort 2, all the patients received open-label oral lenacapavir with optimized background therapy on days 1 through 14; subcutaneous lenacapavir was then administered once every 6 months starting on day 15. The primary end point was the percentage of patients in cohort 1 who had a decrease of at least 0.5 log10 copies per milliliter in the viral load by day 15; a key secondary end point was a viral load of less than 50 copies per milliliter at week 26. RESULTS: A total of 72 patients were enrolled, with 36 in each cohort. In cohort 1, a decrease of at least 0.5 log10 copies per milliliter in the viral load by day 15 was observed in 21 of 24 patients (88%) in the lenacapavir group and in 2 of 12 patients (17%) in the placebo group (absolute difference, 71 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, 35 to 90). At week 26, a viral load of less than 50 copies per milliliter was reported in 81% of the patients in cohort 1 and in 83% in cohort 2, with a least-squares mean increase in the CD4+ count of 75 and 104 cells per cubic millimeter, respectively. No serious adverse events related to lenacapavir were identified. In both cohorts, lenacapavir-related capsid substitutions that were associated with decreased susceptibility developed in 8 patients during the maintenance period (6 with M66I substitutions). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with multidrug-resistant HIV-1 infection, those who received lenacapavir had a greater reduction from baseline in viral load than those who received placebo. (Funded by Gilead Sciences; CAPELLA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04150068.).


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Viral , HIV Infections , HIV-1 , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Capsid , Drug Therapy, Combination , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/drug effects , HIV-1/genetics , Humans , RNA, Viral , Viral Load
5.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1823878

ABSTRACT

The potential preventive efficacy of tenofovir/emtricitabine on SARS-CoV-2 infection was assessed in HIV pre-exposition prophylaxis (PrEP) users. Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG between May and October 2020 was similar in PrEP users and in a matched population-based cohort suggesting that tenofovir/emtricitabine has no role in reducing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 acquisition.

6.
HIV Med ; 23(8): 849-858, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764940

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) Guidelines were revised in 2021 for the 17th time with updates on all aspects of HIV care. KEY POINTS OF THE GUIDELINES UPDATE: Version 11.0 of the Guidelines recommend six first-line treatment options for antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve adults: tenofovir-based backbone plus an unboosted integrase inhibitor or plus doravirine; abacavir/lamivudine plus dolutegravir; or dual therapy with lamivudine or emtricitabine plus dolutegravir. Recommendations on preferred and alternative first-line combinations from birth to adolescence were included in the new paediatric section made with Penta. Long-acting cabotegravir plus rilpivirine was included as a switch option and, along with fostemsavir, was added to all drug-drug interaction (DDI) tables. Four new DDI tables for anti-tuberculosis drugs, anxiolytics, hormone replacement therapy and COVID-19 therapies were introduced, as well as guidance on screening and management of anxiety disorders, transgender health, sexual health for women and menopause. The sections on frailty, obesity and cancer were expanded, and recommendations for the management of people with diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk were revised extensively. Treatment of recently acquired hepatitis C is recommended with ongoing risk behaviour to reduce transmission. Bulevirtide was included as a treatment option for the hepatitis Delta virus. Drug-resistant tuberculosis guidance was adjusted in accordance with the 2020 World Health Organization recommendations. Finally, there is new guidance on COVID-19 management with a focus on continuance of HIV care. CONCLUSIONS: In 2021, the EACS Guidelines were updated extensively and broadened to include new sections. The recommendations are available as a free app, in interactive web format and as an online pdf.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Anti-HIV Agents , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Child , Female , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Lamivudine/therapeutic use , Lipopeptides
7.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0262564, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690739

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dexamethasone is standard of care for the treatment of patients with COVID-19 requiring oxygen. The objective is to assess the clinical benefit of adding remdesivir to dexamethasone. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia requesting low-flow oxygen who received dexamethasone. Patients admitted to infectious diseases wards also received remdesivir. Primary outcome was duration of hospitalization after oxygen initiation. Secondary outcomes were in-hospital death, and death and/or transfer to the intensive care unit. To handle potential confounding by indication bias, outcome comparison was performed on propensity score-matched populations. Propensity score was estimated by a multivariable logistic model including prognostic covariates; then 1:1 matching was performed without replacement, using the nearest neighbor algorithm with a caliper of 0.10 fold the standard deviation of the propensity score as the maximal distance. Balance after matching was checked on standardized mean differences. RESULTS: From August 15th 2020, to February 28th, 2021, 325 patients were included, 101 of whom received remdesivir. At admission median time from symptoms onset was 7 days, median age: 68 years, male sex; 61%, >1 comorbidity: 58.5%. Overall 180 patients matched on propensity score were analyzed, 90 each received remdesivir plus dexamethasone or dexamethasone alone. Median duration of hospitalization was 9 (IQR: 7-13) and 9 (IQR: 5-18) days with and without remdesivir, respectively (p = 0.37). In-hospital death rates and rates of transfer to the intensive care unit or death were 8.9 and 17.8% (HR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.21-1.02, p = 0.06) and 20.0 and 35.6% with and without remdesivir, respectively (HR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.23-0.89, p = 0.015). CONCLUSION: In hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia receiving low-flow oxygen and dexamethasone, the addition of remdesivir was not associated with shorter hospitalization or lower in-hospital mortality but may have reduced the combined outcome of death and transfer to the intensive care unit.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Aged , Alanine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Follow-Up Studies , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survival Rate
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(3): 539, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062844
10.
J Exp Med ; 218(4)2021 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1061104

