Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 4 de 4
Filter
1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(37): 1182-1189, 2022 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2030396

ABSTRACT

The risk for COVID-19-associated mortality increases with age, disability, and underlying medical conditions (1). Early in the emergence of the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, mortality among hospitalized COVID-19 patients was lower than that during previous pandemic peaks (2-5), and some health authorities reported that a substantial proportion of COVID-19 hospitalizations were not primarily for COVID-19-related illness,* which might account for the lower mortality among hospitalized patients. Using a large hospital administrative database, CDC assessed in-hospital mortality risk overall and by demographic and clinical characteristics during the Delta (July-October 2021), early Omicron (January-March 2022), and later Omicron (April-June 2022) variant periods† among patients hospitalized primarily for COVID-19. Model-estimated adjusted mortality risk differences (aMRDs) (measures of absolute risk) and adjusted mortality risk ratios (aMRRs) (measures of relative risk) for in-hospital death were calculated comparing the early and later Omicron periods with the Delta period. Crude mortality risk (cMR) (deaths per 100 patients hospitalized primarily for COVID-19) was lower during the early Omicron (13.1) and later Omicron (4.9) periods than during the Delta (15.1) period (p<0.001). Adjusted mortality risk was lower during the Omicron periods than during the Delta period for patients aged ≥18 years, males and females, all racial and ethnic groups, persons with and without disabilities, and those with one or more underlying medical conditions, as indicated by significant aMRDs and aMRRs (p<0.05). During the later Omicron period, 81.9% of in-hospital deaths occurred among adults aged ≥65 years and 73.4% occurred among persons with three or more underlying medical conditions. Vaccination, early treatment, and appropriate nonpharmaceutical interventions remain important public health priorities for preventing COVID-19 deaths, especially among persons most at risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(3): 96-102, 2022 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639076

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has magnified longstanding health care and social inequities, resulting in disproportionately high COVID-19-associated illness and death among members of racial and ethnic minority groups (1). Equitable use of effective medications (2) could reduce disparities in these severe outcomes (3). Monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapies against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, initially received Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in November 2020. mAbs are typically administered in an outpatient setting via intravenous infusion or subcutaneous injection and can prevent progression of COVID-19 if given after a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result or for postexposure prophylaxis in patients at high risk for severe illness.† Dexamethasone, a commonly used steroid, and remdesivir, an antiviral drug that received EUA from FDA in May 2020, are used in inpatient settings and help prevent COVID-19 progression§ (2). No large-scale studies have yet examined the use of mAb by race and ethnicity. Using COVID-19 patient electronic health record data from 41 U.S. health care systems that participated in the PCORnet, the National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network,¶ this study assessed receipt of medications for COVID-19 treatment by race (White, Black, Asian, and Other races [including American Indian or Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, and multiple or Other races]) and ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). Relative disparities in mAb** treatment among all patients†† (805,276) with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result and in dexamethasone and remdesivir treatment among inpatients§§ (120,204) with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result were calculated. Among all patients with positive SARS-CoV-2 test results, the overall use of mAb was infrequent, with mean monthly use at 4% or less for all racial and ethnic groups. Hispanic patients received mAb 58% less often than did non-Hispanic patients, and Black, Asian, or Other race patients received mAb 22%, 48%, and 47% less often, respectively, than did White patients during November 2020-August 2021. Among inpatients, disparities were different and of lesser magnitude: Hispanic inpatients received dexamethasone 6% less often than did non-Hispanic inpatients, and Black inpatients received remdesivir 9% more often than did White inpatients. Vaccines and preventive measures are the best defense against infection; use of COVID-19 medications postexposure or postinfection can reduce morbidity and mortality and relieve strain on hospitals but are not a substitute for COVID-19 vaccination. Public health policies and programs centered around the specific needs of communities can promote health equity (4). Equitable receipt of outpatient treatments, such as mAb and antiviral medications, and implementation of prevention practices are essential to reducing existing racial and ethnic inequities in severe COVID-19-associated illness and death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , /statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Social Determinants of Health , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Humans , United States
3.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(9): 1186-1188, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171488

ABSTRACT

Hand drying is the critical, final step of handwashing. A cross-sectional survey of U.S. adults assessed self-reported hand drying practices in public bathrooms and found increased preference for using electric hand dryers, wiping hands on clothing, and shaking hands and decreased preference for using paper towels during the COVID-19 pandemic relative to before. Respondents expressed concerns about contacting SARS-CoV-2 when touching surfaces in public bathrooms which may be influencing self-reported drying method preference.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hand Disinfection , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Toilet Facilities , United States/epidemiology
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(41): 1485-1491, 2020 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-874994

ABSTRACT

Frequent hand hygiene, including handwashing with soap and water or using a hand sanitizer containing ≥60% alcohol when soap and water are not readily available, is one of several critical prevention measures recommended to reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).* Previous studies identified demographic factors associated with handwashing among U.S. adults during the COVID-19 pandemic (1,2); however, demographic factors associated with hand sanitizing and experiences and beliefs associated with hand hygiene have not been well characterized. To evaluate these factors, an Internet-based survey was conducted among U.S. adults aged ≥18 years during June 24-30, 2020. Overall, 85.2% of respondents reported always or often engaging in hand hygiene following contact with high-touch public surfaces such as shopping carts, gas pumps, and automatic teller machines (ATMs).† Respondents who were male (versus female) and of younger age reported lower handwashing and hand sanitizing rates, as did respondents who reported lower concern about their own infection with SARS-CoV-2§ and respondents without personal experience with COVID-19. Focused health promotion efforts to increase hand hygiene adherence should include increasing visibility and accessibility of handwashing and hand sanitizing materials in public settings, along with targeted communication to males and younger adults with focused messages that address COVID-19 risk perception.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Hand Hygiene/statistics & numerical data , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , /statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice/ethnology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , /statistics & numerical data , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL