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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317281

ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim of this study was to understand whether the dysglyceamia associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection persists or reverts when the viral infection resolves. Methods: . We analyzed fasting blood glucose (FBG) after hospital discharge in a cohort of 621 adult cases with suspected COVID-19 pneumonia. Results: . At admission,, 18.8% of the patients in our cohort had pre-existing diabetes, 9.3% fasting glucose in the diabetes range without a prior diagnosis (DFG), 26% impaired fasting glucose (IFG), 44.9% normal fasting glucose (NFG), while 2% had no FBG available. FBG categories were similarly distributed in the 71 patients without confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. During follow up (median time 6 month) FBG was available for 321 out of the 453 (70.9%) surviving patients and showed a trend to a marginal increase [from 97 (87–116) to 100 (92–114) mg/dL;p = 0.071]. Transitions between FBG categories was analysed in subjects without pre-existing diabetes (265 out of 321). We identified three groups: i) patients who maintained or improved FBG during follow-up [Group A, n = 185;from 100 (86–109) to 94 (88–99) mg/dL;p < 0.001];ii) patients who moved from the NFG to IFG category [Group B, n = 66: from 89 (85–96) to 106 (102–113) mg/dl;p < 0.001];iii) patients who maintained or reached DFG during follow-up [Group C, n = 14: from 114 (94–138) to 134 (126–143) mg/dl;p = 0.035]. Male sex and ICU admission during the hospitalization were more prevalent in Group C compared to Group A or B. Conclusions: . Six months after the SARS-CoV-2 infection DFG was evident in only few patients who experienced severe COVID-19 pneumonia.

2.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295258

ABSTRACT

A bstract Aim The aim of the current study was to compare clinical characteristics, laboratory findings and major outcomes of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia with COVID-associated hyperglycaemia or preexisting diabetes. Methods A cohort of 176 adult patients with a diagnosis of pre-existing diabetes (n=112) or COVID-associated hyperglycaemia (n=55) was studied. Clinical outcomes and laboratory findings were analysed according to the presence of the two conditions. The time to viral clearance was assessed during the follow-up after hospital discharge. Result Patients with COVID-associated hyperglycaemia had lower BMI, significantly less comorbidities and higher levels of inflammatory markers and indicators of multi-organ injury than those with preexisting diabetes. No differences between preexisting diabetes and COVID-associated hyperglycaemia were evident for symptoms at admission, humoral response against SARS-CoV-2 or autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase or interferon alpha-4. COVID-associated hyperglycaemia was independently associated with the risk of adverse clinical outcome defined as ICU admission or death (HR 2.11, 95% CI 1.34-3.31;p=0.001), even after adjustment for age, sex and other selected variables associated with COVID-19 severity. Furthermore, we documented a negative association (HR 0.661, 95% CI 0.43-1.02;p=0.063) between COVID-associated hyperglycaemia and the time to swab negativization. Conclusions The recognition of hyperglycaemia as a specific clinical entity associated with COVID-19 pneumonia is relevant for early and appropriate patient management and close monitoring for the progression of disease severity.

3.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 107(3): e1009-e1019, 2022 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496303

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess whether dysglycemia diagnosed during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pneumonia may become a potential public health problem after resolution of the infection. In an adult cohort with suspected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia, we integrated glucose data upon hospital admission with fasting blood glucose (FBG) in the year prior to COVID-19 and during postdischarge follow-up. METHODS: From February 25 to May 15, 2020, 660 adults with suspected COVID-19 pneumonia were admitted to the San Raffaele Hospital (Milan, Italy). Through structured interviews/ medical record reviews, we collected demographics, clinical features, and laboratory tests upon admission and additional data during hospitalization or after discharge and in the previous year. Upon admission, we classified participants according to American Diabetes Association criteria as having (1) preexisting diabetes, (2) newly diagnosed diabetes, (3) hyperglycemia not in the diabetes range, or (4) normoglycemia. FBG prior to admission and during follow-up were classified as normal or impaired fasting glucose and fasting glucose in the diabetes range. RESULTS: In patients with confirmed COVID (n = 589), the proportion with preexisting or newly diagnosed diabetes, hyperglycemia not in the diabetes range and normoglycemia was 19.6%, 6.7%, 43.7%, and 30.0%, respectively. Patients with dysglycemia associated to COVID-19 had increased markers of inflammation and organs' injury and poorer clinical outcome compared to those with normoglycemia. After the infection resolved, the prevalence of dysglycemia reverted to preadmission frequency. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19-associated dysglycemia is unlikely to become a lasting public health problem. Alarmist claims on the diabetes risk after COVID-19 pneumonia should be interpreted with caution.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/metabolism , Hyperglycemia/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Fasting/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
4.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(8)2021 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341645