ABSTRACT

Several studies have analyzed antiviral immune pathways in late-stage severe COVID-19. However, the initial steps of SARS-CoV-2 antiviral immunity are poorly understood. Here we have isolated primary SARS-CoV-2 viral strains and studied their interaction with human plasmacytoid predendritic cells (pDCs), a key player in antiviral immunity. We show that pDCs are not productively infected by SARS-CoV-2. However, they efficiently diversified into activated P1-, P2-, and P3-pDC effector subsets in response to viral stimulation. They expressed CD80, CD86, CCR7, and OX40 ligand at levels similar to influenza virus-induced activation. They rapidly produced high levels of interferon-α, interferon-λ1, IL-6, IP-10, and IL-8. All major aspects of SARS-CoV-2-induced pDC activation were inhibited by hydroxychloroquine. Mechanistically, SARS-CoV-2-induced pDC activation critically depended on IRAK4 and UNC93B1, as established using pDC from genetically deficient patients. Overall, our data indicate that human pDC are efficiently activated by SARS-CoV-2 particles and may thus contribute to type I IFN-dependent immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Cell Plasticity/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Dendritic Cells/metabolism , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinases/metabolism , Membrane Transport Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Biomarkers , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Dendritic Cells/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunomodulation , Immunophenotyping , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Interferons/metabolism
11.
JAMA ; 324(16): 1651-1669, 2020 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-865967

ABSTRACT

Importance: Data on the use of antiretroviral drugs, including new drugs and formulations, for the treatment and prevention of HIV infection continue to guide optimal practices. Objective: To evaluate new data and incorporate them into current recommendations for initiating HIV therapy, monitoring individuals starting on therapy, changing regimens, preventing HIV infection for those at risk, and special considerations for older people with HIV. Evidence Review: New evidence was collected since the previous International Antiviral (formerly AIDS) Society-USA recommendations in 2018, including data published or presented at peer-reviewed scientific conferences through August 22, 2020. A volunteer panel of 15 experts in HIV research and patient care considered these data and updated previous recommendations. Findings: From 5316 citations about antiretroviral drugs identified, 549 were included to form the evidence basis for these recommendations. Antiretroviral therapy is recommended as soon as possible for all individuals with HIV who have detectable viremia. Most patients can start with a 3-drug regimen or now a 2-drug regimen, which includes an integrase strand transfer inhibitor. Effective options are available for patients who may be pregnant, those who have specific clinical conditions, such as kidney, liver, or cardiovascular disease, those who have opportunistic diseases, or those who have health care access issues. Recommended for the first time, a long-acting antiretroviral regimen injected once every 4 weeks for treatment or every 8 weeks pending approval by regulatory bodies and availability. For individuals at risk for HIV, preexposure prophylaxis with an oral regimen is recommended or, pending approval by regulatory bodies and availability, with a long-acting injection given every 8 weeks. Monitoring before and during therapy for effectiveness and safety is recommended. Switching therapy for virological failure is relatively rare at this time, and the recommendations for switching therapies for convenience and for other reasons are included. With the survival benefits provided by therapy, recommendations are made for older individuals with HIV. The current coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic poses particular challenges for HIV research, care, and efforts to end the HIV epidemic. Conclusion and Relevance: Advances in HIV prevention and management with antiretroviral drugs continue to improve clinical care and outcomes among individuals at risk for and with HIV.


Subject(s)
Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/prevention & control , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Age Factors , Anti-Retroviral Agents/economics , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Costs , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Drug Substitution/standards , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Female , HIV Infections/blood , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Humans , International Agencies , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Polypharmacy , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical , United States , Viral Load/genetics
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