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1.
Eur J Med Res ; 25(1): 32, 2020 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713821

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The German government has made it mandatory to wear respiratory masks covering mouth and nose (MNC) as an effective strategy to fight SARS-CoV-2 infections. In many countries, this directive has been extended on shopping malls or public transportation. The aim of this paper is to critically analyze the statutory regulation to wear protective masks during the COVID-19 crisis from a medical standpoint. METHODS: We performed an extensive query of the most recent publications addressing the prevention of viral infections including the use of face masks in the community as a method to prevent the spread of the infection. We addressed the issues of practicability, professional use, and acceptability based on the community and the environment where the user resided. RESULTS: Upon our critical review of the available literature, we found only weak evidence for wearing a face mask as an efficient hygienic tool to prevent the spread of a viral infection. However, the use of MNC seems to be linked to relevant protection during close contact scenarios by limiting pathogen-containing aerosol and liquid droplet dissemination. Importantly, we found evidence for significant respiratory compromise in patients with severe obstructive pulmonary disease, secondary to the development of hypercapnia. This could also happen in patients with lung infections, with or without SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSION: Epidemiologists currently emphasize that wearing MNC will effectively interrupt airborne infections in the community. The government and the politicians have followed these recommendations and used them to both advise and, in some cases, mandate the general population to wear MNC in public locations. Overall, the results seem to suggest that there are some clinically relevant scenarios where the use of MNC necessitates more defined recommendations. Our critical evaluation of the literature both highlights the protective effects of certain types of face masks in defined risk groups, and emphasizes their potential risks.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Respiratory Protective Devices/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Equipment and Supplies Utilization/legislation & jurisprudence , Equipment and Supplies Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Masks/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/legislation & jurisprudence , Respiratory Protective Devices/adverse effects
2.
Eur J Med Res ; 25(1): 23, 2020 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612270

ABSTRACT

In the human population, social contacts are a key for transmission of bacteria and viruses. The use of face masks seems to be critical to prevent the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 for the period, in which therapeutic interventions are lacking. In this review, we describe the history of masks from the middle age to modern times.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/methods , History of Medicine , Masks/history , Communicable Disease Control/instrumentation , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Masks/standards , Respiratory Protective Devices/history , Respiratory Protective Devices/standards
3.
Urologe A ; 59(5): 585-594, 2020 May.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-165356

ABSTRACT

The knowledge of hagiography and hagiotherapy still plays an important role in the history of science, especially when focusing on specific aspects of history. While knowledge about St. Liborius persists in urology, knowledge about patron saints for pandemics, especially those who were called upon to treat venereal diseases, has diminished due to the association with nonappropriate sexual behavior.


Subject(s)
Pandemics/history , Saints/history , Urology/history , Catholicism/history , History, Ancient , History, Medieval , Medicine , Religion and Medicine
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