ABSTRACT

AIM: The aim of the current study was to compare clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, and major outcomes of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia with COVID-associated hyperglycaemia or pre-existing diabetes. METHODS: A cohort of 176 adult patients with a diagnosis of pre-existing diabetes (n = 112) or COVID-associated hyperglycaemia (n = 55) was studied. RESULTS: Patients with COVID-associated hyperglycaemia had lower BMI, significantly less comorbidities, and higher levels of inflammatory markers and indicators of multi-organ injury than those with pre-existing diabetes. No differences between pre-existing diabetes and COVID-associated hyperglycaemia were evident for symptoms at admission, the humoral response against SARS-CoV-2, or autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase or interferon alpha-4. COVID-associated hyperglycaemia was independently associated with the risk of adverse clinical outcome, which was defined as ICU admission or death (HR 2.11, 95% CI 1.34-3.31; p = 0.001), even after adjustment for age, sex, and other selected variables associated with COVID-19 severity. Furthermore, at the same time, we documented a negative association (HR 0.661, 95% CI 0.43-1.02; p = 0.063) between COVID-associated hyperglycaemia to swab negativization. CONCLUSIONS: Recognizing hyperglycaemia as a specific clinical entity associated with COVID-19 pneumonia is relevant for early and appropriate patient management and close monitoring for the progression of disease severity.

5.
Acta Diabetol ; 58(11): 1481-1490, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258218

ABSTRACT

AIM: The aim of this study was to understand whether the dysglycemia associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection persists or reverts when the viral infection resolves. METHODS: We analyzed fasting blood glucose (FBG) after hospital discharge in a cohort of 621 adult cases with suspected COVID-19 pneumonia. RESULTS: At admission, 18.8% of the patients in our cohort had pre-existing diabetes, 9.3% fasting glucose in the diabetes range without a prior diagnosis (DFG), 26% impaired fasting glucose (IFG), 44.9% normal fasting glucose (NFG), while 2% had no FBG available. FBG categories were similarly distributed in the 71 patients without confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. During follow-up (median time 6 month) FBG was available for 321 out of the 453 (70.9%) surviving patients and showed a trend to a marginal increase [from 97 (87-116) to 100 (92-114) mg/dL; p = 0.071]. Transitions between FBG categories were analyzed in subjects without pre-existing diabetes (265 out of 321). We identified three groups: (i) patients who maintained or improved FBG during follow-up [Group A, n = 185; from 100 (86-109) to 94 (88-99) mg/dL; p < 0.001]; (ii) patients who moved from the NFG to IFG category [Group B, n = 66: from 89 (85-96) to 106 (102-113) mg/dl; p < 0.001]; (iii) patients who maintained or reached DFG during follow-up [Group C, n = 14: from 114 (94-138) to 134 (126-143) mg/dl; p = 0.035]. Male sex and ICU admission during the hospitalization were more prevalent in Group C compared to Group A or B. CONCLUSIONS: Six months after the SARS-CoV-2 infection DFG was evident in only few patients who experienced severe COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Blood Glucose , Cohort Studies , Fasting , Humans , Male , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Diabetologia ; 63(12): 2548-2558, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-840591

ABSTRACT

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the study was to characterise the humoral response against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in patients with diabetes. Demonstrating the ability to mount an appropriate antibody response in the presence of hyperglycaemia is relevant for the comprehension of mechanisms related to the observed worse clinical outcome of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia in patients with diabetes and for the development of any future vaccination campaign to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Using a highly specific and sensitive measurement of antibodies by fluid-phase luciferase immunoprecipitation assays, we characterised the IgG, IgM and IgA response against multiple antigens of SARS-CoV-2 in a cohort of 509 patients with documented diagnosis of COVID-19, prospectively followed at our institution. We analysed clinical outcomes and antibody titres according to the presence of hyperglycaemia, i.e., either diagnosed or undiagnosed diabetes, at the time of, or during, hospitalisation. RESULTS: Among patients with confirmed COVID-19, 139 (27.3%) had diabetes: 90 (17.7%) had diabetes diagnosed prior to the hospital admission (comorbid diabetes) while 49 (9.6%) had diabetes diagnosed at the time of admission (newly diagnosed). Diabetes was associated with increased levels of inflammatory biomarkers and hypercoagulopathy, as well as leucocytosis and neutrophilia. Diabetes was independently associated with risk of death (HR 2.32 [95% CI 1.44, 3.75], p = 0.001), even after adjustment for age, sex and other relevant comorbidities. Moreover, a strong association between higher glucose levels and risk of death was documented irrespective of diabetes diagnosis (HR 1.14 × 1.1 mmol/l [95% CI 1.08, 1.21], p < 0.001). The humoral response against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with diabetes was present and superimposable, as for timing and antibody titres, to that of non-diabetic patients, with marginal differences, and was not influenced by glucose levels. Of the measured antibody responses, positivity for IgG against the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) was predictive of survival rate, both in the presence or absence of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The observed increased severity and mortality risk of COVID-19 pneumonia in patients with hyperglycaemia was not the result of an impaired humoral response against SARS-CoV-2. RBD IgG positivity was associated with a remarkable protective effect, allowing for a cautious optimism about the efficacy of future vaccines against SARs-COV-2 in people with diabetes. Graphical abstract.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Biomarkers/analysis , Blood Coagulation Disorders/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/immunology , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Risk Factors , Survival Analysis
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